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AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
Aars, J., Andersen, M., Belikov, S., Boltunov, A., Buckland, S.T., Marques, T.A. and Wiig, Ø. Line transect estimate of the subpopulation size of polar bears in the Barents Sea 2005 (Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group)Polar Bears, pp. 173-175  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Aars2005,
  author = {Aars, J. and Andersen, M. and Belikov, S. and Boltunov, A. and Buckland, S. T. and Marques, T. A. and Wiig, Ø.},
  title = {Line transect estimate of the subpopulation size of polar bears in the Barents Sea},
  booktitle = {Polar Bears},
  year = {2005},
  number = {Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group},
  pages = {173--175}
}
Aars, J., Marques, T.A., Buckland, S.T., Andersen, M., Belikov, S., Boltunov, A. and Wiig, Ø. Estimating the Barents Sea polar bear subpopulation size 2009 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 25, pp. 35-52 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Aars2008,
  author = {Aars, J. and Marques, T. A. and Buckland, S. T. and Andersen, M. and Belikov, S. and Boltunov, A. and Wiig, Ø.},
  title = {Estimating the Barents Sea polar bear subpopulation size},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {35--52},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2008.00228.x}
}
Aars, J., Marques, T., Lone, K., Andersen, M., Wiig, Ø., Fløystad, I.M.B., Hagen, S.B. and Buckland, S.T. The number and distribution of polar bears in the western Barents Sea area 2017 Polar Biology
Vol. 36, pp. 1374125 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Aars2017,
  author = {Aars, Jon and Marques, Tiago and Lone, Karen and Andersen, Magnus and Wiig, Øystein and Fløystad, Ida Marie Bardalen and Hagen, Snorre B. and Buckland, Stephen T.},
  title = {The number and distribution of polar bears in the western Barents Sea area},
  journal = {Polar Biology},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {1374125},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/17518369.2017.1374125}
}
Acevedo, P., Ferreres, J., Jaroso, R., Durán, M., Escudero, M.A., Marco, J. and Gortázar, C. Estimating roe deer abundance from pellet group counts in Spain: an assessment of methods suitable for Mediterranean woodlands 2010 Ecological Indicators
Vol. 10, pp. 1226-1230 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Acevedo2010,
  author = {Acevedo, P. and Ferreres, J. and Jaroso, R. and Durán, M. and Escudero, M. A. and Marco, J. and Gortázar, C.},
  title = {Estimating roe deer abundance from pellet group counts in Spain: an assessment of methods suitable for Mediterranean woodlands},
  journal = {Ecological Indicators},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {1226--1230},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2010.04.006}
}
Acevedo, P., Ruiz-Fons, F., Vicente, J., Reyes-García, A.R., Alzaga, V. and Gortázar, C. Estimating red deer abundance in a wide range of management situations in Mediterranean habitats 2008 Journal Of Zoology
Vol. 276, pp. 37-47 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Acevedo2008,
  author = {Acevedo, P. and Ruiz-Fons, F. and Vicente, J. and Reyes-García, A. R. and Alzaga, V. and Gortázar, C.},
  title = {Estimating red deer abundance in a wide range of management situations in Mediterranean habitats},
  journal = {Journal Of Zoology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {276},
  pages = {37--47},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00464.x}
}
Akin, J.A. Fourier series estimation of ground skink population density 1998 Copeia, pp. 519-522  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Aki98,
  author = {Akin, J. A.},
  title = {Fourier series estimation of ground skink population density},
  journal = {Copeia},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {519--522},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1447455}
}
Aldrin, M., Holden, M. and Schweder, T. Comment on Cowling's "spatial methods for line transect surveys" 2003 Biometrics
Vol. 59, pp. 186-88 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Aldetal03,
  author = {Aldrin, M. and Holden, M. and Schweder, T.},
  title = {Comment on Cowling's "spatial methods for line transect surveys"},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {186--88},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-0420.00022}
}
Alldredge, J.R. and Gates, C.E. Line transect estimators for left-truncated distributions 1985 Biometrics
Vol. 41, pp. 273-280 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{AllGat85,
  author = {Alldredge, J. R. and Gates, C. E.},
  title = {Line transect estimators for left-truncated distributions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {273--280},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530663}
}
Alldredge, M.W., Pacifici, K., Simons, T.R. and Pollock, K.H. A novel field evaluation of the effectiveness of distance and independent observer sampling to estimate aural avian detection probabilities 2008 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 45, pp. 1349-1356 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alldredge2008,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and Pacifici, Krishna and Simons, T. R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {A novel field evaluation of the effectiveness of distance and independent observer sampling to estimate aural avian detection probabilities},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {1349--1356},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01517.x}
}
Alldredge, M.W., Pollock, K.H., Simons, T.R. and Shriner, S.A. Multiple-species analysis of point count data: a more parsimonious modeling framework 2007 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 44, pp. 281-290 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alletal2007a,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and Pollock, K. H. and Simons, T. R. and Shriner, S. A.},
  title = {Multiple-species analysis of point count data: a more parsimonious modeling framework},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {281--290},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01271.x}
}
Alldredge, M.W., Simons, T.R. and Pollock, K.H. Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds 2007 Ecological Applications
Vol. 17, pp. 948-955 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alletal0000b,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and Simons, T. R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {948--955},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/06-0685}
}
Alldredge, M.W., Simons, T.R. and Pollock, K.H. A field evaluation of distance measurement error in auditory avian point count surveys 2007 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 71, pp. 2759-2766 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alldredge2007,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and Simons, T. R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {A field evaluation of distance measurement error in auditory avian point count surveys},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {2759--2766},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/2006-161}
}
Allen, S.J., Pollock, K.H., Bouchet, P.J., Kobryn, H.T., McElligott, D.B., Nicholson, K.E., Smith, J.N. and Loneragan, N.R. Preliminary estimates of the abundance and fidelity of dolphins associating with a demersal trawl fishery 2017 Scientific Reports
Vol. 7(1), pp. 4995 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Allen2017,
  author = {Allen, Simon J. and Pollock, Kenneth H. and Bouchet, Phil J. and Kobryn, Halina T. and McElligott, Deirdre B. and Nicholson, Krista E. and Smith, Joshua N. and Loneragan, Neil R.},
  title = {Preliminary estimates of the abundance and fidelity of dolphins associating with a demersal trawl fishery},
  journal = {Scientific Reports},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {7},
  number = {1},
  pages = {4995},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05189-0}
}
Allison, L.J. and McLuckie, A.M. Population Trends in Mojave Desert Tortoises (Gopherus Agassizii) 2018 Herpetological Conservation and Biology
Vol. 13, pp. 433-452 
article  
Abstract: Populations of the Mojave Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) experienced severe declines in abundance in the decades leading up to 1990, when the species was listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Population responses to recovery efforts have not been well documented because of the difficulties of studying this low-density, cryptic species over a time period appropriate to its long generation time. We used line distance sampling to estimate annual adult densities since 1999 in Utah and since 2004 elsewhere in the range of Mojave Desert Tortoises. We used generalized least squares regression on log-transformed adult tortoise densities to estimate annual percentage change through 2014 in each of 17 Tortoise Conservation Areas (TCAs) in the five recovery units. We report annual proportional increases in density of adults in the Northeastern Mojave Recovery Unit, but declines in the other four recovery units. Adjusting these densities and trends for the area of potential habitat in each recovery unit, we estimated that in 2004 there were 336,393 adult tortoises (standard error [SE] = 51,596), with an overall loss of 124,050 adult tortoises (SE = 36,062) by 2014. The proportion of juveniles in our surveys has been decreasing in all five recovery units since 2007. Prevailing declines in the abundance of adults overall and in four of the five recovery units indicate the need for more aggressive implementation of recovery actions and more critical evaluation of the suite of future activities and projects in tortoise habitat that may exacerbate ongoing population declines.
BibTeX:
@article{Allison,
  author = {Allison, Linda J and McLuckie, Ann M},
  title = {Population Trends in Mojave Desert Tortoises (Gopherus Agassizii)},
  journal = {Herpetological Conservation and Biology},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {433-452}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R. Assessing assumption violation in line transect sampling 1997 School: North Carolina State University  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{ALP97,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara, R.},
  title = {Assessing assumption violation in line transect sampling},
  school = {North Carolina State University},
  year = {1997}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R. and Pollock, K.H. Combining line transect and capture-recapture for mark-resighting studies 1999 Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods, pp. 99-114  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{AJPol99,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara, R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {Combining line transect and capture-recapture for mark-resighting studies},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {99--114}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R. and Pollock, K.H. A combination line transect and capture recapture sampling model for multiple observers in aerial surveys 1996 Environmental and Ecological Statistics
Vol. 3, pp. 311-27 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{AJPol96,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara, R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {A combination line transect and capture recapture sampling model for multiple observers in aerial surveys},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {311--27},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00539369}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R., Pollock, K.H. and Haines, D.E. Mark-recapture estimators for dual frame population size of prominent nesting structures: the effect of uncertain detection probability 2005 Environmental and Ecological Statistics
Vol. 12, pp. 155-168 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alpizar-Jara2005,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara, Russell and Pollock, Kenneth H. and Haines, Dawn E.},
  title = {Mark-recapture estimators for dual frame population size of prominent nesting structures: the effect of uncertain detection probability},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {155--168},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10651-005-1039-0}
}
Alves, J., da Silva, A.A., Soares, A.M.V.M. and Fonseca, C. Pellet group count methods to estimate red deer densities: precision, potential accuracy and efficiency 2013 Mammalian Biology — Zeitschrift für Saügetierkunde
Vol. 78, pp. 134-141 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alves2013a,
  author = {Alves, Joana and da Silva, António Alves and Soares, Amadeu M. V. M. and Fonseca, Carlos},
  title = {Pellet group count methods to estimate red deer densities: precision, potential accuracy and efficiency},
  journal = {Mammalian Biology — Zeitschrift für Saügetierkunde},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {78},
  pages = {134--141},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2012.08.003}
}
Amin, R., Klair, H., Wacher, T., Ndjassi, C., Fowler, A., Olson, D. and Bruce, T. Estimating Forest Antelope Population Densities Using Distance Sampling with Camera Traps 2021 Oryx, pp. 1-7  article DOI  
Abstract: Traditional transect survey methods for forest antelopes often underestimate density for common species and do not provide sufficient data for rarer species. The use of camera trapping as a survey tool for medium and large terrestrial mammals has become increasingly common, especially in forest habitats. Here, we applied the distance sampling method to images generated from camera-trap surveys in Dja Faunal Reserve, Cameroon, and used an estimate of the proportion of time animals are active to correct for negative bias in the density estimates from the 24-hour camera-trap survey datasets. We also used multiple covariate distance sampling with body weight as a covariate to estimate detection probabilities and densities of rarer species. These methods provide an effective tool for monitoring the status of individual species or a community of forest antelope species, information urgently needed for conservation planning and action.
BibTeX:
@article{Amin2021,
  author = {Amin, Rajan and Klair, Hannah and Wacher, Tim and Ndjassi, Constant and Fowler, Andrew and Olson, David and Bruce, Tom},
  title = {Estimating Forest Antelope Population Densities Using Distance Sampling with Camera Traps},
  journal = {Oryx},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
  year = {2021},
  pages = {1--7},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605320001209}
}
Amundin, M., Carlström, J., Thomas, L., Carlén, I., Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Loisa, O., Kyhn, L.A., Sveegaard, S., Burt, M.L., Pawliczka, I., Koza, R., Arciszewski, B., Galatius, A., Laaksonlaita, J., MacAuley, J., Wright, A.J., Gallus, A., Dähne, M., Acevedo-Gutiérrez, A., Benke, H., Koblitz, J., Tregenza, N., Wennerberg, D., Brundiers, K., Kosecka, M., Tiberi Ljungqvist, C., Jussi, I., Jabbusch, M., Lyytinen, S., v Sav skov, A. and Blankett, P. Estimating the Abundance of the Critically Endangered Baltic Proper Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena Phocoena) Population Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring 2022 Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 12(2), pp. e8554 
article DOI  
Abstract: Knowing the abundance of a population is a crucial component to assess its conservation status and develop effective conservation plans. For most cetaceans, abundance estimation is difficult given their cryptic and mobile nature, especially when the population is small and has a transnational distribution. In the Baltic Sea, the number of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) has collapsed since the mid-20th century and the Baltic Proper harbour porpoise is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN and HELCOM; however, its abundance remains unknown. Here, one of the largest ever passive acoustic monitoring studies was carried out by eight Baltic Sea nations to estimate the abundance of the Baltic Proper harbour porpoise for the first time. By logging porpoise echolocation signals at 298 stations during May 2011– April 2013, calibrating the loggers' spatial detection performance at sea, and measuring the click rate of tagged individuals, we estimated an abundance of 71– 1105 individuals (95% CI, point estimate 491) during May– October within the population's proposed management border. The small abundance estimate strongly supports that the Baltic Proper harbour porpoise is facing an extremely high risk of extinction, and highlights the need for immediate and efficient conservation actions through international cooperation. It also provides a starting point in monitoring the trend of the population abundance to evaluate the effectiveness of management measures and determine its interactions with the larger neighboring Belt Sea population. Further, we offer evidence that design-based passive acoustic monitoring can generate reliable estimates of the abundance of rare and cryptic animal populations across large spatial scales.
BibTeX:
@article{Amundin2022,
  author = {Amundin, Mats and Carlström, Julia and Thomas, Len and Carlén, Ida and Teilmann, Jonas and Tougaard, Jakob and Loisa, Olli and Kyhn, Line A. and Sveegaard, Signe and Burt, M. Louise and Pawliczka, Iwona and Koza, Radomil and Arciszewski, Bartlomiej and Galatius, Anders and Laaksonlaita, Jussi and MacAuley, Jamie and Wright, Andrew J. and Gallus, Anja and Dähne, Michael and Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro and Benke, Harald and Koblitz, Jens and Tregenza, Nick and Wennerberg, Daniel and Brundiers, Katharina and Kosecka, Monika and Tiberi Ljungqvist, Cinthia and Jussi, Ivar and Jabbusch, Martin and Lyytinen, Sami and v Sav skov, Aleksej and Blankett, Penina},
  title = {Estimating the Abundance of the Critically Endangered Baltic Proper Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena Phocoena) Population Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  year = {2022},
  volume = {12},
  number = {2},
  pages = {e8554},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8554}
}
Anadon, J., Gimenez, A. and Ballestar, R. Linking local ecological knowledge and habitat modelling to predict absolute species abundance on large scales 2010 Biodiversity and Conservation
Vol. 19, pp. 1443-1454 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10531-009-9774-4,
  author = {Anadon, Jose and Gimenez, Andres and Ballestar, Ruben},
  title = {Linking local ecological knowledge and habitat modelling to predict absolute species abundance on large scales},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {1443--1454},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-009-9774-4}
}
Ancrenaz, M., Gimenez, O., Ambu, L., Ancrenaz, K., Andau, P., Goossens, B., Payne, J., Sawang, A., Tuuga, A. and Lackman-Ancrenaz, I. Aerial surveys give new estimates for orangutans in Sabah, Malaysia 2005 PLoS biology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 1-8 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ancrenaz2005,
  author = {Ancrenaz, M. and Gimenez, O. and Ambu, L. and Ancrenaz, K. and Andau, P. and Goossens, B. and Payne, J. and Sawang, A. and Tuuga, A. and Lackman-Ancrenaz, I.},
  title = {Aerial surveys give new estimates for orangutans in Sabah, Malaysia},
  journal = {PLoS biology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--8},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0030003}
}
Ancrenaz, M., Goossens, B., Gimenez, O., Sawang, A. and Lackman-Ancrenaz, I. Determination of ape distribution and population size using ground and aerial surveys: a case study with orang-utans in lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia 2004 Animal Conservation
Vol. 7, pp. 375-385 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ancrenaz2004,
  author = {Ancrenaz, Marc and Goossens, Benoit and Gimenez, Olivier and Sawang, Azri and Lackman-Ancrenaz, Isabelle},
  title = {Determination of ape distribution and population size using ground and aerial surveys: a case study with orang-utans in lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia},
  journal = {Animal Conservation},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {375--385},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S136794300400157X}
}
Andersen, D.E., Rongstad, O.J. and Mytton, W.R. Line transect analysis of raptor abundance along roads 1985 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 13, pp. 533-539 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal85,
  author = {Andersen, D. E. and Rongstad, O. J. and Mytton, W. R.},
  title = {Line transect analysis of raptor abundance along roads},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {533--539},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782684}
}
Andersen, E.M. and Steidl, R.J. Power to Detect Trends in Abundance within a Distance Sampling Framework 2020 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 57(2), pp. 344-353 
article DOI  
Abstract: Ensuring that inferences from biological monitoring are reliable requires a level of sampling effort that is commensurate with programmatic objectives and reflects attributes of target populations. Consensus guidelines have emerged to guide allocation of sampling effort for programmes designed to detect trends in occupancy but not for abundance, despite its prevalence as a target parameter. We evaluated the influence of population attributes (density, availability, detection probability and magnitude of trend) and sampling design features (number of sites, number of repeat surveys, and survey-year interval) on a Bayesian analogue of statistical power to detect declines in abundance estimated using distance sampling methods. For a range of values common to terrestrial vertebrates, we simulated spatially and temporally replicated populations from which we generated survey data. We then analysed each dataset with a hierarchical open-population model that allowed for temporary emigration to estimate power for periods of 5– 20 years. For a given amount of sampling effort, power to detect trends was highest when effort was allocated to maximizing the number of sites by decreasing the number of repeat surveys within a year and increasing the interval between survey years. For example, to have an 80% chance of detecting a 3% annual decline required 40% longer when 67 sites were surveyed three times per year compared to 600 sites surveyed once every three years despite both allocations requiring 4,000 surveys over 20 years. Notably, these patterns were independent of density or detectability of the target species, which contrasts with occupancy studies where optimal allocation shifts from surveying more sites to more repeat surveys when detectability is low or occupancy is high. Synthesis and applications. Our findings provide guidance for allocating resources efficiently for distance sampling studies focused on terrestrial vertebrates. By comparing the approximate density and detectability of target populations to those we considered, monitoring programmes can balance the amount of survey effort allocated to sites, surveys per site, and annual revisits to help ensure sufficient power to meet objectives effectively and efficiently. These decisions are increasingly important as budgets for conservation decrease and consequences of inaction continue to increase.
BibTeX:
@article{Andersen2020,
  author = {Andersen, Erik M. and Steidl, Robert J.},
  title = {Power to Detect Trends in Abundance within a Distance Sampling Framework},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {57},
  number = {2},
  pages = {344--353},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13529}
}
Anderson, A.S., Marques, T.A., Shoo, L.P. and Williams, S.E. Detectability in audio-visual surveys of tropical rainforest birds: the influence of species, weather and habitat characteristics 2015 PLoS ONE
Vol. 10(6), pp. e0128464 
article DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ Indices of relative abundance do not control for variation in detectability, which can bias density estimates such that ecological processes are difficult to infer. Distance sampling methods can be used to correct for detectability, but in rainforest, where dense vegetation and diverse assemblages complicate sampling, information is lacking about factors affecting their application. Rare species present an additional challenge, as data may be too sparse to fit detection functions. We present analyses of distance sampling data collected for a diverse tropical rainforest bird assemblage across broad elevational and latitudinal gradients in North Queensland, Australia. Using audio and visual detections, we assessed the influence of various factors on Effective Strip Width (ESW), an intuitively useful parameter, since it can be used to calculate an estimate of density from count data. Body size and species exerted the most important influence on ESW, with larger species detectable over greater distances than smaller species. Secondarily, wet weather and high shrub density decreased ESW for most species. ESW for several species also differed between summer and winter, possibly due to seasonal differences in calling behavior. Distance sampling proved logistically intensive in these environments, but large differences in ESW between species confirmed the need to correct for detection probability to obtain accurate density estimates. Our results suggest an evidence-based approach to controlling for factors influencing detectability, and avenues for further work including modeling detectability as a function of species characteristics such as body size and call characteristics. Such models may be useful in developing a calibration for non-distance sampling data and for estimating detectability of rare species./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Anderson2015,
  author = {Anderson, Alexander S. and Marques, Tiago A. and Shoo, Luke P. and Williams, Stephen E.},
  title = {Detectability in audio-visual surveys of tropical rainforest birds: the influence of species, weather and habitat characteristics},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {10},
  number = {6},
  pages = {e0128464},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128464}
}
Anderson, B.W. and Ohmart, R.D. Comparisons of avian census results using variable distance transect and variable circular plot techniques 1981 (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, pp. 186-192  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{AndOhm81,
  author = {Anderson, B. W. and Ohmart, R. D.},
  title = {Comparisons of avian census results using variable distance transect and variable circular plot techniques},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {186--192}
}
Anderson, C.W., Nielsen, C.K., Hester, C.M., Hubbard, R.D., Stroud, J.K. and Schauber, E.M. Comparison of indirect and direct methods of distance sampling for estimating density of white-tailed deer 2013 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 37, pp. 146-154 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CharlesW.Anderson2013,
  author = {Anderson, Charles W. and Nielsen, Clayton K. and Hester, Cyrus M. and Hubbard, Ryan D. and Stroud, Janice K. and Schauber, Eric M.},
  title = {Comparison of indirect and direct methods of distance sampling for estimating density of white-tailed deer},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {146--154},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.231}
}
Anderson, D.R. Response to Engeman: index values rarely constitute reliable information 2003 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 31, pp. 288-291 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{And03,
  author = {Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Response to Engeman: index values rarely constitute reliable information},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {288--291},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784387}
}
Anderson, D.R. The need to get the basics right in wildlife field studies 2001 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 29, pp. 1294-1297 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{AND2001,
  author = {Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {The need to get the basics right in wildlife field studies},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {1294--1297},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784156}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Crain, B.R. Some mathematical models for line transect sampling 1985 Biometrical Journal
Vol. 27, pp. 741-752 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal85b,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Some mathematical models for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {741--752},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.4710270705}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Crain, B.R. Estimating population size and density using line transect sampling 1985 Biometrical Journal
Vol. 27, pp. 723-731 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal85a,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Estimating population size and density using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {723--731},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.4710270702}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Crain, B.R. Some comments on Anderson and Pospahala's correction of bias in line transect sampling 1980 Biometrical Journal
Vol. 22, pp. 513-524 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal80,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Some comments on Anderson and Pospahala's correction of bias in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {513--524},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.4710220607}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Crain, B.R. Line transect estimation of population size: the exponential case with grouped data 1979 Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods
Vol. A8, pp. 487-507 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal79a,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of population size: the exponential case with grouped data},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {A8},
  pages = {487--507},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/03610927908827776}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Crain, B.R. A log-linear model approach to estimation of population size using the line-transect sampling method 1978 Ecology
Vol. 59, pp. 190-193 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal78,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {A log-linear model approach to estimation of population size using the line-transect sampling method},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {190--193},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1936648}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., White, G.C. and Otis, D.L. Density estimation of small-mammal populations using a trapping web and distance sampling methods. 1983 Ecology
Vol. 64(4), pp. 674-680 
article DOI  
Abstract: Distance sampling methodology is adapted to enable animal density (number per unit of area) to be estimated from capture-recapture and removal data. A trapping web design provides the link between capture data and distance sampling theory. Several alternative sampling and analysis methods are possible within the general framework of distance sampling theory; a few alternatives are discussed and an example is given.
BibTeX:
@article{Anderson1983,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and White, G. C. and Otis, D. L.},
  title = {Density estimation of small-mammal populations using a trapping web and distance sampling methods.},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {64},
  number = {4},
  pages = {674--680},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1937188}
}
Anderson, D.R., Laake, J.L., Crain, B.R. and Burnham, K.P. Guidelines for line transect sampling of biological populations 1979 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 43, pp. 70-78 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal79b,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L. and Crain, B. R. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {Guidelines for line transect sampling of biological populations},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {70--78},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800636}
}
Anderson, D.R. and Southwell, C. Estimates of macropod density from line transect surveys relative to analyst expertise 1995 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 59, pp. 852-857 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{AndSou95,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Southwell, C.},
  title = {Estimates of macropod density from line transect surveys relative to analyst expertise},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {852--857},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801966}
}
Andriolo, A., Martins, C.C.A., Engel, M.H., Pizzorno, J.L., Mas-Rosa, S., Freitas, A.C., Morete, M.E. and Kinas, P.G. The first aerial survey to estimate abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the breeding ground off Brazil (Breeding Stock A) 2006 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 8, pp. 307-311 
article  
Abstract: In the Southern Hemisphere, humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were heavily exploited from both coastal stations and in pelagic waters in all major ocean basins. About 200,000 whales were taken after 1900, causing declines of populations to small percentages of their pre-exploitation levels. The study presented here aimed to investigate humpback whale abundance in the Brazilian coastal breeding ground, in order to provide information to support further analysis of the population recovery. Between 25 August and 2 September 2001, a fixed wing, flat window, aircraft was used to survey transect lines along the northern limit of Bahia State (12textdegree 10'S), to the southern limit of Espírito Santo State (20textdegree 42'S). All on-effort sightings were recorded and abundance was estimated according to standard distance sampling methodology (Burnham et al., 1980; Buckland et al., 1993). Group sizes of humpback whales ranged between 1-5 and the mean group size was 1.52 (±0.06). The model that best fitted the perpendicular distance data, based on the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, was the hazard rate model. The population size estimated using uncorrected data was 1,493 (CV=0.21) whales. Surface time was used to correct the estimates for gtextasciicircum (0), resulting in a correction factor of 0.67 (±0.15). The corrected analysis for each block and combined result, increased the population size estimate to 2,229 (CV=0.31) individuals. The data from this study could be used to identify new areas appropriate for whalewatching, to monitor the status and dynamics of the humpback whale population off the Brazilian coast and to provide information for the establishment of new protected areas
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2006,
  author = {Andriolo, A. and Martins, C. C. A. and Engel, M. H. and Pizzorno, J. L. and Mas-Rosa, S. and Freitas, A. C. and Morete, M. E. and Kinas, P. G.},
  title = {The first aerial survey to estimate abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the breeding ground off Brazil (Breeding Stock A)},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {307--311}
}
Andriolo, A., Piovezan, U., da Costa, M.J.R.P. and Duarte, J.M.B. Line-transect sampling method used to evaluate the impact of a flooding dam on marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) population in the Paraná river, Brazil. 2001 Deer Specialist Group News
Vol. 16, pp. 1-2 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2001,
  author = {Andriolo, Artur and Piovezan, Ubiratan and da Costa, Mateus J. R. Paranhos and Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti},
  title = {Line-transect sampling method used to evaluate the impact of a flooding dam on marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) population in the Paraná river, Brazil.},
  journal = {Deer Specialist Group News},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {1--2}
}
Andriolo, A., Piovezan, U., Costa, M.J.R.P., Laake, J. and Duarte, J.M.B. Aerial line transect survey to estimate abundance of marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) (Illiger, 1815) 2005 Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology
Vol. 48, pp. 807-814 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2005,
  author = {Andriolo, A. and Piovezan, U. and Costa, M. J. R. P. and Laake, J. and Duarte, J. M. B.},
  title = {Aerial line transect survey to estimate abundance of marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) (Illiger, 1815)},
  journal = {Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {807--814},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132005000600017}
}
Andriolo, A., Piovezan, U., da Costa, M.J.R.P., Torres, H.A., Vogliotti, A., Zerbini, A.N. and Duarte, J.M.B. Severe population decline of marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae), a threatened species, caused by flooding related to a hydroelectric power plant 2013 Zoologia (Curitiba)
Vol. 30(6), pp. 630-638 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2014,
  author = {Andriolo, Artur and Piovezan, Ubiratan and da Costa, Mateus J. R. Paranhos and Torres, Hermógenes A. and Vogliotti, Alexandre and Zerbini, Alexandre N. and Duarte, José M. B.},
  title = {Severe population decline of marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae), a threatened species, caused by flooding related to a hydroelectric power plant},
  journal = {Zoologia (Curitiba)},
  publisher = {FapUNIFESP (SciELO)},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {30},
  number = {6},
  pages = {630--638},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702013005000015}
}
Anganuzzi, A.A. and Buckland, S.T. Reducing bias in estimated trends from dolphin abundance indices derived from tuna vessel data 1989 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 39, pp. 323-334 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{AngBuc89,
  author = {Anganuzzi, A. A. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Reducing bias in estimated trends from dolphin abundance indices derived from tuna vessel data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {323--334}
}
Anganuzzi, A.A., Buckland, S.T. and Cattanach, K.L. Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data for 1988 and 1989 1991 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 41, pp. 497-506 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Angetal91,
  author = {Anganuzzi, A. A. and Buckland, S. T. and Cattanach, K. L.},
  title = {Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data for 1988 and 1989},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {497--506}
}
Anganuzzi, A.A., Catanach, K.L. and Buckland, S.T. Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical pacific in 1990 and trends since 1975, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data 1992 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 42, pp. 541-547 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Anganuzzi1992,
  author = {Anganuzzi, A. A. and Catanach, K. L. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical pacific in 1990 and trends since 1975, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {541--547}
}
Anthony, R.M. and Stehn, R.A. Navigating aerial transects with a laptop computer map 1994 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 22, pp. 674-676 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{AntSte94,
  author = {Anthony, R. M. and Stehn, R. A.},
  title = {Navigating aerial transects with a laptop computer map},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {674--676},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3783096}
}
Applegate, R.D., Jr, R.E.K., Moss, E.D., Warr, E.L. and Kennedy, M.L. Problems with avian point counts for estimating density of northern bobwhite— a case study 2011 Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management
Vol. 2, pp. 117-121 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Applegate2011,
  author = {Applegate, Roger D. and Jr, Robert E. Kissell and Moss, E. Daniel and Warr, Edward L. and Kennedy, Michael L.},
  title = {Problems with avian point counts for estimating density of northern bobwhite— a case study},
  journal = {Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {117--121},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3996/092010-JFWM-033}
}
Arandhara, S., Sathishkumar, S. and Baskaran, N. Modelling the effect of covariates on the detectability and density of native blackbucks and invasive feral-horse using Multiple Covariate Distance Sampling at Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern India 2020 Mammalian Biology
Vol. 100(2), pp. 173-186 
article DOI  
Abstract: Reliable estimates of population size and a knowledge of determinants of detectability and density estimates are crucial for effective conservation of species. Using Multiple Covariate Distance Sampling (MCDS), we modelled the influence of covariates on detection probability and density estimates of native blackbuck Antilope cervicapra and the invasive feral-horse Equus caballus at Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary. Grids of 1,texttimes,1 km size were overlaid on the study area with a 1-km line transect in alternate grid cells. Sixteen transects were walked four times each, which detected 199 blackbuck and 152 feral-horse clusters. On each sighting, the climatic, habitat and anthropogenic covariates were recorded, which are likely to affect detection probability. At first, exploratory analyses were made using Conventional Distance Sampling (CDS) to arrive at estimates. Later, in Multiple Covariate Distance Sampling (MCDS), key models were fit into the dataset after selecting the potential covariates that had a significant effect on detection distances obtained from FAMD/PCA, and the best one was selected based on AIC. The MCDS analysis in blackbuck included covariates, viz., distance to water in the best model (29 individuals/km2; CI,22– 36; detection probability,=,0.58), followed by distance to feral-horse, sampling time and principal diet. The covariate distance to water emerged as the best model for feral-horse as well (13 individuals/km2; CI,9– 18; detection probability,=,0.36), followed by distance to cattle and principal diet. While the MCDS approach outperformed the CDS global and survey-strata estimates in blackbuck, both the approaches had a marginal difference in feral-horse. Post-stratification analysis showed that blackbuck density increased significantly with distance to water and feral-horse, but insignificantly with the absence of principal diet; whereas, the density of the feral-horse increased significantly with distance to water and cattle in the presence of principal diet. These findings suggest the ability of feral-horse to keep the blackbuck away from optimal areas, where the principal diet is abundant. Our study, thus, illustrates the need for the use of MCDS approach that ascertained (i) reliable population density estimates, (ii) spatiotemporal constraint on large herbivores caused by overabundance of water during the wet season, and (iii) competitive interaction of the invasive feral-horse with the native blackbuck and its likely effect on the latter keeping away from the former and the principal diet to overcome competition. Thus, the study highlights the impact of feral-horse on the native species and suggests measures for the long-term conservation of the blackbuck.
BibTeX:
@article{arandhara_modelling_2020,
  author = {Arandhara, Subhasish and Sathishkumar, Selvarasu and Baskaran, Nagarajan},
  title = {Modelling the effect of covariates on the detectability and density of native blackbucks and invasive feral-horse using Multiple Covariate Distance Sampling at Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern India},
  journal = {Mammalian Biology},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {100},
  number = {2},
  pages = {173--186},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s42991-020-00018-w}
}
Araújo, H., Bastos-Santos, J., Rodrigues, P.C., Ferreira, M., Pereira, A., Henriques, A.C., Monteiro, S.S., Eira, C. and Vingada, J. The importance of Portuguese continental shelf waters to Balearic shearwaters revealed by aerial census 2017 Marine Biology
Vol. 164(3), pp. 55 
article DOI  
Abstract: The Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus is one of the most threatened seabirds in the world. To evaluate the abundance and distribution of Balearic Shearwaters in Portuguese Continental Shelf Waters, during the post-breeding period when migrating birds are outside the Mediterranean Sea, we conducted 5 aerial surveys between 2010 and 2014 (21 survey days covering 62,716Â km2). Following a line transect method, observers recorded a total of 181 Balearic Shearwaters sightings. Using Distance sampling software, we estimated an overall species abundance (2010– 2014) of 10,182, ranging between 2338 in 2010 and 23,221 individuals in 2012. During the 2012 post-breeding period, the Portuguese Continental Shelf Waters were used by up to 96.8% of the latest migratory population assessment. Considering Balearic Shearwater estimates per sampling block, there was a preference for the North and Center sectors of the Portuguese coast (respectively, 7058 and 1366 individuals) where several SPAs were already designated. We computed the annual and overall habitat predictive models for Balearic Shearwaters using a maximum entropy algorithm on MaxEnt software. In all models, the Balearic shearwater distribution was best predicted by mean chlorophyll concentration. Balearic Shearwaters are mostly present in shallow shelf and coastal waters particularly in the widest portions of the continental shelf. These areas are strongly influenced by upwelling, which concurs with the chlorophyll concentration being the most important predicting variable. Portuguese Continental Shelf Waters are one of the most important post-breeding grounds to the Balearic Shearwater.
BibTeX:
@article{Araujo2017,
  author = {Araújo, Hélder and Bastos-Santos, Jorge and Rodrigues, Pedro Correia and Ferreira, Marisa and Pereira, Andreia and Henriques, Ana Catarina and Monteiro, Sílvia S. and Eira, Catarina and Vingada, José},
  title = {The importance of Portuguese continental shelf waters to Balearic shearwaters revealed by aerial census},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {164},
  number = {3},
  pages = {55},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-017-3089-x}
}
Arendt, W.J., Gibbons, D.W. and Gray, G. Status of the volcanically threatened Montserrat oriole Icterus oberi and other forest birds in Montserrat, West Indies 1999 Bird Conservation International
Vol. 9(4), pp. 351-372 
article DOI  
Abstract: The Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi is endemic to the Caribbean island of Montserrat where, prior to 1995, it was widely distributed across the island's three main interior mountain ranges: the Centre, Soufriere and South Soufriere Hills. In July 1995, a long-dormant volcano on Chances Peak in the Soufriere Hills began to erupt. Since then the forest habitat of the oriole on the Soufriere and South Soufriere Hills has been devastated by pyroclastic flows and surges, heavy ash eruptions and rock falls. The Montserrat Oriole populations that inhabited these two mountain ranges have probably been lost. In December 1997, a census of the remaining Centre Hills population was undertaken to assess its status in the face of the heavy ash fall that occurred earlier the same year. To do this, a systematic grid of 140 sample points was overlaid on an area of 1,437⋅5 ha encompassing the Centre Hills, and a 10-minute count of all bird species was undertaken at 137 of these points during an eight-day survey period. The distance from the point to each oriole detected was measured and records of all other species were allocated to one of five distance bands radiating out from the point. Distance sampling was used to model densities, and thus to estimate population sizes, of eight bird species in the study area. It was estimated that 4,000 (95% CIs 1,500-7,800) Montserrat Orioles remain in the Centre Hills and thus the world. Although the probability of pyroclastic flows and surges overrunning the Centre Hills is considered remote, it is recommended that the Montserrat Oriole be classified as Globally Threatened (Endangered) under the revised IUCN threat categories because of its loss of breeding habitat since 1995.
BibTeX:
@article{Arendt1999,
  author = {Arendt, W. J. and Gibbons, D. W. and Gray, G.},
  title = {Status of the volcanically threatened Montserrat oriole Icterus oberi and other forest birds in Montserrat, West Indies},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {9},
  number = {4},
  pages = {351--372},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S095927090000352X}
}
Asefa, A., Davies, A.B., McKechnie, A.E., Kinahan, A.A. and van Rensburg, B.J. Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on bird diversity in ethiopian montane forests 2017 The Condor
Vol. 119(3), pp. 416-430 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Asefa2017,
  author = {Asefa, Addisu and Davies, Andrew B. and McKechnie, Andrew E. and Kinahan, Anouska A. and van Rensburg, Berndt J.},
  title = {Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on bird diversity in ethiopian montane forests},
  journal = {The Condor},
  publisher = {American Ornithological Society},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {119},
  number = {3},
  pages = {416--430},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1650/CONDOR-16-81.1}
}
Ashenafi, Z.T., Coulson, T., Sillero-Zubiri, C. and Leader-Williams, N. Behaviour and ecology of the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in a human-dominated landscape outside protected areas 2005 Animal Conservation
Vol. 8, pp. 113-121 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ashenafi2005,
  author = {Ashenafi, Z. T. and Coulson, T. and Sillero-Zubiri, C. and Leader-Williams, N.},
  title = {Behaviour and ecology of the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in a human-dominated landscape outside protected areas},
  journal = {Animal Conservation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {113--121},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S1367943005001952}
}
Astrup, R., Ducey, M., Granhus, A., Ritter, T. and von Lüpke, N. Approaches for estimating stand-level volume using terrestrial laser scanning in a single-scan mode 2014 Canadian Journal of Forest Research
Vol. 44(6), pp. 666-676 
article DOI  
Abstract: The most efficient way to obtain stand inventory data with terrestrial laser systems (TLS) is with the single-scan mode, which involves taking one scan at a single point. With a single-scan setup, there will be a nondetection of trees in a plot and the representation of the individual trees will be incomplete. We explore how stand-level volume estimates, based on the single-scan mode, perform compared with standard inventory estimates. We base our study on 166 plots in 12 mature stands dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) in southern Norway. First, we compare individual-tree volume estimates from TLS with estimates from volume functions and measurements from harvesters. We show that individual-tree volumes can be estimated with high precision and accuracy with TLS in single-scan mode. Secondly, we test three approaches for correction of nondetection relying on model-based estimates of the detection probability obtained by point transect sampling estimators. We show that all three approaches adjust for nondetection and yield stand-level volume estimates that are similar to those obtained by fixed-area sampling. In conclusion, our results indicate that stand-level volume estimates, based on single-scan mode TLS data, perform well compared with standard inventory estimates.
BibTeX:
@article{Astrup2014,
  author = {Astrup, R. and Ducey, M. and Granhus, A. and Ritter, T. and von Lüpke, N.},
  title = {Approaches for estimating stand-level volume using terrestrial laser scanning in a single-scan mode},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Forest Research},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {44},
  number = {6},
  pages = {666--676},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2013-0535}
}
Atkinson, A.J., Yang, B.S., Fisher, R.N., Ervin, E., Case, T.J., Scott, N. and Shaffer, H.B. MCP Camp Pendleton arroyo toad monitoring protocol 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Atketal03,
  author = {Atkinson, A. J. and Yang, B. S. and Fisher, R. N. and Ervin, E. and Case, T. J. and Scott, N. and Shaffer, H. B.},
  title = {MCP Camp Pendleton arroyo toad monitoring protocol},
  publisher = {Western Ecological Research Center, U. S. Geological Survey},
  year = {2003}
}
Atuo, F.A. and O'Connell, T.J. The landscape of fear as an emergent property of heterogeneity: contrasting patterns of predation risk in grassland ecosystems 2017 Ecology and Evolution, pp. 1-12  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Atuo2017,
  author = {Atuo, Fidelis Akunke and O'Connell, Timothy John},
  title = {The landscape of fear as an emergent property of heterogeneity: contrasting patterns of predation risk in grassland ecosystems},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {1--12},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3021}
}
Averill-Murray, R.C. and Averill-Murray, A. Regional-scale estimation of density and habitat use of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in Arizona 2005 Journal of Herpetology
Vol. 39(1), pp. 65-72 
article DOI  
Abstract: Desert Tortoise surveys and management in the Sonoran Desert typically exclude intermountain valleys, where tortoises are generally thought to be absent. Furthermore, few regional-level surveys have been conducted because of difficulties in sampling in the complex landscape of Sonoran Desert upland habitat. We used distance-sampling to document macrohabitat use and regional density of Desert Tortoises across the 76,800-ha Ironwood Forest National Monument in Arizona. We observed 42 tortoises on transects, and distance sampling produced an estimate of 17,997 tortoises ? 150 mm carapace length (coefficient of variation = 41.5%) on the monument. Stratification by habitat type (steep topography with boulders, incised washes, or neither of these components) improved precision slightly (37.2%). Detection probability contributed least to density variance, compared to encounter rate and tortoise detectability on the transect line, indicating that assumptions of the technique were met during sampling. We found tortoises or their sign on 92% of transects in boulder habitat, on 71% that included incised washes, and on 25% in habitat with neither of these features (up to 1.7 km away from the nearest slope). Our results indicate that Desert Tortoises in the Sonoran Desert occur at low density, but are not absent, from intermountain valleys, and the maintenance of these valleys for tortoise movement between local populations may be important for long-term population viability. With this in mind, concentrating survey effort in areas with steep topography and boulders will increase tortoise encounter rate, result in better precision of regional density and trend estimates, and may also reduce survey effort.
BibTeX:
@article{Averill-Murray2005,
  author = {Averill-Murray, R. C. and Averill-Murray, A.},
  title = {Regional-scale estimation of density and habitat use of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in Arizona},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39},
  number = {1},
  pages = {65--72},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1670/0022-1511(2005)039%5B0065:REODAH%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Azhar, B., Zakaria, M., Yusof, E. and Leong, P.C. Efficiency of fixed-width transect and line-transect-based distance sampling to survey red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) in peninsular Malaysia 2008 Journal of Sustainable Development
Vol. 1, pp. 63-73 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Azhar2008,
  author = {Azhar, Badrul and Zakaria, Mohamed and Yusof, Ebil and Leong, Puan Chong},
  title = {Efficiency of fixed-width transect and line-transect-based distance sampling to survey red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) in peninsular Malaysia},
  journal = {Journal of Sustainable Development},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {63--73}
}
Baccaro, F.B. and Ferraz, G. Estimating density of ant nests using distance sampling 2012 Insectes Sociaux
Vol. 60, pp. 103-110 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baccaro2012,
  author = {Baccaro, F. B. and Ferraz, G.},
  title = {Estimating density of ant nests using distance sampling},
  journal = {Insectes Sociaux},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {103--110},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00040-012-0274-2}
}
Bachl, F.E., Lindgren, F., Borchers, D.L. and Illian, J.B. Inlabru: an R package for Bayesian spatial modelling from ecological survey data 2019 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 10(6), pp. 760-766 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bachl2019,
  author = {Bachl, Fabian E. and Lindgren, Finn and Borchers, David L. and Illian, Janine B.},
  title = {Inlabru: an R package for Bayesian spatial modelling from ecological survey data},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {10},
  number = {6},
  pages = {760--766},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.13168}
}
Bächler, E. and Liechti, F. On the importance of g(0) for estimating bird population densities with standard distance-sampling: implications from a telemetry study and a literature review 2007 Ibis
Vol. 149, pp. 693-700 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baechler2007,
  author = {Bächler, Erich and Liechti, Felix},
  title = {On the importance of g(0) for estimating bird population densities with standard distance-sampling: implications from a telemetry study and a literature review},
  journal = {Ibis},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {149},
  pages = {693--700},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.2007.00689.x}
}
Bagchi, S., Goyal, S.P. and Sankar, K. Herbivore density and biomass in a semi-arid tropical dry deciduous forest of western India 2004 Journal of Tropical Ecology
Vol. 20(4), pp. 475-478 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bagchi2004,
  author = {Bagchi, S. and Goyal, S. P. and Sankar, K.},
  title = {Herbivore density and biomass in a semi-arid tropical dry deciduous forest of western India},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {20},
  number = {4},
  pages = {475--478},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S026646740400166X}
}
Baird, R.W. and Burkhart, S.M. Bias and variability in distance estimation on the water: implications for the management of whale watching 2000 (SC/52/WW1)School: IWC  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Baird2000,
  author = {Baird, R. W. and Burkhart, S. M.},
  title = {Bias and variability in distance estimation on the water: implications for the management of whale watching},
  school = {IWC},
  year = {2000},
  number = {SC/52/WW1}
}
Bakermans, M.H., Vitz, A.C., Rodewald, A.D. and Rengifo, C.G. Migratory songbird use of shade coffee in the venezuelan andes with implications for conservation of cerulean warbler 2009 Biological Conservation
Vol. 142(11), pp. 2476-2483 
article DOI  
Abstract: Although previous studies have demonstrated high use of shade coffee plantations by Neotropical migratory birds, we still have a poor understanding of the suitability of shade coffee plantations as habitat on the wintering grounds. We studied density, body condition, and survivorship of Neotropical migrants, with emphasis on cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea), in primary forest and shade coffee plantations in Venezuela. We worked in three primary forest sites and three shade coffee plantations on the western slope of the Cordillera de MÃtextcopyright rida of the Andes Mountains. At each site, we surveyed migrants with distance-based line transects and mist-netted and banded migrants during November-February 2005/06 and 2006/07. In addition, we estimated apparent monthly survival for cerulean warbler based on 29 color-banded individuals. Densities of migrants were 3-14× higher in shade coffee plantations than primary forest sites, even after accounting for differences in detectability. Apparent monthly survival of cerulean warblers was estimated at 97% and overwinter persistence was similarly high. In addition, cerulean warblers demonstrated high between-season fidelity, with 65% of the birds banded the first year being resighted during the second year. Interestingly, immature birds returned at nearly half the rate as did adults. Banding data indicated that body condition increased significantly as the season progressed for cerulean warblers, Tennessee warblers (Vermivora peregrina), and American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla). Collectively, these data provide evidence that shade coffee plantations offer high quality wintering habitat for Neotropical migrants, including cerulean warblers.
BibTeX:
@article{Bakermans2009,
  author = {Bakermans, Marja H. and Vitz, Andrew C. and Rodewald, Amanda D. and Rengifo, Carlos G.},
  title = {Migratory songbird use of shade coffee in the venezuelan andes with implications for conservation of cerulean warbler},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {142},
  number = {11},
  pages = {2476--2483},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.05.018}
}
Bakouch, H.S., Chesneau, C. and Abdullah, R.I. A Pliant Parametric Detection Model for Line Transect Data Sampling 2021 Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods
Vol. 0(0), pp. 1-14 
article DOI  
Abstract: Line transect survey methodology is a commonly used method for estimating the population abundance. Despite recent advances in this regard, parametric models are still widely used among biometricians, mainly because of their simplicity. In this paper, a new two-parameter detection model satisfying the shoulder conditions is proposed for modeling line transect data. We discuss its properties of interest, including the shapes of the model and the corresponding probability density function, moments, and the related sub-detection model. Maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters is considered. Subsequently, an application is carried out to the proposed model based on a practical data set of perpendicular distances. It is compared with some classical and recent models based on the evaluation of some goodness-of-fit statistics. As results, the variance-covariance matrix, confidence intervals of the parameters and estimated population abundance of the data set are obtained under the proposed detection model.
BibTeX:
@article{Bakouch2021,
  author = {Bakouch, Hassan S. and Chesneau, Christophe and Abdullah, Rawda I.},
  title = {A Pliant Parametric Detection Model for Line Transect Data Sampling},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods},
  publisher = {Taylor & Francis},
  year = {2021},
  volume = {0},
  number = {0},
  pages = {1--14},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/03610926.2021.1872640}
}
Bal, P. Estimating gopher tortoise abundance through design-based and model-based methods 2010 School: Univeristy of St Andrews  mastersthesis  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Bal2010,
  author = {Bal, Payal},
  title = {Estimating gopher tortoise abundance through design-based and model-based methods},
  school = {Univeristy of St Andrews},
  year = {2010}
}
Baldi, A. and Kisbenedek, T. Species-specific distribution of reed-nesting passerine birds across reed-bed edges: effects of spatial scale and edge type 1999 Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Vol. 45, pp. 97-114 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BalKis99,
  author = {Baldi, A. and Kisbenedek, T.},
  title = {Species-specific distribution of reed-nesting passerine birds across reed-bed edges: effects of spatial scale and edge type},
  journal = {Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {97--114}
}
Baldi, R., Albon, S.D. and Elston, D.A. Guanacos and sheep: evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia 2001 Oecologia
Vol. 129, pp. 561-570 
article DOI  
Abstract: Guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are the only wild ungulate species widely distributed across the Patagonian steppe and have undergone a precipitous population decline since the introduction of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) 100 years ago. There has been speculation that sheep ranching may have played a major role in guanaco population decline after monopolising the most productive land because of competition for forage plants. Our aim in this work was to estimate guanaco abundance and account for its variation across nine different sites, two seasons and two years. We conducted over 100 ground surveys of both guanacos and sheep and estimated the availability of the preferred plant species both animal species might select in their diet. We found that (1) sheep densities were up to 23 times higher than guanaco densities in sympatric conditions, (2) at a protected site without sheep, guanaco density was one order of magnitude higher than at the rest of the sites, (3) across nine different sites, sheep densities alone accounted for around 60% of the variation in guanaco abundance, (4) guanaco densities were negatively related to both total plant cover and availability of the preferred plant species in their diet, which were both positively associated with sheep density, and (5) within-site changes in guanaco densities between seasons and years were negatively related to changes in sheep densities. Our results are consistent with predictions on interspecific competition for food resources, although we cannot rule out possible effects of other human-related activities influencing guanaco abundance. We conclude that sheep compete with guanacos for forage in arid Patagonia.
BibTeX:
@article{Baldi2001,
  author = {Baldi, R. and Albon, S. D. and Elston, D. A.},
  title = {Guanacos and sheep: evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia},
  journal = {Oecologia},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {129},
  pages = {561--570},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420100770}
}
Ball, S.J., Ramsey, D., Nugent, G., Warburton, B. and Efford, M. A method for estimating wildlife detection probabilities in relation to home-range use: insights from a field study on the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) 2005 Wildlife Research
Vol. 32(3), pp. 217-227 
article DOI  
Abstract: Using field data from brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), we present a method for modelling wildlife detection probabilities. Whereas detection functions typically (e.g. for distance sampling) describe the probability of direct human observations of animal subjects, we adapted this approach for cryptic species where observation depends on animals being caught in traps. Specifically, we characterised the probability of individual brushtail possums being caught by leg-hold traps in an area of farmland and native forest in New Zealand. Detection probability was defined as the per-individual, per-trap, per-night probability of a possum being captured, and was modelled as a function of home-range utilisation. Radio-telemetry was used to define the home-range distributions of 18 possums, and a combination of scanning radio-receivers and movement-activated video-cameras recorded instances when radio-collared possums encountered and stepped on the trigger of leg-hold traps (inactivated by being wired open). We estimated a 5% chance of trapping individual possums with a single leg-hold trap located in the centre of their home range for one night (median value across possums). Furthermore, this probability decreased rapidly as a function of distance, so that at 120 m from the centre of the home range there was less than a 1% chance of trapping success per possum per night. The techniques developed in this study could be applied to a wide variety of species and sampling methods. textcopyright CSIRO 2005.
BibTeX:
@article{Ball2005,
  author = {Ball, S. J. and Ramsey, D. and Nugent, G. and Warburton, B. and Efford, M.},
  title = {A method for estimating wildlife detection probabilities in relation to home-range use: insights from a field study on the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {32},
  number = {3},
  pages = {217--227},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR03125}
}
Ballance, L.T. and Pitman, R.L. Cetaceans of the western tropical Indian Ocean: distribution, relative abundance, and comparisons with cetacean communities of two other tropical ecosystems 1998 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 14, pp. 429-459 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BalPit98,
  author = {Ballance, L. T. and Pitman, R. L.},
  title = {Cetaceans of the western tropical Indian Ocean: distribution, relative abundance, and comparisons with cetacean communities of two other tropical ecosystems},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {429--459},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00736.x}
}
Balph, M.H., Stoddart, S.L. and Balph D., H. A simple technique for analyzing bird transect counts 1977 The Auk
Vol. 94, pp. 606-607 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Baletal77,
  author = {Balph, M. H. and Stoddart, S. L. and Balph D., H.},
  title = {A simple technique for analyzing bird transect counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {94},
  pages = {606--607}
}
Banks-Leite, C., Pardini, R., Boscolo, D., Cassano, C.R., Puttker, T., Barros, C.S. and Barlow, J. Assessing the utility of statistical adjustments for imperfect detection in tropical conservation science 2014 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 51, pp. 849-859 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JPE:JPE12272,
  author = {Banks-Leite, Cristina and Pardini, Renata and Boscolo, Danilo and Cassano, Camila Righetto and Puttker, Thomas and Barros, Camila Santos and Barlow, Jos},
  title = {Assessing the utility of statistical adjustments for imperfect detection in tropical conservation science},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {849--859},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12272}
}
Barabesi, L. Local likelihood density estimation in line transect sampling 2000 Environmetrics
Vol. 11(4), pp. 413-422 
article DOI  
Abstract: A novel semiparametric estimator for the probability density function of detected distances in line transect sampling is proposed. The estimator is obtained using a local likelihood density estimation approach, a technique recently proposed which affords the advantages of both parametric and nonparametric methods, i.e. accuracy and robustness. Moreover, a procedure for the selection of the local likelihood bandwidth is obtained. The performance of the proposed estimator with respect to some existing nonparametric and semiparametric estimators is assessed by means of a Monte Carlo study. Finally, a real data set is analyzed. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Barabesi2000,
  author = {Barabesi, L.},
  title = {Local likelihood density estimation in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {11},
  number = {4},
  pages = {413--422},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-095X(200007/08)11:4%3C413::AID-ENV422%3E3.0.CO;2-P}
}
Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L. Random versus stratified location of transects or points in distance sampling: theoretical results and practical considerations 2012 Environmental and Ecological Statistics
Vol. 20(2), pp. 215-236 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Barabesi2012,
  author = {Barabesi, Lucio and Fattorini, Lorenzo},
  title = {Random versus stratified location of transects or points in distance sampling: theoretical results and practical considerations},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {20},
  number = {2},
  pages = {215--236},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10651-012-0216-1}
}
Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L. The use of replicated plot, line and point sampling for estimating species abundance and ecological diversity 1998 Environmental and Ecological Statistics
Vol. 5, pp. 353-370 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BarFat98,
  author = {Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L.},
  title = {The use of replicated plot, line and point sampling for estimating species abundance and ecological diversity},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {353--370},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009655821836}
}
Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L. A note on bandwidth selections for kernel density estimators at endpoints 1994 Metron
Vol. 52, pp. 43-56 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BarFat94,
  author = {Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L.},
  title = {A note on bandwidth selections for kernel density estimators at endpoints},
  journal = {Metron},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {43--56}
}
Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L. Asymptotic properties of orthogonal series density estimators in line transect sampling with grouped data 1993 Metron
Vol. 51, pp. 59-81 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BarFat93,
  author = {Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L.},
  title = {Asymptotic properties of orthogonal series density estimators in line transect sampling with grouped data},
  journal = {Metron},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {59--81}
}
Barabesi, L., Greco, L. and Naddeo, S. Density estimation in line transect sampling with grouped data by local least squares 2002 Environmetrics
Vol. 13, pp. 167-176 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Barabesi2002,
  author = {Barabesi, Lucio and Greco, Luigi and Naddeo, Stefania},
  title = {Density estimation in line transect sampling with grouped data by local least squares},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {167--176},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/env.524}
}
Barbraud, C. and Thiebot, J.-B. On the importance of estimating detection probabilities from at-sea surveys of flying seabirds 2009 Journal of Avian Biology
Vol. 40, pp. 1-7 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Barbraud2009,
  author = {Barbraud, Christophe and Thiebot, Jean-Baptiste},
  title = {On the importance of estimating detection probabilities from at-sea surveys of flying seabirds},
  journal = {Journal of Avian Biology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {1--7},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-048X.2009.04653.x}
}
Bårdsen, B.-J. and Fox, J.L. Evaluation of line transect sampling for density estimates of chiru Pantholops hodgsoni in the Aru Basin, Tibet 2006 Wildlife Biology
Vol. 12, pp. 89-100 
article DOI  
Abstract: The chiru or Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni has dramatically decreased in number over recent decades, and efficient monitoring of the density and distribution of chiru is vital to the management of this endangered species. We evaluated line transect sampling methodology, using track and cross-county transects, and assessed its conformity to underlying assumptions for use in estimating density of chiru in the ca 2,300 km2 Aru Basin, Tibet. Although violations of some assumptions were apparent, they were generally not substantial, and simple adjustments of sampling design can reduce their effects in future surveys. Sampling effort was not sufficient to demonstrate clear seasonal differences in chiru density between summer and autumn. However, cross-country transects on the west side of the study area did show a statistically significant higher autumn than summer density, and encounter rates (the number of detections per km) were significantly higher for both transect types in autumn. We tested for an expected negative bias associated with track transects, and although a clear difference in estimated density was not found, a significantly higher encounter rate was present for cross-country than for track transects. With increased sampling effort and a more effective design in future surveys, line transect sampling will be a useful methodology for assessment of chiru populations. textcopyright Wildlife Biology (2006).
BibTeX:
@article{Bardsen2006,
  author = {Bårdsen, B.-J. and Fox, J. L.},
  title = {Evaluation of line transect sampling for density estimates of chiru Pantholops hodgsoni in the Aru Basin, Tibet},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {89--100},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2981/0909-6396(2006)12%5B89:EOLTSF%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Barlow, J. Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters estimated from a summer/fall survey in 2002 2006 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 22(2), pp. 446-464 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cetacean abundance is estimated for the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the Hawaiian Islands based on a ship line-transect survey from August to November, 2002. Sighting detection functions are estimated from this and other NOAA research surveys from 1986 to 2002 using a new, multiple-covariate approach. Twenty-four species were seen on this survey, including two species (Fraser's dolphin [Lagenodelphis hosei] and sei whale [Balaenoptera borealis]) that had not been previously documented to occur in Hawaiian waters. The most abundant large whales are sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) and Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni). The most abundant delphinids are pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis), Fraser's dolphins, spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Dwarf and pygmy sperm whales (Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) are also estimated to be quite abundant. Some of the migratory baleen whales (fin whales [Balaenoptera physalus], sei whales, minke whales [B. acutorostrata], and humpback whales [Megaptera novaeangliae]) were seen only late in the survey. Abundance is estimated for 19 cetacean species. The overall density of cetaceans is low in the study area, especially for delphinids. The precision of density and abundance estimates is generally low for all species because of the low number of sightings. textcopyright 2006 the Society for Marine Mammalogy.
BibTeX:
@article{Bar06,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters estimated from a summer/fall survey in 2002},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {22},
  number = {2},
  pages = {446--464},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2006.00032.x}
}
Barlow, J. Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters during summer/fall of 2002 2003 (LJ-03-13)School: Southwest Fisheries Science Center  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Barlow2003,
  author = {Barlow, Jay},
  title = {Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters during summer/fall of 2002},
  school = {Southwest Fisheries Science Center},
  year = {2003},
  number = {LJ-03-13}
}
Barlow, J. Trackline detection probability for long-diving whales 1999 Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods, pp. 209-221  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bar99,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Trackline detection probability for long-diving whales},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {209--221}
}
Barlow, J. Preliminary estimates of cetacean abundance off California, Oregon, and Washington based on a 1996 ship survey and comparisons of passing and closing modes 1997 (LJ-97-11)  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Bar97,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Preliminary estimates of cetacean abundance off California, Oregon, and Washington based on a 1996 ship survey and comparisons of passing and closing modes},
  year = {1997},
  number = {LJ-97-11}
}
Barlow, J. Abundance of large whales in California coastal waters: a comparison of ship surveys in 1979/80 and in 1991 1994 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 44, pp. 399-406 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Bar94,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Abundance of large whales in California coastal waters: a comparison of ship surveys in 1979/80 and in 1991},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {399--406}
}
Barlow, J. Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, abundance estimation for California, Oregon and Washington: I. ship surveys 1988 Fishery Bulletin
Vol. 86, pp. 417-431 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Bar88,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, abundance estimation for California, Oregon and Washington: I. ship surveys},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {86},
  pages = {417--431}
}
Barlow, J., Ferguson, M.C., Perrin, W.F., Ballance, L., Gerrodette, T., Joyce, G., Macleod, C.D., Mullin, K., Palka, D.L. and Waring, G. Abundance and densities of beaked and bottlenose whales (family Ziphiidae) 2006 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 7, pp. 263-270 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Barlow2006,
  author = {Barlow, Jay and Ferguson, Megan C. and Perrin, William F. and Ballance, Lisa and Gerrodette, Tim and Joyce, Gerald and Macleod, Colin D. and Mullin, Keith and Palka, Debra L. and Waring, Gordon},
  title = {Abundance and densities of beaked and bottlenose whales (family Ziphiidae)},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {263--270}
}
Barlow, J., Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J. Factors affecting perpendicular sighting distances on shipboard line-transect surveys for cetaceans 2001 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 3, pp. 201-212 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{baretal2001,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J.},
  title = {Factors affecting perpendicular sighting distances on shipboard line-transect surveys for cetaceans},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {201--212}
}
Barlow, J., Gerrodette, T. and Silber, G. First estimates of vaquita abundance 1997 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 13, pp. 44-58 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal97,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Gerrodette, T. and Silber, G.},
  title = {First estimates of vaquita abundance},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {44--58},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1997.tb00611.x}
}
Barlow, J. and Griffiths, E.T. Precision and bias in estimating detection distances for beaked whale echolocation clicks using a two-element vertical hydrophone array 2017 The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Vol. 141, pp. 4388-4397 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Barlow2017,
  author = {Barlow, Jay and Griffiths, Emily T.},
  title = {Precision and bias in estimating detection distances for beaked whale echolocation clicks using a two-element vertical hydrophone array},
  journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {141},
  pages = {4388--4397},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4985109}
}
Barlow, J., Oliver, C.W., Jackson, T.D. and Taylor, B.L. Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, abundance estimation for California, Oregon and Washington: II. aerial surveys 1988 Fishery Bulletin
Vol. 86, pp. 433-444 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal88,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Oliver, C. W. and Jackson, T. D. and Taylor, B. L.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, abundance estimation for California, Oregon and Washington: II. aerial surveys},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {86},
  pages = {433--444}
}
Barlow, J. and Taylor, B. Estimates of large whale abundance off California, Oregon, Washington, and Baja California based on 1993 and 1996 ship surveys 2001 (LJ-01-03)School: National Marine Fisheries Center  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Barlow2001,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Taylor, B.},
  title = {Estimates of large whale abundance off California, Oregon, Washington, and Baja California based on 1993 and 1996 ship surveys},
  school = {National Marine Fisheries Center},
  year = {2001},
  number = {LJ-01-03}
}
Barlow, J. and Taylor, B.L. Estimates of sperm whale abundance in the northeastern temperate Pacific from a combined acoustic and visual survey 2005 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 21(3), pp. 429-445 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Barlow2005,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Taylor, B. L.},
  title = {Estimates of sperm whale abundance in the northeastern temperate Pacific from a combined acoustic and visual survey},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {21},
  number = {3},
  pages = {429--445},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2005.tb01242.x}
}
Barnes, A., Hill, G.J.E. and Wilson, G.R. Correcting for incomplete sighting in aerial surveys of kangaroos 1986 Australian Wildlife Research
Vol. 13, pp. 339-348 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal86,
  author = {Barnes, A. and Hill, G. J. E. and Wilson, G. R.},
  title = {Correcting for incomplete sighting in aerial surveys of kangaroos},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {339--348},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9860339}
}
Barnes, R.F.W. How reliable are dung counts for estimating elephant numbers? 2001 African Journal of Ecology
Vol. 39, pp. 1-9 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bar01,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W.},
  title = {How reliable are dung counts for estimating elephant numbers?},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {1--9},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2001.00266.x}
}
Barnes, R.F.W. and Barnes, K.L. Estimating decay rates of elephant dung-piles in forest 1992 African Journal of Ecology
Vol. 30, pp. 316-321 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BarBar92,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W. and Barnes, K. L.},
  title = {Estimating decay rates of elephant dung-piles in forest},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {316--321},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1992.tb00508.x}
}
Barnes, R.F.W., Blom, A., Alers, M.P.T. and Barnes, K.L. An estimate of the numbers of forest elephants in Gabon 1995 Journal of Tropical Ecology
Vol. 11, pp. 27-37 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal95,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W. and Blom, A. and Alers, M. P. T. and Barnes, K. L.},
  title = {An estimate of the numbers of forest elephants in Gabon},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {27--37},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400008361}
}
Barnes, R.F.W. and Dunn, A. Estimating forest elephant density in Sapo National Park (liberia) with a rainfall model 2002 African Journal of Ecology
Vol. 40, pp. 159-163 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BarDun02,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W. and Dunn, A.},
  title = {Estimating forest elephant density in Sapo National Park (liberia) with a rainfall model},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {159--163},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2028.2002.00362.x}
}
Barraclough, R.K. Distance sampling: a discussion document produced for the department of conservation 2000 (175)School: Department of Conservation  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Barraclough2000,
  author = {Barraclough, R. K.},
  title = {Distance sampling: a discussion document produced for the department of conservation},
  school = {Department of Conservation},
  year = {2000},
  number = {175}
}
Barrio, I., Acevedo, P. and Tortosa, F. Assessment of methods for estimating wild rabbit population abundance in agricultural landscapes 2010 European Journal of Wildlife Research
Vol. 56(3), pp. 335-340 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10344-009-0327-7,
  author = {Barrio, Isabel and Acevedo, Pelayo and Tortosa, Francisco},
  title = {Assessment of methods for estimating wild rabbit population abundance in agricultural landscapes},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {56},
  number = {3},
  pages = {335--340},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-009-0327-7}
}
Barry, S.C. and Welsh, A.H. Distance sampling methodology 2001 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B: Statistical Methodology
Vol. 63(1), pp. 31-53 
article DOI  
Abstract: We consider the method of distance sampling described by Buckland, Anderson, Burnham and Laake in 1993. We explore the properties of the methodology in simple cases chosen to allow direct and accessible comparisons of distance sampling in the design-and model-based frameworks. In particular, we obtain expressions for the bias and variance of the distance sampling estimator of object density and for the expected value of the recommended analytic variance estimator within each framework. These results enable us to clarify aspects of the performance of the methodology which may be of interest to users and potential users of distance sampling.
BibTeX:
@article{Barry2001,
  author = {Barry, S. C. and Welsh, A. H.},
  title = {Distance sampling methodology},
  journal = {Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B: Statistical Methodology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {63},
  number = {1},
  pages = {31--53},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9868.00274}
}
Bart, J., Droege, S., Geissler, P., Peterjohn, B. and Ralph, C.J. Density estimation in wildlife surveys 2004 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 32, pp. 1242-1247 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal04,
  author = {Bart, J. and Droege, S. and Geissler, P. and Peterjohn, B. and Ralph, C. J.},
  title = {Density estimation in wildlife surveys},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {1242--1247},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/0091-7648(2004)032%5B1242:DEIWS%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Bart, J. and Herrick, J. Diurnal timing of bird surveys 1984 The Auk
Vol. 101, pp. 384-387 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BarHer84,
  author = {Bart, J. and Herrick, J.},
  title = {Diurnal timing of bird surveys},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {384--387},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/101.2.405}
}
Bart, J. and Schoultz, J.D. Reliability of singing bird surveys: changes in observer efficiency with avian density 1984 The Auk
Vol. 101, pp. 307-318 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BarSch84,
  author = {Bart, J. and Schoultz, J. D.},
  title = {Reliability of singing bird surveys: changes in observer efficiency with avian density},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {307--318},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/101.2.307}
}
Batcheler, C.L. Development of a distance method for deer census from pellet groups 1975 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 39, pp. 641-652 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bat75,
  author = {Batcheler, C. L.},
  title = {Development of a distance method for deer census from pellet groups},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {641--652},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800222}
}
Beare, D.J., Reid, D.G. and Petitgas, P. Spatio-temporal patterns in herring (Clupea harengus L.) school abundance and size in the northwest North Sea: modelling space-time dependencies to allow examination of the impact of local school abundance on school size 2002 ICES Journal of Marine Science
Vol. 59(3), pp. 469-479 
article DOI  
Abstract: As part of the EU-funded project "CLUSTER" a database was constructed of herring schools identified during a series of acoustic surveys in the northwest North Sea. Among other descriptors, the database included each schools' height, length, and acoustic backscattering energy (Sa). The number of schools per nautical mile. EDSU (Elementary Distance Sampling Unit) was also recorded. The relationships between local school count and school backscattering energy to time-of-day and location were first modelled using multiple regression techniques. The results indicate a considerable degree of non-linear dependency on both time-of-day and location. Herring-school counts per EDSU tended to be high during the middle part of the day and lower at dawn and dusk and were higher along the continental shelf edge about 130 m west of Orkney and Shetland. The regression models, by definition, also allow variability due to each explanatory variable to be assayed and divided. This feature meant that their output could be used to explore further into the relationships among the schools. In this paper the residual variability from the regression models is used to describe density-dependent relationships among herring schools, i.e. we asked "To what extent does local herring school abundance influence the size (backscattering energy) of a given school?" It is concluded that herring school size is regulated mainly by location and time-of-day and that "measured" school size is not influenced by the local "school count per EDSU". The results and their implications are discussed. textcopyright 2002 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Beare2002,
  author = {Beare, D. J. and Reid, D. G. and Petitgas, P.},
  title = {Spatio-temporal patterns in herring (Clupea harengus L.) school abundance and size in the northwest North Sea: modelling space-time dependencies to allow examination of the impact of local school abundance on school size},
  journal = {ICES Journal of Marine Science},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {59},
  number = {3},
  pages = {469--479},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.2002.1201}
}
Beasom S. L., J.C.H. and Cain, J.R. The effect of strip width on helicopter censusing of deer 1981 Journal of Range Management
Vol. 34, pp. 36-37 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Beaetal81,
  author = {Beasom, S. L., J. C. Hood and Cain, J. R.},
  title = {The effect of strip width on helicopter censusing of deer},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {36--37},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3898449}
}
Beavers, S.C. and Ramsey, F.L. Detectability analysis in transect surveys 1998 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 62, pp. 948-957 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BeaRam98,
  author = {Beavers, S. C. and Ramsey, F. L.},
  title = {Detectability analysis in transect surveys},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {948--957},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802547}
}
Becker, B.H., Beissinger, S.R. and Carter, H.R. At-sea density monitoring of marbled murrelets in central California: methodological considerations 1997 Condor, The
Vol. 99(3), pp. 743-755 
article DOI  
Abstract: We conducted at-sea line transect surveys for Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) to determine density off the coast of central California and to explore the utility of various survey protocols. Surveys were designed to compare line versus strip transect methods, and reveal the effects of distance from shore, viewing conditions and seasonal trends on density estimates. On consecutive days, we conducted 12 paired (24 total) at-sea line and strip transect surveys that were 20 km long at 400 m and 800 m from shore. We also performed nine surveys that were 10 km long and at distances of 400 m. 900 m, 1.400 m, 2,400 m, 3,400 m and 4.400 m from shore. Density estimates calculated using line transects were significantly greater than estimates based on strip transects of 100 m and 200 m widths. Marbled Murrelet density ranged from 2.4-39.4 birds km-2 at 400 m from shore, and from 0.0-16.5 birds km-2 at 800 m from shore. Density was higher on the 400 m than on the 800 m survey on 22 of 24 survey days. Densities measured on consecutive days were highly correlated on the 400 m transect but not on the 800 m transect. Line transect densities on the 400 m transect were higher when conducted under better viewing conditions. Line transects had higher statistical power to detect trends than strip transects. Statistical power analyses indicated only a 24% chance of detecting a population declining by 5% per year over 5 years when surveying line transects 20 km in length five times a year. Power to detect a 5% annual change increased to 57% when surveying line transects five times per year over 10 years. Survey design should strive to minimize variability in bird density in order to maximize likelihood of detecting population trends. An increase in the number of surveys per breeding season, length of a transect, or duration of monitoring effort should increase power to detect trends in murrelet density. We suggest that at-sea surveys should focus on detecting trends in density rather than population size.
BibTeX:
@article{Becker1997,
  author = {Becker, B. H. and Beissinger, S. R. and Carter, H. R.},
  title = {At-sea density monitoring of marbled murrelets in central California: methodological considerations},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {99},
  number = {3},
  pages = {743--755},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1370485}
}
Becker, E.A., Forney, K.A., Redfern, J.V., Barlow, J., Jacox, M.G., Roberts, J.J. and Palacios, D.M. Predicting cetacean abundance and distribution in a changing climate 2018 Diversity and Distributions
Vol. 25(4), pp. 626-643 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Becker2018,
  author = {Becker, Elizabeth A. and Forney, Karin A. and Redfern, Jessica V. and Barlow, Jay and Jacox, Michael G. and Roberts, Jason J. and Palacios, Daniel M.},
  title = {Predicting cetacean abundance and distribution in a changing climate},
  journal = {Diversity and Distributions},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {25},
  number = {4},
  pages = {626--643},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12867}
}
Becker, E. and Christ, A. Rejection of Schmidt et al.'s Estimators for Bear Population Size 2019 Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 9(10), pp. 6157-6164 
article DOI  
Abstract: Aerial distance sampling of bears to estimate population size has been used throughout many parts of Alaska. The distance sampling models are complex since they need to account for undetected bears and differences in detection probabilities. This will require covariates and mark-recapture data. The models proposed by Schmidt et al. do not use covariates or mark-recapture data and are inappropriate for these surveys.
BibTeX:
@article{Becker2019,
  author = {Becker, Earl and Christ, Aaron},
  title = {Rejection of Schmidt et al.'s Estimators for Bear Population Size},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {9},
  number = {10},
  pages = {6157--6164},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5134}
}
Becker, E.F. and Crowley, D.W. Estimating Brown Bear Abundance and Harvest Rate on the Southern Alaska Peninsula 2021 PLOS ONE
Vol. 16(1), pp. e0245367 
article DOI  
Abstract: Abundance estimation of hunted brown bear populations should occur on the same geographic scale as harvest data analyses for estimation of harvest rate. Estimated harvest rates are an important statistic for managing hunted bear populations. In Alaska, harvest data is collected over large geographic units, called Game Management Units (GMUs) and sub-GMUs. These sub GMUs often exceed 10,000 km2. In the spring of 2002, we conducted an aerial survey of GMU 9D (12,600 km2) and GMU 10 (4,070 km2) using distance sampling with mark-resight data. We used a mark-resight distance sampling method with a two-piece normal detection function to estimate brown bear abundance as 1,682.9 (SE = 174.29) and 316.9 (SE = 48.25) for GMU 9D and GMU 10, respectively. We used reported hunter harvest to estimate harvest rates of 4.35% (SE = 0.45%) and 3.06% (SE = 0.47%) for GMU 9D and GMU 10, respectively. Management objective for these units support sustained, high quality hunting opportunity which harvest data indicate are met with an annual harvest rate of approximately 5– 6% or less.
BibTeX:
@article{Becker2021,
  author = {Becker, Earl F. and Crowley, David W.},
  title = {Estimating Brown Bear Abundance and Harvest Rate on the Southern Alaska Peninsula},
  journal = {PLOS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2021},
  volume = {16},
  number = {1},
  pages = {e0245367},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245367}
}
Becker, E.F. and Quang, P.X. A gamma-shaped detection function for line-transect surveys with mark-recapture and covariate data 2009 Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics
Vol. 14, pp. 207-223 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Becker,
  author = {Becker, E. F. and Quang, P. X.},
  title = {A gamma-shaped detection function for line-transect surveys with mark-recapture and covariate data},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {207--223},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1198/jabes.2009.0013}
}
Bedriñana-Romano, L., Hucke-Gaete, R., Viddi, F.A., Morales, J., Williams, R., Ashe, E., Garcés-Vargas, J., Torres-Florez, J.P. and Ruiz, J. Integrating multiple data sources for assessing blue whale abundance and distribution in Chilean northern Patagonia 2018 Diversity and Distributions
Vol. 24(7), pp. 991-1004 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bedrinana-Romano2018,
  author = {Bedriñana-Romano, Luis and Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo and Viddi, Francisco Alejandro and Morales, Juan and Williams, Rob and Ashe, Erin and Garcés-Vargas, José and Torres-Florez, Juan Pablo and Ruiz, Jorge},
  title = {Integrating multiple data sources for assessing blue whale abundance and distribution in Chilean northern Patagonia},
  journal = {Diversity and Distributions},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {24},
  number = {7},
  pages = {991--1004},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12739}
}
Bedson, C.P.E., Thomas, L., Wheeler, P.M., Reid, N., Harris, W.E., Lloyd, H., Mallon, D. and Preziosi, R. Estimating Density of Mountain Hares Using Distance Sampling: A Comparison of Daylight Visual Surveys, Night-Time Thermal Imaging and Camera Traps 2021 Wildlife Biology
Vol. 2021(3), pp. wlb.00802 
article DOI  
Abstract: Surveying cryptic, nocturnal animals is logistically challenging. Consequently, density estimates may be imprecise and uncertain. Survey innovations mitigate ecological and observational difficulties contributing to estimation variance. Thus, comparisons of survey techniques are critical to evaluate estimates of abundance. We simultaneously compared three methods for observing mountain hare Lepus timidus using Distance sampling to estimate abundance. Daylight visual surveys achieved 41 detections, estimating density at 14.3 hares km– 2 (95%CI 6.3– 32.5) resulting in the lowest estimate and widest confidence interval. Night-time thermal imaging achieved 206 detections, estimating density at 12.1 hares km– 2 (95%CI 7.6– 19.4). Thermal imaging captured more observations at furthest distances, and detected larger group sizes. Camera traps achieved 3705 night-time detections, estimating density at 22.6 hares km– 2 (95%CI 17.1– 29.9). Between the methods, detections were spatially correlated, although the estimates of density varied. Our results suggest that daylight visual surveys tended to underestimate density, failing to reflect nocturnal activity. Thermal imaging captured nocturnal activity, providing a higher detection rate, but required fine weather. Camera traps captured nocturnal activity, and operated 24/7 throughout harsh weather, but needed careful consideration of empirical assumptions. We discuss the merits and limitations of each method with respect to the estimation of population density in the field.
BibTeX:
@article{Bedson2021,
  author = {Bedson, Carlos P. E. and Thomas, Lowri and Wheeler, Philip M. and Reid, Neil and Harris, W. Edwin and Lloyd, Huw and Mallon, David and Preziosi, Richard},
  title = {Estimating Density of Mountain Hares Using Distance Sampling: A Comparison of Daylight Visual Surveys, Night-Time Thermal Imaging and Camera Traps},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology},
  publisher = {Nordic Board for Wildlife Research},
  year = {2021},
  volume = {2021},
  number = {3},
  pages = {wlb.00802},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2981/wlb.00802}
}
Bell, H.L. and Ferrier, S. The reliability of estimates of density from transect counts 1985 Corella
Vol. 9, pp. 3-13 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BelFer85,
  author = {Bell, H. L. and Ferrier, S.},
  title = {The reliability of estimates of density from transect counts},
  journal = {Corella},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {3--13}
}
Bellan, S.E., Gimenez, O., Choquet, R. and Getz, W.M. A hierarchical distance sampling approach to estimating mortality rates from opportunistic carcass surveillance data 2013 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 4(4), pp. 361-369 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bellan2013,
  author = {Bellan, Steve E. and Gimenez, Olivier and Choquet, Rémi and Getz, Wayne M.},
  title = {A hierarchical distance sampling approach to estimating mortality rates from opportunistic carcass surveillance data},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {361--369},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12021}
}
Bellout, S., Baamrane, M.A.A., Aamiri, A. and Aourir, M. Changes in the Population Size of Yellow-legged Gull Larus Michahellis at Essaouira and Mogador Island, West-Central Morocco 2021 Marine Ornithology
Vol. 49, pp. 101-107 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Bellout2021,
  author = {Bellout, Siham and Baamrane, Moulay Abdeljalil Ait and Aamiri, Ahmed and Aourir, Mohamed},
  title = {Changes in the Population Size of Yellow-legged Gull Larus Michahellis at Essaouira and Mogador Island, West-Central Morocco},
  journal = {Marine Ornithology},
  year = {2021},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {101--107}
}
Bengtson, J.L., Blix, A.S., Boyd, I.L., Cameron, M.F., Hanson, M.B. and Laake, J.L. Antarctic pack-ice seal research, February and March 1995 1995 Antarctic Journal
Vol. 30, pp. 191-193 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Benetal95,
  author = {Bengtson, J. L. and Blix, A. S. and Boyd, I. L. and Cameron, M. F. and Hanson, M. B. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Antarctic pack-ice seal research, February and March 1995},
  journal = {Antarctic Journal},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {191--193}
}
Bergstedt, R.A. and Anderson, D.R. Evaluation of line transect sampling based on remotely sensed data from underwater video 1990 Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
Vol. 119, pp. 86-91 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ber90,
  author = {Bergstedt, R. A. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Evaluation of line transect sampling based on remotely sensed data from underwater video},
  journal = {Transactions of the American Fisheries Society},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {86--91},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1990)119%3C0086:EOLTSB%3E2.3.CO;2}
}
Berrow, S., O'brien, J., O'Connor, I. and Mcgrath, D. Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the Blasket Islands candidate special area of conservation 2009 Biology & Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy
Vol. 109, pp. 35-46 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Berrow2009,
  author = {Berrow, Simon and O'brien, Joanne and O'Connor, Ian and Mcgrath, David},
  title = {Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the Blasket Islands candidate special area of conservation},
  journal = {Biology & Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy},
  publisher = {National Parks and Wildlife Service},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {109},
  pages = {35--46},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3318/BIOE.2009.109.1.35}
}
Berrow, S., O'brien, J., O'Connor, I. and Mcgrath, D. Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the Blasket Islands candidate special area of conservation 2007 School: National Parks and Wildlife Service  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Berrow2007,
  author = {Berrow, Simon and O'brien, Joanne and O'Connor, Ian and Mcgrath, David},
  title = {Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the Blasket Islands candidate special area of conservation},
  school = {National Parks and Wildlife Service},
  year = {2007}
}
Bessesen, B.L., Oedekoven, C.S., Galbreath, G.J. and González-Suárez, M. Population Abundance and Density Estimates for Costa Rica's Endemic Sea Snake, Hydrophis Platurus Xanthos 2022 Frontiers in Marine Science
Vol. 9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Population abundance and density estimates provide key information for conservation assessment and prioritization of efforts and management. However, data are still largely unavailable for many taxa, including sea snakes, which appear to be facing global declines. Here, we present the first quantitative abundance and density estimates for the geographically isolated sea snake Hydrophis platurus xanthos endemic to the inner basin of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Using systematic distance sampling methods, we obtained and analyzed 199 snake detections from 46 transect lines covering the entire known distribution (totaling nine days and 469 km of effort). Our modeling methods accounted for (i) the probability of detecting a snake given it was available to be detected (ii) the average availability of snakes at the water surface during a 24-hr cycle, and (iii) the by-hour variance in the taxon's activity pattern. The best estimate of population abundance was 29781 individuals (95% CI=20104– 44115) with an estimated density of 76 snakes/km2. Without historical abundance estimates or minimum viable population size, it is unknown whether this number represents a healthy population. However, with all individuals inhabiting a relatively small inlet increasingly exposed to anthropogenic impacts, the long-term persistence of H. p. xanthos may be threatened by ongoing impacts (boat propeller strikes, agricultural runoff, and climate change), as well as unforeseen events in the future.
BibTeX:
@article{Bessesen2022,
  author = {Bessesen, Brooke L. and Oedekoven, Cornelia S. and Galbreath, Gary J. and González-Suárez, Manuela},
  title = {Population Abundance and Density Estimates for Costa Rica's Endemic Sea Snake, Hydrophis Platurus Xanthos},
  journal = {Frontiers in Marine Science},
  year = {2022},
  volume = {9},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.924966}
}
Bessone, M., Kühl, H.S., Hohmann, G., Herbinger, I., N'Goran, K.P., Asanzi, P., Costa, P.B.D., Dérozier, V., Fotsing, E.D.B., Beka, B.I., Iyomi, M.D., Iyatshi, I.B., Kafando, P., Kambere, M.A., Moundzoho, D.B., Wanzalire, M.L.K. and Fruth, B. Drawn out of the shadows: Surveying secretive forest species with camera trap distance sampling 2020 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 57(5), pp. 963-974 
article DOI  
Abstract: With animal species disappearing at unprecedented rates, we need an efficient monitoring method providing reliable estimates of population density and abundance, critical for the assessment of population status and trend. We deployed 160 camera traps (CTs) systematically over 743 locations covering 17,127 km2 of evergreen lowland rainforest of Salonga National Park, block South, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We evaluated the applicability of CT distance sampling (CTDS) to species different in size and behaviour. To improve precision of estimates, we evaluated two methods estimating species' availability (`A') for detection by CTs. We recorded 16,700 video clips, revealing 43 different animal taxa. We estimated densities of 14 species differing in physical, behavioural and ecological traits, and extracted species-specific availability from available video footage using two methods (a) `ACa' (Cappelle et al. [2019] Am. J. Primatol., 81, e22962) and (b) `ARo' (Rowcliffe et al. [2014] Methods Ecol. Evol. 5, 1170). With sample sizes being large enough, we found minor differences between ACa and ARo in estimated densities. In contrast, low detectability and reactivity to the camera were main sources of bias. CTDS proved efficient for estimating density of homogenously rather than patchily distributed species. Synthesis and applications. Our application of camera trap distance sampling (CTDS) to a diverse vertebrate community demonstrates the enormous potential of this methodology for surveys of terrestrial wildlife, allowing rapid assessments of species' status and trends that can translate into effective conservation strategies. By providing the first estimates of understudied species such as the Congo peafowl, the giant ground pangolin and the cusimanses, CTDS may be used as a tool to revise these species' conservation status in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Based on the constraints we encountered, we identify improvements to the current application, enhancing the general applicability of this method.
BibTeX:
@article{bessone_drawn_2020,
  author = {Bessone, Mattia and Kühl, Hjalmar S. and Hohmann, Gottfried and Herbinger, Ilka and N'Goran, Kouame Paul and Asanzi, Papy and Costa, Pedro B. Da and Dérozier, Violette and Fotsing, Ernest D. B. and Beka, Bernard Ikembelo and Iyomi, Mpongo D. and Iyatshi, Iyomi B. and Kafando, Pierre and Kambere, Mbangi A. and Moundzoho, Dissondet B. and Wanzalire, Musubaho L. K. and Fruth, Barbara},
  title = {Drawn out of the shadows: Surveying secretive forest species with camera trap distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {57},
  number = {5},
  pages = {963--974},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13602}
}
Bessone, M., Kühl, H.S., Hohmann, G., Herbinger, I., N'Goran, K.P., Asanzi, P., Da Costa, P.B., Dérozier, V., Fotsing, D.B.E., Ikembelo, B.B., Iyomi, D.M., Iyatshi, B.I., Kafando, P., Kambere, A.M., Moundzoho, B.D., Musubaho, L.K. and Fruth, B. Assessing the Effects of Survey-Inherent Disturbance on Primate Detectability: Recommendations for Line Transect Distance Sampling 2022 Primates  article DOI  
Abstract: Habitat destruction and over-hunting are increasingly threatening the arboreal primates of Central Africa. To establish effective conservation strategies, accurate assessments of primate density, abundance, and spatial distribution are required. To date, the method of choice for primate density estimation is line transect distance sampling. However, primates fleeing human observers violate methodological assumptions, biasing the accuracy of resulting estimates. In this study, we used line transect distance sampling to study five primate species along 378 km of transects in Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We tested the effect of different levels of survey-inherent disturbance (i.e., cutting) on the number of observed (i) primate groups, and (ii) individuals within groups, by counting groups at three different time lags after disturbance of the transect, (i) a minimum of 3 h, (ii) 24 h, (iii) a minimum of 3 days. We found that survey-inherent disturbance led to underestimated densities, affecting both the number of encountered groups and of observed individuals. However, the response varied between species due to species-specific ecological and behavioral features. Piliocolobus tholloni and Colobus angolenis resumed an unaltered behavior only 24 h after disturbance, while Lophocebus aterrimus, Cercopithecus ascanius, and Cercopithecus wolfi required a minimum of 10 days. To minimize bias in density estimates, future surveys using line transect distance sampling should be designed considering survey-inherent disturbance. We recommend evaluating the factors driving primate response, including habitat type, niche occupation, and hunting pressure, peculiar to the survey-specific area and primate community under study.
BibTeX:
@article{Bessone2022,
  author = {Bessone, Mattia and Kühl, Hjalmar S. and Hohmann, Gottfried and Herbinger, Ilka and N'Goran, K. Paul and Asanzi, Papy and Da Costa, Pedro B. and Dérozier, Violette and Fotsing, D. B. Ernest and Ikembelo, B. Beka and Iyomi, D. Mpongo and Iyatshi, B. Iyomi and Kafando, Pierre and Kambere, A. Mbangi and Moundzoho, B. Dissondet and Musubaho, L. Kako and Fruth, Barbara},
  title = {Assessing the Effects of Survey-Inherent Disturbance on Primate Detectability: Recommendations for Line Transect Distance Sampling},
  journal = {Primates},
  year = {2022},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-022-01039-4}
}
Best, L.B. Seasonal changes in detection of individual bird species 1981 Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, Studies in Avian Biology No. 6, pp. 252-261  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bes81,
  author = {Best, L. B.},
  title = {Seasonal changes in detection of individual bird species},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, Studies in Avian Biology No. 6},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {252--261}
}
Best, P.B. and Butterworth, D.S. Report of the Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1978/79 1980 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 30, pp. 257-283 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BesBut80,
  author = {Best, P. B. and Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {Report of the Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1978/79},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {257--283}
}
Bibby, C., Jones, M. and Marsden, S. Expedition field techniques - bird surveys 1998   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Bibby1998,
  author = {Bibby, Colin and Jones, Martin and Marsden, Stuart},
  title = {Expedition field techniques - bird surveys},
  publisher = {Expedition Advisory Centre, Royal Geographical Society},
  year = {1998}
}
Bibby, C.J. and Buckland, S.T. Bias of bird census results due to detectability varying with habitat 1987 Acta Ecologica
Vol. 8, pp. 103-112 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Bibbuc87,
  author = {Bibby, C. J. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Bias of bird census results due to detectability varying with habitat},
  journal = {Acta Ecologica},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {103--112}
}
Bibby, C.J., Phillips, B.N. and Seddon, A.J.E. Birds of restocked conifer plantations in Wales 1985 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 22, pp. 619-633 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bibetal85,
  author = {Bibby, C. J. and Phillips, B. N. and Seddon, A. J. E.},
  title = {Birds of restocked conifer plantations in Wales},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {619--633},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2403216}
}
Bicknell, J. and Peres, C.A. Vertebrate population responses to reduced-impact logging in a neotropical forest 2010 Forest Ecology and Management
Vol. 259(12), pp. 2267-2275 
article DOI  
Abstract: Vertebrate population densities were quantified in lowland central Guyana using line-transect censuses at three forest sites subjected to reduced-impact logging (RIL), and three adjacent unlogged sites. We censused a range of forest vertebrate species including large canopy-dwelling and terrestrial birds, three primates, one rodent and one tortoise. Two 4 km transects at each site were repeatedly surveyed during the wet season of 2008 to derive population density estimates on the basis of a cumulative survey effort of 416 km. RIL had ended within 16 months, and sites had been subjected to a mean extraction rate of 3.9 m3 ha-1, equivalent to only 1.1 trees ha-1. Three of the 15 vertebrate species examined here exhibited significantly different abundances at forest RIL sites, two of which were negative. Large frugivores such as primates were less abundant in sites subject to RIL, whereas smaller frugivores, granivores, folivores and insectivores were more common in logged sites. We are unable to reliably distinguish between responses of different taxonomic groups, since robust abundance metrics could only be estimated for four mammal species. Despite this, species traits including dietary guild, body mass, home range size and vertical stratification of forest use are used to explain varying responses. Our findings suggest that responsible reduced-impact logging practices in neotropical forests can be considered as a relatively benign form of forest management that can coexist with the requirements of both local economies and biodiversity conservation. However, our study sites experienced comparably low extraction rates, and detrimental effects such as hunting were low. Our results therefore provide an opportunity to scrutinise the effects of best practice logging systems, though do not necessarily represent typical circumstances across tropical forests.
BibTeX:
@article{Bicknell2010,
  author = {Jake Bicknell and Carlos A. Peres},
  title = {Vertebrate population responses to reduced-impact logging in a neotropical forest},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {259},
  number = {12},
  pages = {2267--2275},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.02.027}
}
Bilgmann, K., Parra, G.J., Holmes, L., Peters, K.J., Jonsen, I.D. and Möller, L.M. Abundance estimates and habitat preferences of bottlenose dolphins reveal the importance of two gulfs in South Australia 2019 Scientific Reports
Vol. 9(1), pp. 8044 
article DOI  
Abstract: Informed conservation management of marine mammals requires an understanding of population size and habitat preferences. In Australia, such data are needed for the assessment and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries interactions, coastal zone developments, oil and gas exploration and mining activities. Here, we present large-scale estimates of abundance, density and habitat preferences of southern Australian bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) over an area of 42,438km2 within two gulfs of South Australia. Using double-observer platform aerial surveys over four strata and mark-recapture distance sampling analyses, we estimated 3,493 (CV,=,0.21; 95%CI,=,2,327-5,244) dolphins in summer/autumn, and 3,213 (CV,=,0.20; 95%CI,=,2,151-4,801) in winter/spring of 2011. Bottlenose dolphin abundance and density was higher in gulf waters across both seasons (0.09-0.24 dolphins/km2) compared to adjacent shelf waters (0.004– 0.04 dolphins/km2). The high densities of bottlenose dolphins in the two gulfs highlight the importance of these gulfs as a habitat for the species. Habitat modelling associated bottlenose dolphins with shallow waters, flat seafloor topography, and higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in summer/autumn and lower SSTs in winter/spring. Spatial predictions showed high dolphin densities in northern and coastal gulf sections. Distributional data should inform management strategies, marine park planning and environmental assessments of potential anthropogenic threats to this protected species.
BibTeX:
@article{bilgmann_abundance_2019,
  author = {Bilgmann, Kerstin and Parra, Guido J. and Holmes, Lauren and Peters, Katharina J. and Jonsen, Ian D. and Möller, Luciana M.},
  title = {Abundance estimates and habitat preferences of bottlenose dolphins reveal the importance of two gulfs in South Australia},
  journal = {Scientific Reports},
  publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {9},
  number = {1},
  pages = {8044},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44310-3}
}
Bilgmann, K., Parra, G.J. and Möller, L.M. Occurrence, distribution and abundance of cetaceans off the Western Eyre Peninsula in the Great Australian Bight 2018 Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography
Vol. 157-158, pp. 134-145 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bilgmann2017,
  author = {Bilgmann, Kerstin and Parra, Guido J. and Möller, Luciana M.},
  title = {Occurrence, distribution and abundance of cetaceans off the Western Eyre Peninsula in the Great Australian Bight},
  journal = {Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {157-158},
  pages = {134--145},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2017.11.006}
}
Bispo, R. Estimating wildlife mortality at wind farms: accounting for carcass removal, imperfect detection and partial coverage 2012 School: Faculdade de Ciências. Departamento de Estatística e Investigação Operacional  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Bispo2012,
  author = {Bispo, R.},
  title = {Estimating wildlife mortality at wind farms: accounting for carcass removal, imperfect detection and partial coverage},
  school = {Faculdade de Ciências. Departamento de Estatística e Investigação Operacional},
  year = {2012}
}
Biswas, S. and Sankar, K. Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India 2002 Journal of Zoology
Vol. 256, pp. 411-420 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Biswas2002,
  author = {Biswas, S. and Sankar, K.},
  title = {Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {256},
  pages = {411--420},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836902000456}
}
Blake, J.G., Hanowski, J.M., Niemi, G.J. and Collins, P.T. Annual variation in bird populations of mixed-conifer northern hardwood forests 1994 Condor, The
Vol. 96, pp. 381-399 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Blaetal94,
  author = {Blake, J. G. and Hanowski, J. M. and Niemi, G. J. and Collins, P. T.},
  title = {Annual variation in bird populations of mixed-conifer northern hardwood forests},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {96},
  pages = {381--399},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1369322}
}
Blake, J.G., Hanowski, J.M., Niemi, G.J. and Collins, P.T. Hourly variation in transect counts of birds 1991 Ornis Fennica
Vol. 68, pp. 139-147 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Blaetal91,
  author = {Blake, J. G. and Hanowski, J. M. and Niemi, G. J. and Collins, P. T.},
  title = {Hourly variation in transect counts of birds},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {68},
  pages = {139--147}
}
Blaylock, R.A. Distribution and abundance of the Cownose Ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, in Lower Chesapeake Bay 1993 Estuaries
Vol. 16, pp. 255-263 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Blaylock1993,
  author = {Blaylock, Robert A.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of the Cownose Ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, in Lower Chesapeake Bay},
  journal = {Estuaries},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {255--263},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1352498}
}
Blom, A., Almaši, A., Heitkönig, I.M.A., Kpanou, J.-B. and Prins, H.H.T. A survey of the apes in the dzanga-ndoki national park, central african republic: a comparison between the census and survey methods of estimating the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nest group density 2001 African Journal of Ecology
Vol. 39(1), pp. 98-105 
article DOI  
Abstract: A survey of apes was carried out between October 1996 and May 1997 in the Dzanga sector of the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic (CAR), to estimate gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) densities. The density estimates were based on nest counts. The strip transect census and the line transect survey method (Standing Crop Nest Count) were used to estimate the gorilla nest group density. The strip transect has been most commonly used to date. It assumes that all nest groups within the width of the strip are detected, but as this assumption is easily violated in the dense tropical rain forest, the line transect survey was also used. In this method, only the nest groups on the transect line itself should be detected. This method proved to be an adequate and easy technique for estimating animal densities in dense vegetation. The gorilla density of 1.6 individuals km-2 (line transect survey method) found for the Dzanga sector is one of the highest densities ever reported in the literature for the Western lowland gorilla. The density estimate for chimpanzees was 0.16 individuals km-2 (census method). The results of this study confirm the importance of the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park for primate conservation.
BibTeX:
@article{Blom2001,
  author = {Blom, A. and Almaši, A. and Heitkönig, I. M. A. and Kpanou, J.-B. and Prins, H. H. T.},
  title = {A survey of the apes in the dzanga-ndoki national park, central african republic: a comparison between the census and survey methods of estimating the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nest group density},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {39},
  number = {1},
  pages = {98--105},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0141-6707.2000.00280.x}
}
Boano, G. and Toffoli, R. A line transect survey of wintering raptors in the western Po plain of northern Italy 2002 Journal Of Raptor Research
Vol. 36, pp. 128-135 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Boano2002,
  author = {Boano, G. and Toffoli, R.},
  title = {A line transect survey of wintering raptors in the western Po plain of northern Italy},
  journal = {Journal Of Raptor Research},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {128--135}
}
Bodkin, J.L. and Udevitz, M.S. An aerial survey method to estimate sea otter abundance 1999 Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods, pp. 115-126  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{BodUde99,
  author = {Bodkin, J. L. and Udevitz, M. S.},
  title = {An aerial survey method to estimate sea otter abundance},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {115--126}
}
de Boer, M.N. Spring distribution and density of minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata along an offshore bank in the central North Sea. 2010 Marine Ecology Progress Series
Vol. 408, pp. 265-274 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Boer2010,
  author = {de Boer, M. N.},
  title = {Spring distribution and density of minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata along an offshore bank in the central North Sea.},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {408},
  pages = {265--274},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08598}
}
Bolduc, F., Roy, C. and Rousseu, F. R2MCDS: An R package for the analysis of multi-species datasets collected using distance sampling 2018 Ecological Informatics
Vol. 47, pp. 23-25 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bolduc2017,
  author = {Bolduc, François and Roy, Christian and Rousseu, François},
  title = {R2MCDS: An R package for the analysis of multi-species datasets collected using distance sampling},
  journal = {Ecological Informatics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {47},
  pages = {23--25},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2017.10.003}
}
Bollinger, E.K., Gavin, T.A. and McIntyre, D.C. Comparison of transects and circular-plots for estimating bobolink densities 1988 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 52, pp. 777-786 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Boletal88,
  author = {Bollinger, E. K. and Gavin, T. A. and McIntyre, D. C.},
  title = {Comparison of transects and circular-plots for estimating bobolink densities},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {777--786},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800946}
}
Bonnell, M.L. and Ford, R.G. California sea lion distribution: a statistical analysis of aerial transect data 1987 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 51, pp. 13-20 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BonFor87,
  author = {Bonnell, M. L. and Ford, R. G.},
  title = {California sea lion distribution: a statistical analysis of aerial transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {13--20},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801621}
}
Booth, C. Variation in habitat preference and distribution of harbour porpoises west of Scotland 2010 School: University of St Andrews  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Booth2010,
  author = {Booth, C.},
  title = {Variation in habitat preference and distribution of harbour porpoises west of Scotland},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2010}
}
Booth, C.G., Embling, C., Gordon, J., Calderan, S.V. and Hammond, P.S. Habitat preferences and distribution of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena west of Scotland 2013 Marine Ecology Progress Series
Vol. 478, pp. 273-285 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Booth2013,
  author = {Booth, C. G. and Embling, C. and Gordon, J. and Calderan, S. V. and Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {Habitat preferences and distribution of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena west of Scotland},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {478},
  pages = {273--285},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10239}
}
Borchers, D.L. Composite mark-recapture line transect surveys 1999 Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods, pp. 115-126  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bor99,
  author = {Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Composite mark-recapture line transect surveys},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {115--126}
}
Borchers, D.L. Line transect estimation with uncertain detection on the trackline 1996 School: University of Cape Town  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Borchers96,
  author = {Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Line transect estimation with uncertain detection on the trackline},
  school = {University of Cape Town},
  year = {1996}
}
Borchers, D.L. Methods of estimating mean school size from IWC sightings survey data 1994 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 44, pp. 429-437 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Bor94,
  author = {Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Methods of estimating mean school size from IWC sightings survey data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {429--437}
}
Borchers, D.L., Buckland, S.T., Goedhart, P.W., Clarke, E.D. and Hedley, S.L. Horvitz-Thompson estimators for double-platform line transect surveys 1998 Biometrics
Vol. 54, pp. 1221-1237 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BOR98,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Goedhart, P. W. and Clarke, E. D. and Hedley, S. L.},
  title = {Horvitz-Thompson estimators for double-platform line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {1221--1237},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533652}
}
Borchers, D.L., Buckland, S.T. and Zucchini, W. Estimating animal abundance 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{BOR02,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Zucchini, W.},
  title = {Estimating animal abundance},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2002}
}
Borchers, D.L. and Burnham, K.P. General formulation for distance sampling 2004 Advanced Distance Sampling, pp. 6-30  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Burnham2004a,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {General formulation for distance sampling},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {6--30}
}
Borchers, D.L. and Burt, M.L. Generalized regression methods for estimating school size from line transect data 2002 (Paper SC/54/IA23)School: Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{BorBur02,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Burt, M. L.},
  title = {Generalized regression methods for estimating school size from line transect data},
  school = {Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {2002},
  number = {Paper SC/54/IA23}
}
Borchers, D.L., Laake, J.L., Southwell, C. and Paxton, C.G.M. Accommodating unmodeled heterogeneity in double-observer distance sampling surveys 2006 Biometrics
Vol. 62, pp. 372-378 
article DOI  
Abstract: Mark-recapture models applied to double-observer distance sampling data neglect the information on relative detectability of objects contained in the distribution of observed distances. A difference between the observed distribution and that predicted by the mark-recapture model is symptomatic of a failure of the assumption of zero correlation between detection probabilities implicit in the mark-recapture model. We develop a mark-recapture-based model that uses the observed distribution to relax this assumption to zero correlation at only one distance. We demonstrate its usefulness in coping with unmodeled heterogeneity using data from an aerial survey of crabeater seals in the Antarctic.
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2006,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Laake, J. L. and Southwell, C. and Paxton, C. G. M.},
  title = {Accommodating unmodeled heterogeneity in double-observer distance sampling surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {372--378},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2005.00493.x}
}
Borchers, D.L. and Marques, T.A. From distance sampling to spatial capture– recapture 2017 Advances in Statistical Analysis
Vol. 101, pp. 475-494 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2017,
  author = {Borchers, David L. and Marques, Tiago A.},
  title = {From distance sampling to spatial capture– recapture},
  journal = {Advances in Statistical Analysis},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {475--494},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10182-016-0287-7}
}
Borchers, D.L., Marques, T.A., Gunnlaugsson, T. and Jupp, P.E. Estimating distance sampling detection functions when distances are measured with errors 2010 Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics
Vol. 15, pp. 346-361 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2010,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Marques, T. A. and Gunnlaugsson, Th. and Jupp, P. E.},
  title = {Estimating distance sampling detection functions when distances are measured with errors},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {346--361},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s13253-010-0021-y}
}
Borchers, D.L., Pike, D., Gunnlaugsson, T. and Vikingsson, G.A. Minke whale abundance estimation from the NASS 1987 and 2001 aerial cue– counting surveys taking appropriate account of distance estimation errors 2009 NAMMCO Scientific Publications
Vol. 7, pp. 95-110 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BorSub1,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Pike, D. and Gunnlaugsson, T. and Vikingsson, G. A.},
  title = {Minke whale abundance estimation from the NASS 1987 and 2001 aerial cue– counting surveys taking appropriate account of distance estimation errors},
  journal = {NAMMCO Scientific Publications},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {95--110},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.2708}
}
Borchers, D.L., Stevenson, B.C., Kidney, D., Thomas, L. and Marques, T.A. A unifying model for capture-recapture and distance sampling 2015 Journal of the American Statistical Association
Vol. 201, pp. 195-204 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2014,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Stevenson, B. C. and Kidney, D. and Thomas, L. and Marques, T. A.},
  title = {A unifying model for capture-recapture and distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {201},
  pages = {195--204},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.2014.893884}
}
Borchers, D.L., Zucchini, W. and Fewster, R. Mark-recapture models for line transect surveys 1998 Biometrics
Vol. 54, pp. 1207-1220 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BOR98b,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Zucchini, W. and Fewster, R.},
  title = {Mark-recapture models for line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {1207--1220},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533651}
}
Borchers, D.L., Zucchini, W., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Cañadas, A. and Langrock, R. Using hidden Markov models to deal with availability bias on line transect surveys 2013 Biometrics
Vol. 69, pp. 703-713 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2013,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Zucchini, W. and Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Cañadas, A. and Langrock, R.},
  title = {Using hidden Markov models to deal with availability bias on line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {69},
  pages = {703--713},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/biom.12049}
}
Borgoni, R. and Quatto, P. Uniformly most powerful unbiased test for shoulder condition in point transect sampling 2012 Statistical Papers
Vol. 53(4), pp. 1035-1044 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borgoni2012,
  author = {Borgoni, Riccardo and Quatto, Piero},
  title = {Uniformly most powerful unbiased test for shoulder condition in point transect sampling},
  journal = {Statistical Papers},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {53},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1035--1044},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00362-011-0406-1}
}
Borkin, K.M., Summers, R.W. and Thomas, L. Surveying abundance and stand type associations of Formica aquilonia and F. lugubris (hymenoptera: Formicidae) nest mounds over an extensive area: trialing a novel method 2012 European Journal of Entomology
Vol. 109, pp. 47-53 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borkin2012,
  author = {Borkin, Kerry M. and Summers, Ron W. and Thomas, Len},
  title = {Surveying abundance and stand type associations of Formica aquilonia and F. lugubris (hymenoptera: Formicidae) nest mounds over an extensive area: trialing a novel method},
  journal = {European Journal of Entomology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {109},
  pages = {47--53},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2012.007}
}
Borralho, R., Rego, F. and Pinto, P.V. Is driven transect sampling suitable for estimating red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa densities? 1996 Wildlife Biology
Vol. 2, pp. 259-268 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BOR96,
  author = {Borralho, R. and Rego, F. and Pinto, P. V.},
  title = {Is driven transect sampling suitable for estimating red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa densities?},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {259--268},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2981/wlb.1996.029}
}
Bortolotto, G.A., Danilewicz, D., Andriolo, A., Secchi, E.R. and Zerbini, A.N. Whale, whale, everywhere: Increasing abundance of western South Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in their wintering grounds 2016 PLoS ONE
Vol. 11, pp. e0164596 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bortolotto2016a,
  author = {Bortolotto, G. A. and Danilewicz, D. and Andriolo, A. and Secchi, E. R. and Zerbini, A. N.},
  title = {Whale, whale, everywhere: Increasing abundance of western South Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in their wintering grounds},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {e0164596},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164596}
}
Bortolotto, G.A., Danilewicz, D., Andriolo, A. and Zerbini, A.N. Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae) group sizes in line transect ship surveys: an evaluation of observer errors 2016 Zoologia (Curitiba)
Vol. 33, pp. e20150133 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bortolotto2016,
  author = {Bortolotto, G. A. and Danilewicz, D. and Andriolo, A. and Zerbini, A. N.},
  title = {Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae) group sizes in line transect ship surveys: an evaluation of observer errors},
  journal = {Zoologia (Curitiba)},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {e20150133},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-4689zool-20150133}
}
Bortolotto, G.A., Danilewicz, D., Hammond, P.S., Thomas, L. and Zerbini, A.N. Whale distribution in a breeding area: spatial models of habitat use and abundance of western South Atlantic humpback whales 2017 Marine Ecology Progress Series
Vol. 585, pp. 213-227 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bortolotto2017,
  author = {Bortolotto, G. A. and Danilewicz, D. and Hammond, P. S. and Thomas, L. and Zerbini, A. N.},
  title = {Whale distribution in a breeding area: spatial models of habitat use and abundance of western South Atlantic humpback whales},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  publisher = {Inter-Research Science Center},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {585},
  pages = {213--227},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps12393}
}
Bottenberg, H., Litsinger, J.A. and Kenmore, P.E. A line transect survey method for rice tungro virus 1992 Proceedings, Third International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Volume v  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Botetal92,
  author = {Bottenberg, H. and Litsinger, J. A. and Kenmore, P. E.},
  title = {A line transect survey method for rice tungro virus},
  booktitle = {Proceedings, Third International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Volume v},
  year = {1992}
}
Bovendorp, R.S. and Galetti, M. Density and population size of mammals introduced on a land-bridge island in southeastern Brazil 2007 Biological Invasions
Vol. 9(3), pp. 353-357 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10530-006-9031-7,
  author = {Bovendorp, Ricardo Siqueira and Galetti, Mauro},
  title = {Density and population size of mammals introduced on a land-bridge island in southeastern Brazil},
  journal = {Biological Invasions},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {9},
  number = {3},
  pages = {353--357},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-006-9031-7}
}
Bowden, D.C., White, G.C., Franklin, A.B. and Ganey, J.L. Estimating population size with correlated sampling unit estimates 2003 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 67(1), pp. 1-10 
article DOI  
Abstract: Finite population sampling theory is useful in estimating total population size (abundance) from abundance estimates of each sampled unit (quadrat). We develop estimators that allow correlated quadrat abundance estimates, even for quadrats in different sampling strata. Correlated quadrat abundance estimates based on mark-recapture or distance sampling methods occur when data are pooled across quadrats to estimate, for example, capture probability parameters or sighting functions. When only minimal information is available from each quadrat, pooling of data across quadrats may be necessary to efficiently estimate capture probabilities or sighting functions. We further include information from a quadrat-based auxiliary variable to more precisely estimate total population size via a ratio estimator. We also provide variance estimators for the difference between or the ratio of 2 abundance estimates, taken at different times. We present an example based on estimating the number of Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in the Upper Gila Mountains Recovery Unit, Arizona and New Mexico, USA. Owl abundance for each quadrat was estimated with a Huggins 4-pass mark-resight population estimator, but with initial capture and resighting probabilities modeled in common across all sample quadrats. Pooling mark-resight data across quadrats was necessary because few owls were marked on individual quadrats to estimate quadrat-specific capture probabilities. Model-based estimates of owl abundance for each quadrat necessitated variance estimation procedures that take into account correlated quadrat estimates. An auxiliary variable relating to topographic roughness of sampled quadrats provided a useful covariate for a ratio estimator.
BibTeX:
@article{Bowden2003,
  author = {Bowden, D. C. and White, G. C. and Franklin, A. B. and Ganey, J. L.},
  title = {Estimating population size with correlated sampling unit estimates},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {67},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--10},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3803055}
}
Boyd, C., Barlow, J., Becker, E.A., Forney, K.A., Gerrodette, T., Moore, J.E. and Punt, A.E. Estimation of population size and trends for highly mobile species with dynamic spatial distributions 2017 Diversity and Distributions
Vol. 24(1), pp. 1-12 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Boyd2017,
  author = {Boyd, Charlotte and Barlow, Jay and Becker, Elizabeth A. and Forney, Karin A. and Gerrodette, Tim and Moore, Jeffrey E. and Punt, André E.},
  title = {Estimation of population size and trends for highly mobile species with dynamic spatial distributions},
  journal = {Diversity and Distributions},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {24},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--12},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12663}
}
Bozec, Y.-M., Kulbicki, M., Laloe, F., Mou-Tham, G. and Gascuel, D. Factors affecting the detection distances of reef fish: implications for visual counts 2011 Marine Biology
Vol. 158(5), pp. 969-981 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s00227-011-1623-9,
  author = {Bozec, Yves-Marie and Kulbicki, Michel and Laloe, Francis and Mou-Tham, Gérard and Gascuel, Didier},
  title = {Factors affecting the detection distances of reef fish: implications for visual counts},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {158},
  number = {5},
  pages = {969--981},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-011-1623-9}
}
Bradfer-Lawrence, T., Gardner, N. and Dent, D.H. Canopy bird assemblages are less influenced by habitat age and isolation than understory bird assemblages in Neotropical secondary forest 2018 Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 8(11), pp. 5586-5597 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bradfer-Lawrence2018,
  author = {Tom Bradfer-Lawrence and Nick Gardner and Daisy H. Dent},
  title = {Canopy bird assemblages are less influenced by habitat age and isolation than understory bird assemblages in Neotropical secondary forest},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {8},
  number = {11},
  pages = {5586--5597},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4086}
}
Bradford, A.L., Forney, K.A., Oleson, E.M. and Barlow, J. Abundance estimates of cetaceans from a line-transect survey within the U.S. Hawaiian Islands exclusive economic zone 2017 Fishery Bulletin.
Vol. 115, pp. 129-142 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bradford2017,
  author = {Bradford, A. L. and Forney, K. A. and Oleson, E. M. and Barlow, J.},
  title = {Abundance estimates of cetaceans from a line-transect survey within the U.S. Hawaiian Islands exclusive economic zone},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin.},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {115},
  pages = {129--142},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7755/FB.115.2.1}
}
Bradford, A.L., Forney, K.A., Oleson, E.M. and Barlow, J. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian waters 2014 PLoS ONE
Vol. 9, pp. e90464 
article DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (¡ italic¿ Pseudorca crassidens/italic¿ ) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (¡ italic¿ n/italic¿â€Š= 5) and NWHI (¡ italic¿ n/italic¿â€Š= 1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (¡ italic¿ n/italic¿â€Š= 5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai’ i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479†``5,030) and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97†``3,123) individuals, respectively. Subgroup structure is an important factor to consider in line-transect analyses of false killer whales and other species with complex grouping patterns./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Bradford2014,
  author = {Bradford, Amanda L. and Forney, Karin A. and Oleson, Erin M. and Barlow, Jay},
  title = {Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian waters},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {e90464},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090464}
}
Bradford, A.L., Forney, K.A., Oleson, E.M. and Barlow, J. Line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in the pelagic region of the Hawaiian exclusive economic zone and in the insular waters of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2012 (Administrative Report H-12-02)School: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Bradford2012,
  author = {Bradford, Amanda L. and Forney, Karin A. and Oleson, Erin M. and Barlow, Jay},
  title = {Line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in the pelagic region of the Hawaiian exclusive economic zone and in the insular waters of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands},
  school = {Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center},
  year = {2012},
  number = {Administrative Report H-12-02}
}
Branch, T.A. Humpback whale abundance south of 60s from three complete circumpolar sets of surveys Submitted to the Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue)  article  
BibTeX:
@article{Branch,
  author = {Branch, T. A.},
  title = {Humpback whale abundance south of 60s from three complete circumpolar sets of surveys},
  journal = {Submitted to the Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue)}
}
Brandt, C.A. and Rickard, W.H. Effects of survey frequency on bird density estimates in the shrub-steppe environment 1992 Northwest Science
Vol. 66, pp. 172-182 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BraRic92,
  author = {Brandt, C. A. and Rickard, W. H.},
  title = {Effects of survey frequency on bird density estimates in the shrub-steppe environment},
  journal = {Northwest Science},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {172--182}
}
Braulik, G.T., Bhatti, Z.I., Ehsan, T., Hussain, B., Khan, A.R., Khan, A., Khan, U., Kundi, K.U., Rajput, R., Reichert, A.P., Northridge, S.P., Bhagat, H.B. and Garstang, R. Robust abundance estimate for endangered river dolphin subspecies in South Asia 2012 Endangered Species Research
Vol. 17(3), pp. 201-215 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Braulik2012,
  author = {Braulik, Gillian T. and Bhatti, Zahid I. and Ehsan, Tahir and Hussain, Babar and Khan, Abdul R. and Khan, Ashfaq and Khan, Uzma and Kundi, Khalil U. and Rajput, Rafiq and Reichert, Albert P. and Northridge, Simon P. and Bhagat, Hussain B. and Garstang, Richard},
  title = {Robust abundance estimate for endangered river dolphin subspecies in South Asia},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  publisher = {Inter-Research Science Center},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {17},
  number = {3},
  pages = {201--215},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00425}
}
Braulik, G.T., Kasuga, M., Wittich, A., Kiszka, J.J., MacCaulay, J., Gillespie, D., Gordon, J., Said, S.S. and Hammond, P.S. Cetacean rapid assessment: an approach to fill knowledge gaps and target conservation across large data deficient areas 2017 Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
Vol. 28(1), pp. 216-230 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Braulik2017,
  author = {Braulik, Gill T. and Kasuga, Magreth and Wittich, Anja and Kiszka, Jeremy J. and MacCaulay, Jamie and Gillespie, Doug and Gordon, Jonathan and Said, Said Shaib and Hammond, Philip S.},
  title = {Cetacean rapid assessment: an approach to fill knowledge gaps and target conservation across large data deficient areas},
  journal = {Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {28},
  number = {1},
  pages = {216--230},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2833}
}
Bravington, M.V., Miller, D.L. and Hedley, S.L. Variance Propagation for Density Surface Models 2021 Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics  article DOI  
Abstract: Spatially explicit estimates of population density, together with appropriate estimates of uncertainty, are required in many management contexts. Density surface models (DSMs) are a two-stage approach for estimating spatially varying density from distance sampling data. First, detection probabilities— perhaps depending on covariates— are estimated based on details of individual encounters; next, local densities are estimated using a GAM, by fitting local encounter rates to location and/or spatially varying covariates while allowing for the estimated detectabilities. One criticism of DSMs has been that uncertainty from the two stages is not usually propagated correctly into the final variance estimates. We show how to reformulate a DSM so that the uncertainty in detection probability from the distance sampling stage (regardless of its complexity) is captured as an extra random effect in the GAM stage. In effect, we refit an approximation to the detection function model at the same time as fitting the spatial model. This allows straightforward computation of the overall variance via exactly the same software already needed to fit the GAM. A further extension allows for spatial variation in group size, which can be an important covariate for detectability as well as directly affecting abundance. We illustrate these models using point transect survey data of Island Scrub-Jays on Santa Cruz Island, CA, and harbour porpoise from the SCANS-II line transect survey of European waters. Supplementary materials accompanying this paper appear on-line.
BibTeX:
@article{Bravington2021,
  author = {Bravington, Mark V. and Miller, David L. and Hedley, Sharon L.},
  title = {Variance Propagation for Density Surface Models},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2021},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s13253-021-00438-2}
}
Breiwick, J.M., Rugh, D.J., Withrow, D.E., Dahlheim, M.E. and Buckland, S.T. Preliminary population estimate of gray whales during the 1987/88 southward migration 1988 (Paper SC/40/PS12)School: Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Breetal88,
  author = {Breiwick, J. M. and Rugh, D. J. and Withrow, D. E. and Dahlheim, M. E. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Preliminary population estimate of gray whales during the 1987/88 southward migration},
  school = {Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  number = {Paper SC/40/PS12}
}
Brennan, L.A. and Block, W.M. Line transect estimates of mountain quail density 1986 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 50, pp. 373-377 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BreBlo86,
  author = {Brennan, L. A. and Block, W. M.},
  title = {Line transect estimates of mountain quail density},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {373--377},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801089}
}
Breuer, T., Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, M. and Strindberg, S. Small-Scale Dung Survey Reveals High Forest Elephant Density and Preference for Mixed Species Forest in an Intact Protected Area 2021 Biodiversity and Conservation  article DOI  
Abstract: Understanding the ecological factors influencing African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) abundance and distribution is crucial for their conservation management in Central Africa. Dung surveys have been conducted at the landscape scale and confirmed the overwhelming impact of anthropogenic activities on forest elephants. We present results from a small-scale survey in a pristine protected area without anthropogenic activities to elucidate the ecological factors influencing forest elephant density. We conducted a line transect dung survey in a small study area (110 km2) around Mbeli Bai, a natural forest clearing in the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo, and compare results with a landscape survey conducted during the same period. We used habitat specific dung decay data collected on site to estimate elephant density using distance sampling. We fitted Generalized Additive Models to elephant dung encounter rate using explanatory variables collected during the transect survey and from geospatial data. The small-scale survey revealed a precise estimate of forest elephant density that was twice as high as the result from a landscape survey with higher density in mixed species forest for the small-scale survey. We could not find an impact of the proximity of forest clearings and proximity to rivers at the small scale. Fine-scale habitat features, e.g. degree of canopy and understorey closure, had little explanatory power for elephant dung encounter rate. Small-scale dung surveys are a useful method to reveal spatio-temporal variation in forest elephant density and distribution which can inform conservation practitioners in a timely manner. Combining monitoring methods at various spatial scales improves our knowledge and conservation efforts of forest elephants. Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park is a stronghold for forest elephants and of global importance for their conservation.
BibTeX:
@article{Breuer2021,
  author = {Breuer, Thomas and Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille and Strindberg, Samantha},
  title = {Small-Scale Dung Survey Reveals High Forest Elephant Density and Preference for Mixed Species Forest in an Intact Protected Area},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2021},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-021-02214-7}
}
Brewster, J.P. and Simons, T.R. Testing the importance of auditory detections in avian point counts 2009 Journal of Field Ornithology
Vol. 80, pp. 178-182 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Brewster2009,
  author = {Brewster, Jerome P. and Simons, Theodore R.},
  title = {Testing the importance of auditory detections in avian point counts},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {80},
  pages = {178--182},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1557-9263.2009.00220.x}
}
Briggs, K.T., Tyler, W.B. and Lewis, D.B. Aerial surveys for seabirds: methodological experiments 1985 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 49, pp. 412-417 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Brietal85,
  author = {Briggs, K. T. and Tyler, W. B. and Lewis, D. B.},
  title = {Aerial surveys for seabirds: methodological experiments},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {412--417},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801543}
}
Brockelman, W.Y. The use of the line transect sampling method for forest primates 1980 Tropical Ecology and Development, pp. 367-371  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bro80,
  author = {Brockelman, W. Y.},
  title = {The use of the line transect sampling method for forest primates},
  booktitle = {Tropical Ecology and Development},
  publisher = {The International Society of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1980},
  pages = {367--371}
}
Broekema, I. and Overdyck, O. Distance sampling to estimate densities of four native forest bird species during multispecies surveys 2012 New Zealand Journal of Ecology
Vol. 36 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Broekema2012,
  author = {Broekema, Iris and Overdyck, Oliver},
  title = {Distance sampling to estimate densities of four native forest bird species during multispecies surveys},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {36},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/24060894}
}
Bröker, K.C.A., Hansen, R.G., Leonard, K.E., Koski, W.R. and Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. A comparison of image and observer based aerial surveys of narwhal 2019 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 35(4), pp. 1253-1279 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Broeker2019,
  author = {Bröker, Koen C. A. and Hansen, Rikke G. and Leonard, Kathleen E. and Koski, William R. and Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter},
  title = {A comparison of image and observer based aerial surveys of narwhal},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {35},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1253--1279},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/mms.12586}
}
Broome, L.S., Bishop, K.D. and Anderson, D.R. Population density and habitat use by Megapodius freyinet eremita in West New Britain 1984 Australian Wildlife Research
Vol. 11, pp. 161-171 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Broetal84,
  author = {Broome, L. S. and Bishop, K. D. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Population density and habitat use by Megapodius freyinet eremita in West New Britain},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {161--171},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9840161}
}
Brown, B.M. and Cowling, A. Clustering and abundance estimation for Neyman-Scott models and line transect surveys 1998 Biometrika
Vol. 85, pp. 427-438 
article DOI  
Abstract: This paper considers the estimation of clustering parameters and mean species intensity based on likelihood theory for the simplified Neyman-Scott Poisson model, with observations taken from line transect surveys with a Gaussian detection function. The estimators and accompanying standard error expressions are tractable and easy to calculate, and, coming from likelihood methods, often will have high efficiency. Such properties compare favourably with those of existing K-function methods which however are semiparametric in nature and less reliant on specific parametric assumptions. The likelihood analysis reveals auxiliary information which could be used to check the form of the detection function.
BibTeX:
@article{BroCow98,
  author = {Brown, B. M. and Cowling, A.},
  title = {Clustering and abundance estimation for Neyman-Scott models and line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {427--438},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/85.2.427}
}
Brown, J.A. and Boyce, M.S. Line transect sampling of Karner blue butterflies (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) 1998 Environmental and Ecological Statistics
Vol. 5, pp. 81-91 
article DOI  
Abstract: Line transect sampling is an effective survey method for estimating butterfly densities because it provides unbiased estimates of site-density (provided key assumptions are met), and estimates are comparable among sites. For monitoring Karner blue butterflies in Wisconsin, USA, comparable estimates are required because each year a different selection of sites will be monitored. Annual state-wide indices of species abundance can be derived from the site-surveys and compared to previous year's indices to monitor trends. We advocate that line transect sampling is preferable to Pollard-Yates transects as a survey technique for monitoring Karner blue butterflies. The Pollard-Yates surveys do not adjust for differences in site detectability. As a consequence, estimates of among-site from Pollard-Yates surveys can be biased. textcopyright 1998 Chapman & Hall.
BibTeX:
@article{Broboy98,
  author = {Brown, J. A. and Boyce, M. S.},
  title = {Line transect sampling of Karner blue butterflies (Lycaeides melissa samuelis)},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {81--91},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009620105039}
}
Brown, S., Clarke, M. and Clarke, R. Fire is a key element in the landscape-scale habitat requirements and global population status of a threatened bird: the mallee emu-wren (Stipiturus mallee) 2009 Biological Conservation
Vol. 142(2), pp. 432-445 
article DOI  
Abstract: The Mallee Emu-wren (Stipiturus mallee) is a threatened, narrow-range passerine endemic to south-eastern Australia. To inform future conservation measures for this poorly known species, we used ecological niche factor analysis, habitat suitability modelling and distance sampling to determine landscape-scale habitat requirements and estimate the population size. Using GIS software, we integrated digital layers of ecogeographic variables with; (1) presence-only observations to derive and validate a habitat suitability model using ecological niche factor analysis, and (2) distance sampling to determine population distribution and densities across vegetation types. We detected populations in only five of seven reserves which they had occupied in 2000. We estimate the global population size to be 16,821 individuals (range 8431-39, 104), 68% greater than the previously estimated 10,000 individuals, with a single large reserve containing the majority ( 92%) of the global population. The Mallee Emu-wren is a habitat specialist, primarily occurring in mallee-Triodia vegetation that has not been burnt for at least 15 years. The highest densities were in vegetation associations containing at least a 15% cover of Triodia, however, time since the habitat was last burnt was the overriding factor in determining densities. Large-scale wildfires are a pervasive threat to the global status of the Mallee Emu-wren, and the risk to remaining populations is exacerbated by the adverse impact of prolonged drought and the potential for altered fire regimes caused by global warming. Evaluation of the global population status, and the continued wildfire threat warranted recent reclassification of the Mallee Emu-wren from Vulnerable to Endangered according to IUCN Red List categories and criteria.
BibTeX:
@article{Brown2009,
  author = {Brown, Sarah and Clarke, Michael and Clarke, Rohan},
  title = {Fire is a key element in the landscape-scale habitat requirements and global population status of a threatened bird: the mallee emu-wren (Stipiturus mallee)},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {142},
  number = {2},
  pages = {432--445},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.11.005}
}
Brunk, H.D. Univariate density estimation by orthogonal series 1978 Biometrika
Vol. 65, pp. 521-528 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bru78,
  author = {Brunk, H. D.},
  title = {Univariate density estimation by orthogonal series},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {521--528},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/65.3.521}
}
Buchanan, G.M., Pearce-Higgins, J.W. and Grant, M.C. Observer variation in estimates of meadow pipit Anthus pratensis and skylark Alauda arvensis abundance on moorland 2006 Bird Study
Vol. 53(1), pp. 92-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: Capsule Counts least susceptible to observer effects were those within 25 m of a transect and the total number along a transect, with observer effects greater for distance sampling. textcopyright 2006 British Trust for Ornithology.
BibTeX:
@article{Buchanan2006,
  author = {Buchanan, G. M. and Pearce-Higgins, J. W. and Grant, M. C.},
  title = {Observer variation in estimates of meadow pipit Anthus pratensis and skylark Alauda arvensis abundance on moorland},
  journal = {Bird Study},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {53},
  number = {1},
  pages = {92--95},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/00063650609461421}
}
Buckland, S.T. Point transect surveys for songbirds: robust methodologies 2006 The Auk
Vol. 123(2), pp. 345-357 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2006,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Point transect surveys for songbirds: robust methodologies},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {123},
  number = {2},
  pages = {345--357},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/123.2.345}
}
Buckland, S.T. Maximum likelihood fitting of Hermite and simple polynomial densities 1992 Applied Statistics
Vol. 41, pp. 241-266 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc92b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Maximum likelihood fitting of Hermite and simple polynomial densities},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {241--266},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2347650}
}
Buckland, S.T. Fitting density functions with polynomials 1992 Applied Statistics
Vol. 41, pp. 63-76 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BUC92a,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Fitting density functions with polynomials},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {63--76},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2347618}
}
Buckland, S.T. Effects of heterogeneity on estimation of probability of detection on the trackline 1992 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 42, pp. 569-573 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc92c,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Effects of heterogeneity on estimation of probability of detection on the trackline},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {569--573}
}
Buckland, S.T. On the variable circular plot method of estimating animal density 1987 Biometrics
Vol. 43, pp. 363-384 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc87a,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {On the variable circular plot method of estimating animal density},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {363--384},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2531819}
}
Buckland, S.T. Estimation of minke whale numbers from the 1984/85 IWC/IDCR Antarctic sightings data 1987 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 37, pp. 263-288 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc87c,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Estimation of minke whale numbers from the 1984/85 IWC/IDCR Antarctic sightings data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {263--288}
}
Buckland, S.T. An assessment of the performance of line transect models for fitting IWC/IDCR cruise data, 1978/79 to 1984/85 1987 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 37, pp. 277-279 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc87b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {An assessment of the performance of line transect models for fitting IWC/IDCR cruise data, 1978/79 to 1984/85},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {277--279}
}
Buckland, S.T. Perpendicular distance models for line transect sampling 1985 Biometrics
Vol. 41, pp. 177-195 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc85,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Perpendicular distance models for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {177--195},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530653}
}
Buckland, S.T. Monte Carlo confidence intervals 1984 Biometrics
Vol. 40, pp. 811-817 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc84,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Monte Carlo confidence intervals},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {811--817},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530926}
}
Buckland, S.T. A note on the Fourier series model for analysing line transect data 1982 Biometrics
Vol. 38, pp. 469-477 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc82,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {A note on the Fourier series model for analysing line transect data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {469--477},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530461}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Anderson, D.R. Introduction to advanced distance sampling 2004 Advanced Distance Sampling, pp. 1-6  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Buckland2004,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Introduction to advanced distance sampling},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {1--6}
}
Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Laake, J.L. Distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations 1993   book  
BibTeX:
@book{BUC93,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations},
  publisher = {Chapman and Hall},
  year = {1993}
}
Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L. Advanced distance sampling 2004   book  
BibTeX:
@book{BUC04,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D. L. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Advanced distance sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004}
}
Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L. Introduction to distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations 2001   book  
BibTeX:
@book{BUC01,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D. L. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Introduction to distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2001}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Anganuzzi, A.A. Estimated trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific 1988 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 38, pp. 411-437 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BucAng88b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anganuzzi, A. A.},
  title = {Estimated trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {411--437}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Anganuzzi, A.A. Comparison of smearing methods in the analysis of minke sightings data from IWC/IDCR Antarctic cruises 1988 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 38, pp. 257-263 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BucAng88a,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anganuzzi, A. A.},
  title = {Comparison of smearing methods in the analysis of minke sightings data from IWC/IDCR Antarctic cruises},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {257--263}
}
Buckland, S.T., Bloch, D., Cattanach, K.L., Gunnlaugsson, T., Hoydal, K., Lens, S. and Sigurjónsson, J. Distribution and abundance of long-finned pilot whales in the North Atlantic, estimated from NASS-87 and NASS-89 data 1993 Biology of Northern Hemisphere Pilot Whales, pp. 33-49  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bucetal93b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Bloch, D. and Cattanach, K. L. and Gunnlaugsson, Th. and Hoydal, K. and Lens, S. and Sigurjónsson, J.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of long-finned pilot whales in the North Atlantic, estimated from NASS-87 and NASS-89 data},
  booktitle = {Biology of Northern Hemisphere Pilot Whales},
  publisher = {International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {33--49}
}
Buckland, S.T., Borchers, D.L., Johnston, A., Henrys, P.A. and Marques, T.A. Line transect methods for plant surveys 2007 Biometrics
Vol. 63, pp. 989-998 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal07,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Borchers, D. L. and Johnston, A. and Henrys, P. A. and Marques, T. A.},
  title = {Line transect methods for plant surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {63},
  pages = {989--998},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2007.00798.x}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Breiwick, J.M. Estimated trends in abundance of eastern Pacific gray whales from shore counts, 1967/68 to 1995/96 2002 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 4, pp. 41-48 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BucBre02,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Breiwick, J. M.},
  title = {Estimated trends in abundance of eastern Pacific gray whales from shore counts, 1967/68 to 1995/96},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {41--48}
}
Buckland, S.T., Breiwick, J.M., Cattanach, K.L. and Laake, J.L. Estimated population size of the California gray whale 1993 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 9, pp. 235-249 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal93c,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Breiwick, J. M. and Cattanach, K. L. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Estimated population size of the California gray whale},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {235--249},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1993.tb00452.x}
}
Buckland, S.T., Burnham, K.P. and Augustin, N.H. Model selection: an integral part of inference 1997 Biometrics
Vol. 53, pp. 603-618 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal97,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Burnham, K. P. and Augustin, N. H.},
  title = {Model selection: an integral part of inference},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {603--618},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533961}
}
Buckland, S.T., Burt, M.L., Rexstad, E.A., Mellor, M., Williams, A.E. and Woodward, R. Aerial surveys of seabirds: the advent of digital methods 2012 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 49, pp. 960-967 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Burt, M. L. and Rexstad, E. A. and Mellor, M. and Williams, A. E. and Woodward, R.},
  title = {Aerial surveys of seabirds: the advent of digital methods},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {960--967},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02150.x}
}
Buckland, S.T., Cattanach, K.L. and Anganuzzi, A.A. Estimating trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific ocean, using sightings data collected on commercial tuna vessels 1992 Fishery Bulletin
Vol. 90, pp. 1-12 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal92e,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Cattanach, K. L. and Anganuzzi, A. A.},
  title = {Estimating trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific ocean, using sightings data collected on commercial tuna vessels},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {90},
  pages = {1--12}
}
Buckland, S.T., Cattanach, K.L. and Gunnlaugsson, T. Fin whale abundance in the North Atlantic, estimated from Icelandic and Faroese NASS-87 and NASS-89 data 1992 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 42, pp. 645-651 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal92d,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Cattanach, K. L. and Gunnlaugsson, Th.},
  title = {Fin whale abundance in the North Atlantic, estimated from Icelandic and Faroese NASS-87 and NASS-89 data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {645--651}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Garthwaite, P.H. Estimating confidence intervals by the Robbins–Monro search process 1990 Applied Statistics
Vol. 39, pp. 413-424 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BucGar90,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Garthwaite, P. H.},
  title = {Estimating confidence intervals by the Robbins–Monro search process},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {413--424},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2347401}
}
Buckland, S.T., Goudie, I.B.J. and Borchers, D.L. Wildlife population assessment: past developments and future directions 2000 Biometrics
Vol. 56, pp. 1-12 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal00,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Goudie, I. B. J. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Wildlife population assessment: past developments and future directions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {1--12},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2000.00001.x}
}
Buckland, S.T., Laake, J.L. and Borchers, D.L. Double-observer line transect methods: levels of independence 2010 Biometrics
Vol. 66, pp. 169-177 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2010,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Laake, Jeffrey L. and Borchers, David L.},
  title = {Double-observer line transect methods: levels of independence},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {169--177},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2009.01239.x}
}
Buckland, S.T., Marsden, S.J. and Green, R.E. Estimating bird abundance: making methods work 2008 Bird Conservation International
Vol. 18, pp. S91-S108 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2008,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Marsden, Stuart J. and Green, Rhys E.},
  title = {Estimating bird abundance: making methods work},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {S91--S108},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270908000294}
}
Buckland, S.T., Oedekoven, C.S. and Borchers, D.L. Model-based distance sampling 2015 Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics
Vol. 21(1), pp. 58-75 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2015a,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Oedekoven, C. S. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Model-based distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {21},
  number = {1},
  pages = {58--75},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s13253-015-0220-7}
}
Buckland, S.T., Plumptre, A.J., Thomas, L. and Rexstad, E.A. Line transect sampling of primates: can animal-to-observer distance methods work? 2010 International Journal of Primatology
Vol. 31(3), pp. 485-499 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10764-010-9408-4,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Plumptre, Andrew J. and Thomas, Len and Rexstad, Eric A.},
  title = {Line transect sampling of primates: can animal-to-observer distance methods work?},
  journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {31},
  number = {3},
  pages = {485--499},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9408-4}
}
Buckland, S.T., Plumptre, A.J., Thomas, L. and Rexstad, E.A. Design and analysis of line transect surveys for primates 2010 International Journal of Primatology
Vol. 31(5), pp. 833-847 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10764-010-9431-5,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Plumptre, Andrew J. and Thomas, Len and Rexstad, Eric A.},
  title = {Design and analysis of line transect surveys for primates},
  journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {31},
  number = {5},
  pages = {833--847},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9431-5}
}
Buckland, S.T., Rexstad, E.A., Marques, T.A. and Oedekoven, C.S. Distance sampling: methods and applications 2015   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Buckland2015b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Rexstad, E. A. and Marques, T. A. and Oedekoven, C. S.},
  title = {Distance sampling: methods and applications},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015}
}
Buckland, S.T., Rexstad, E., Thomas, L. and Borchers, D.L. Distance sampling surveys of population size: enabling better decision-making by wildlife managers 2016 UK Success Stories in Industrial Mathematics, pp. 45-51  incollection DOI  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Buckland2016,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Rexstad, Eric and Thomas, Len and Borchers, David L.},
  title = {Distance sampling surveys of population size: enabling better decision-making by wildlife managers},
  booktitle = {UK Success Stories in Industrial Mathematics},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {45--51},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25454-8_6}
}
Buckland, S.T., Russell, R.E., Dickson, B.G., Saab, V.A., Gorman, D.N. and Block, W.M. Analysing designed experiments in distance sampling 2009 Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics
Vol. 14, pp. 432-442 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2009a,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Russell, Robin E. and Dickson, Brett G. and Saab, Victoria A. and Gorman, Donal N. and Block, William M.},
  title = {Analysing designed experiments in distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {432--442},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1198/jabes.2009.08030}
}
Buckland, S.T., Summers, R.W., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L. Point transect sampling with traps or lures 2006 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 43(2), pp. 377-384 
article DOI  
Abstract: 1. The ability to monitor abundance of animal populations is becoming increasingly important, in light of growing concerns over the loss of biodiversity through anthropogenic changes. A widely used tool for such monitoring is distance sampling, in which distances of detected animals from a line or point are modelled, to estimate detectability and hence abundance. Nevertheless, many species still prove problematic to survey. We have developed two extensions to point transect sampling that potentially allow abundance to be estimated for a number of species from diverse taxa for which good survey methods have not previously been available. 2. For each method, the primary survey comprises a random sample of points, or more usually a systematic grid of points, through the region of interest. Animals are lured to a point, or trapped at a point, and the number of animals observed at each point is recorded. A separate study is conducted on a subset of animals, to record whether they respond to the lure or enter the trap, for a range of known distances from the point. These data are used to estimate the probability that an animal will respond to the lure or enter the trap, as a function of its initial distance from the point. This allows the counts to be converted to an estimate of abundance in the survey region. 3. We illustrated the methods using a lure survey of crossbills Loxia spp. in coniferous woodland in Scotland. 4. Synthesis and applications. Two extensions of point transect sampling that use the same statistical methodology, lure point transects and trapping point transects, have been developed. Lure point transects extend the applicability of distance sampling to species that can be lured to a point, while trapping point transects potentially allow abundance estimation of species that can be trapped, with fewer resources needed than trapping webs and conventional mark-recapture methods. textcopyright 2006 British Ecological Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2006b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Summers, R. W. and Borchers, D. L. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Point transect sampling with traps or lures},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {43},
  number = {2},
  pages = {377--384},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01135.x}
}
Buckland, S.T., Thomas, L., Marques, F.F.C., Strindberg, S., Hedley, S.L., Pollard, J.H., Borchers, D.L. and Burt, M.L. Distance sampling: recent advances and future directions 2002 Quantitative Methods for Current Environmental Issues, pp. 79-97  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bucetal02,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Thomas, L. and Marques, F. F. C. and Strindberg, S. and Hedley, S. L. and Pollard, J. H. and Borchers, D. L. and Burt, M. L.},
  title = {Distance sampling: recent advances and future directions},
  booktitle = {Quantitative Methods for Current Environmental Issues},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {79--97}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Turnock, B.J. A robust line transect method 1992 Biometrics
Vol. 48, pp. 901-909 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BucTur92,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Turnock, B. J.},
  title = {A robust line transect method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {901--909},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2532356}
}
Buford, E.W. and Capen, D.E. Abundance and productivity of forest songbirds in a managed, unfragmented landscape in vermont 1999 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 63(1), pp. 180-188 
article DOI  
Abstract: Effective conservation of forest songbirds requires knowledge of responses to landscape pattern. We studied a breeding songbird community in a landscape characterized by scattered openings in a forest matrix in Vermont, 1993-94. We measured species composition, abundance, and fledgling brood density in the forested areas of 10500-ha sites; we compared a group of 5 disturbed-canopy sites (?10% canopy disturbance) with a control group of 5 undisturbed-canopy sites. We conducted 456 point counts to determine species composition and abundance, and we conducted 60 line transect surveys to estimate fledgling brood density as a measure of productivity. Adult densities were not different between groups (P ¿ 0.05) for 18 species listed as priority for conservation, although power was low. Combined brood densities of all species, Neotropical migrants, and ground nesters were not different among groups (P ¿ 0.05). Brood densities of 3 Neotropical migrants also were not different (P ¿ 0.05). However, combined brood density of area-sensitive, forest interior species was greater on control sites (P ¡ 0.05). At the scale of this study, a minimal amount of canopy removal in the extensively forested landscape did not affect abundance and overall productivity of songbirds inhabiting the remaining forest, but canopy removal had begun to suppress productivity of some forest interior species.
BibTeX:
@article{Buford1999,
  author = {Buford, E. W. and Capen, D. E.},
  title = {Abundance and productivity of forest songbirds in a managed, unfragmented landscape in vermont},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {63},
  number = {1},
  pages = {180--188},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802499}
}
Buford, E.W., Capen, D.E. and Williams, B.K. Distance sampling to estimate fledgling brood density of forest birds 1996 Canadian Field-Naturalist
Vol. 110(4), pp. 642-648 
article  
Abstract: Research on the status of avian communities often relies on estimates of abundance, but does not always consider demographic factors such as productivity. We introduce the application of a distance-sampling technique for estimating brood density of fledgling birds in forested habitats. During 1993 and 1994, we conducted 60 line-transect surveys on 10 sites in the Green Mountain National Forest in Vermont. Sites were divided into two groups, which allowed us to test for differences in fledgling density between groups. We detected 508 broods representing 38 species. Using standard distance-sampling procedures, we estimated densities of 0.576 (C.V.= 11.89) and 0.513 (C.V.=12.54) broods per hectare. Density was not statistically different between groups. As with other survey methods, distance sampling favors easily detected species; however, line-transect density of fledglings is less obtrusive and less labor-intesive than mist-netting or nest searches, and can contribute important information to studies of avian communities.
BibTeX:
@article{Buford1996,
  author = {Buford, E. W. and Capen, D. E. and Williams, B. K.},
  title = {Distance sampling to estimate fledgling brood density of forest birds},
  journal = {Canadian Field-Naturalist},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {110},
  number = {4},
  pages = {642--648}
}
Burdick, D.L. On estimation of the number of porpoise schools 1979 (Publication 79-2)  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Burd79,
  author = {Burdick, D. L.},
  title = {On estimation of the number of porpoise schools},
  year = {1979},
  number = {Publication 79-2}
}
Burnett, K., Camp, R.J. and Hart, P.J. Current distribution and abundance of Kohala forest birds in Hawai`i 2021 Journal of Field Ornithology
Vol. n/a(n/a) 
article DOI  
Abstract: The Kohala volcano is home to the most spatially isolated population of Hawaiian forest birds on Hawai`i Island and contains one of the few native bird populations in the state that has not been monitored since the original Hawai`i Forest Bird Survey (HFBS) in 1979. We surveyed 143 stations across 13 transects in Pu`u `O `Umi Natural Area Reserve on Kohala from February through April 2017 and compared our results to data from the 1979 HFBS conducted at 80 stations across three transects in the same location as our study site. We detected 2806 individuals of 15 species and measured relative abundance, relative occurrence, and density for seven species. We observed changes in species densities ranging from -8.4% (Hawai`i `Elepaio, Chasiempis sandwichensis) to +714% (`I`iwi, Drepanis coccinea). Equivalence testing showed meaningful increases in population densities for all but one species, the Hawai`i `Elepaio. The increases in population densities on Kohala are in stark contrast to the widespread declines in population densities of native species elsewhere in Hawai`i. Relative occurrence was greater in 2017 than in 1979 for all species except Hawai`i `Elepaios and House Finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), and relative abundance increased for all species except Hawai`i `Elepaios, House Finches, and Melodious Laughing Thrushes (Garrulax canorus). We also documented the range expansion of Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in Kohala. Our results indicate that this spatially isolated avian community remains biologically diverse, and most population densities are increasing in the study area. Our results provide a framework for future surveys and a baseline for understanding possible changes in population and community dynamics as birds respond to climate change and avian disease on Kohala volcano.
BibTeX:
@article{Burnett2021,
  author = {Keith Burnett and Richard J. Camp and Patrick J. Hart},
  title = {Current distribution and abundance of Kohala forest birds in Hawai`i},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2021},
  volume = {n/a},
  number = {n/a},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/jofo.12386}
}
Burnham, P., K., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. Robust estimation from line transect data 1979 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 43, pp. 992-996 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buretal79,
  author = {Burnham and K., P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Robust estimation from line transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {992--996},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3808290}
}
Burnham, K.P. Summarizing remarks: environmental influences 1981 Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6, pp. 324-325  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bur81,
  author = {Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {Summarizing remarks: environmental influences},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {324--325}
}
Burnham, K.P. A parametric generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling 1979 Biometrics
Vol. 35, pp. 587-595 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bur79,
  author = {Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {A parametric generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {587--595},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530249}
}
Burnham, K.P. and Anderson, D.R. Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection 2004 Sociological Methods & Research
Vol. 33, pp. 261-304 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Burnham2004,
  author = {Burnham, Kenneth P. and Anderson, David R.},
  title = {Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection},
  journal = {Sociological Methods & Research},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {261--304},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124104268644}
}
Burnham, K.P. and Anderson, D.R. The need for distance data in transect counts 1984 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 48, pp. 1248-1254 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BurAnd84,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {The need for distance data in transect counts},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {1248--1254},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801785}
}
Burnham, K.P. and Anderson, D.R. Mathematical models for non-parametric inferences from line transect data 1976 Biometrics
Vol. 32, pp. 325-336 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BurAnd76,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Mathematical models for non-parametric inferences from line transect data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {325--336},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2529501}
}
Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. Efficiency and bias in strip and line transect sampling 1985 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 49, pp. 1012-1018 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buretal85,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Efficiency and bias in strip and line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {1012--1018},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801387}
}
Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. Line transect estimation of bird population density using a Fourier series 1981 Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6, pp. 466-482  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Buretal81,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of bird population density using a Fourier series},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {466--482}
}
Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. Estimation of density from line transect sampling of biological populations 1980 Wildlife Monographs
Vol. 72, pp. 1-202 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BUR80,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Estimation of density from line transect sampling of biological populations},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {1--202},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2259887}
}
Burnham, K.P., Buckland, S.T., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L., Marques, T.A., Bishop, J.R.B. and Thomas, L. Further topics in distance sampling 2004 Advanced Distance Sampling, pp. 307-392  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{BUR04,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Buckland, S. T. and Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D. L. and Marques, T. A. and Bishop, J. R. B. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Further topics in distance sampling},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {307--392}
}
Burt, M.L., Borchers, D.L., Jenkins, K.J. and Marques, T.A. Using Mark– Recapture Distance Sampling Methods on Line Transect Surveys 2014 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 5(11), pp. 1180-1191 
article DOI  
Abstract: Mark– recapture distance sampling (MRDS) methods are widely used for density and abundance estimation when the conventional DS assumption of certain detection at distance zero fails, as they allow detection at distance zero to be estimated and incorporated into the overall probability of detection to better estimate density and abundance. However, incorporating MR data in DS models raises survey and analysis issues not present in conventional DS. Conversely, incorporating DS assumptions in MR models raises issues not present in conventional MR. As a result, being familiar with either conventional DS methods or conventional MR methods does not on its own put practitioners in good a position to apply MRDS methods appropriately. This study explains the sometimes subtly different varieties of MRDS survey methods and the associated concepts underlying MRDS models. This is done as far as possible without giving mathematical details – in the hope that this will make the key concepts underlying the methods accessible to a wider audience than if we were to present the concepts via equations. We illustrate use of the two main types of MRDS model by using data collected on two different types of survey: a survey of ungulate faecal pellets where two observers searched independently of each other; and a cetacean survey that used a search protocol that could accommodate responsive movement, with only one observer searching independently and the other being aware of all detections. Synthesis and applications. Mark– recapture DS is a widely used method for estimating animal density and abundance when detection of animals at distance zero is not certain. Two observer configurations and three statistical models are described, and it is important to choose the most appropriate model for the observer configuration and target species in question. By way of making the methods more accessible to practicing ecologists, we describe the key ideas underlying MRDS methods, the sometimes subtle differences between them, and we illustrate these by applying different kinds of MRDS method to surveys of two different target species using different survey configurations.
BibTeX:
@article{Burt2014,
  author = {Burt, Mary Louise and Borchers, David L. and Jenkins, Kurt J. and Marques, Tiago A.},
  title = {Using Mark– Recapture Distance Sampling Methods on Line Transect Surveys},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {5},
  number = {11},
  pages = {1180--1191},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12294}
}
Butler, J., Mark J. Butler and Gaff, H. Snap, crackle, and pop: acoustic-based model estimation of snapping shrimp populations in healthy and degraded hard-bottom habitats 2017 Ecological Indicators
Vol. 77, pp. 377-385 
article DOI  
Abstract: Abstract Human use of the ocean and its ecosystems continues to degrade coastal habitats around the world. Assessing anthropogenic impacts on these environments can be costly and manpower-intensive; thus, the development of rapid, remote techniques to assess habitat quality is important. We employed autonomous hydrophone receivers to record the soundscapes of healthy, sponge-rich hard-bottom habitat in Florida Bay, Florida (USA) and hard-bottom areas impacted by sponge die-offs. We also recorded sounds emanating from individual sponges of three species that were isolated in underwater sound booths, and then enumerated the invertebrates (mostly snapping shrimp) dwelling within the canals of each sponge. From these recordings, a modified cylindrical sound propagation model was used to estimate distances to individual snapping shrimp snaps. Using the program Distance, we estimated snapping shrimp population density and abundance within both habitat types. More snapping shrimp snaps per unit time were recorded in healthy hard-bottom areas as compared to degraded hard-bottom areas. In addition, the average distance to a snap source was greater within degraded hard-bottom areas than within healthy hard-bottom areas. As a consequence, the estimated density and abundance of snapping shrimp were one to two orders of magnitude greater within healthy habitat than within degraded habitat. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using acoustic sampling and modeling to rapidly assess populations of soniferous benthic indicator species, whose vocalizations may yield indirect estimates of habitat quality.
BibTeX:
@article{Butler2017,
  author = {Butler, Jack and Mark J. Butler, and Gaff, Holly},
  title = {Snap, crackle, and pop: acoustic-based model estimation of snapping shrimp populations in healthy and degraded hard-bottom habitats},
  journal = {Ecological Indicators},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {77},
  pages = {377--385},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.02.041}
}
Butler, M.J., Ballard, W.B., Wallace, M.C., DeMaso, S.J. and McGee, B.K. Aerial surveys for estimating wild turkey abundance in the Texas rolling plains 2007 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 71, pp. 1639-1645 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Butler2007,
  author = {Butler, M. J. and Ballard, W. B. and Wallace, M. C. and DeMaso, S. J. and McGee, B. K.},
  title = {Aerial surveys for estimating wild turkey abundance in the Texas rolling plains},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {1639--1645},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/2006-254}
}
Butler, M.J., Wallace, M.C., Ballard, W.B., DeMaso, S.J. and Applegate, R.D. From the Field: The relationship of Rio Grande wild turkey distributions to roads 2005 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 33(2), pp. 745-748 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Butler2005,
  author = {Butler, M. J. and Wallace, M. C. and Ballard, W. B. and DeMaso, S. J. and Applegate, R. D.},
  title = {From the Field: The relationship of Rio Grande wild turkey distributions to roads},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {33},
  number = {2},
  pages = {745--748},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/0091-7648(2005)33%5B745:FTFTRO%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Butterworth, D.S. A note on the analysis of the 1980/81 variable speed experiment 1986 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 36, pp. 485-489 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{But86,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {A note on the analysis of the 1980/81 variable speed experiment},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {485--489}
}
Butterworth, D.S. On the functional form used for g(y) for minke whale sightings, and bias in its estimation due to measurement inaccuracies 1982 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 32, pp. 883-888 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{But82b,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {On the functional form used for g(y) for minke whale sightings, and bias in its estimation due to measurement inaccuracies},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {883--888}
}
Butterworth, D.S. A possible basis for choosing a functional form for the distribution of sightings with right angle distance: some preliminary ideas 1982 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 32, pp. 555-558 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{But82,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {A possible basis for choosing a functional form for the distribution of sightings with right angle distance: some preliminary ideas},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {555--558}
}
Butterworth, D.S. and Best, P.B. Report of the Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1980/81 1982 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 32, pp. 835-874 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{ButBes82,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Best, P. B.},
  title = {Report of the Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1980/81},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {835--874}
}
Butterworth, D.S., Best, P.B. and Basson, M. Results of analysis of sighting experiments carried out during the 1980/81 Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise 1982 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 32, pp. 819-834 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Butetal82c,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Best, P. B. and Basson, M.},
  title = {Results of analysis of sighting experiments carried out during the 1980/81 Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {819--834}
}
Butterworth, D.S., Best, P.B. and Hembree, D. Analysis of experiments carried out during the 1981/82 IWC/IDCR Antarctic minke whale assessment cruise in Area II 1984 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 34, pp. 365-392 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Butetal84,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Best, P. B. and Hembree, D.},
  title = {Analysis of experiments carried out during the 1981/82 IWC/IDCR Antarctic minke whale assessment cruise in Area II},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {365--392}
}
Butterworth, D.S. and Borchers, D.L. Estimates of g(0) for minke schools from the results of the independent observer experiment on the 1985/86 and 1986/87 IWC/IDCR Antarctic assessment cruises 1988 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 38, pp. 301-313 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{ButBor88,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Estimates of g(0) for minke schools from the results of the independent observer experiment on the 1985/86 and 1986/87 IWC/IDCR Antarctic assessment cruises},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {301--313}
}
Byth, K. On robust distance-based intensity estimators 1982 Biometrics
Vol. 38, pp. 127-135 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Byt82,
  author = {Byth, K.},
  title = {On robust distance-based intensity estimators},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {127--135},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530295}
}
Byth, K. and Ripley, B.D. On sampling spatial patterns by distance methods 1980 Biometrics
Vol. 36, pp. 279-284 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BytRip36,
  author = {Byth, K. and Ripley, B. D.},
  title = {On sampling spatial patterns by distance methods},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {279--284},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2529979}
}
Cahall, R.E. and Hayes, J.P. Influences of postfire salvage logging on forest birds in the eastern Cascades, Oregon, USA 2009 Forest Ecology and Management
Vol. 257(3), pp. 1119-1128 
article DOI  
Abstract: In coniferous forests of western North American, fire is an important disturbance that influences the structure and composition of floral and faunal communities. The impacts of postfire management, including salvage logging and replanting, on these forests are not well known. We compared densities and relative abundances of forest birds after fire in unsalvaged stands and stands subjected to one of two intensities of salvage logging (moderate, 30 snags retained per ha and heavy, 5-6 snags retained per ha) in mixed-conifer forests in central Oregon. We used analysis of variance with repeated measures to evaluate three hypotheses concerning the influence of different intensities of salvage on densities or relative abundances of sixteen species of birds, and two hypotheses concerning the influence of time since salvage logging on relative abundances or densities of birds. We also examined the relationship between vegetation and abundances of each bird species. We did not detect significant differences among treatments in densities or relative abundances for eight species and one genus of birds. We detected significant differences for seven species, though the patterns differed among species. Relative abundances or densities of the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), hairy woodpecker (P. villosus), brown creeper (Certhia americana), western wood-pewee (Contopus sordidulus) and yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) were lower in the heavy and moderate salvage treatment compared to the unsalvaged treatment, while densities of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) and fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca) were greater in the moderately and heavily salvaged stands than in the unsalvaged treatment. We detected significant differences between years for four species of birds. Our findings suggest that both cavity-nesting and cup-nesting species respond to salvage logging, and that some species respond uniquely to habitat features influenced by salvage logging. For species that responded negatively to salvage logging, the moderate salvage intensity did not appear to mitigate the negative influence of salvage logging. Areas of unlogged burned forest appear to provide important habitat for some species of birds following forest fires. Our findings parallel those of other recent studies of these species, suggesting robust patterns that transcend particular locations.
BibTeX:
@article{Cahall2009,
  author = {Cahall, Rebecca E. and Hayes, John P.},
  title = {Influences of postfire salvage logging on forest birds in the eastern Cascades, Oregon, USA},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {257},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1119--1128},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.11.019}
}
Cahill, A.J., Walker, J.S. and Marsden, S.J. Recovery within a population of the Critically Endangered citron-crested cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata in Indonesia after 10 years of international trade control 2006 Oryx
Vol. 40, pp. 161-167 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cahill2006,
  author = {Cahill, A. J. and Walker, J. S. and Marsden, S. J.},
  title = {Recovery within a population of the Critically Endangered citron-crested cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata in Indonesia after 10 years of international trade control},
  journal = {Oryx},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {161--167},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605306000366}
}
Calambokidis, J. and Barlow, J. Abundance of blue and humpback whales in the eastern north Pacific estimated by capture-recapture and line-transect methods 2004 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 20(1), pp. 63-85 
article DOI  
Abstract: We estimated humpback and blue whale abundance from 1991 to 1997 off the west coast of the U.S. and Mexico comparing capture-recapture models based on photographically identified animals and line-transect methods from ship-based surveys. During photo-identification research we obtained 4,212 identifications of 824 humpback whales and 2,403 identifications of 908 blue whales primarily through non-systematic small-boat surveys along the coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. Line-transect surveys from NOAA ships in 1991, 1993, and 1996 covered approximately 39,000 km along the coast of Baja California, California, Oregon, and Washington out to 555 km from shore. The nearshore and clumped distribution of humpback whales allowed photographic identification from small boats to cost-effectively sample a substantial portion of the population, but made it difficult to obtain effective samples in the line-transect surveys covering broad areas. The humpback capture-recapture estimates indicated humpback whale abundance increased over the six years (from 569 to 837). The broader more offshore distribution of blue whales made it harder to obtain a representative sample of identification photographs, but was well suited to the line-transect estimates. The line-transect estimates, after correction for missed animals, indicated approximately 3,000 blue whales (CV = 0.14). Capture-recapture estimates of blue whales were lower than this: approximately 2,000 when using photographs obtained from the line-transect surveys as one of the samples. Comparison of the results from the two methods provides validation, as well as insight into potential biases associated with each method.
BibTeX:
@article{Calambokidis2004,
  author = {Calambokidis, J. and Barlow, J.},
  title = {Abundance of blue and humpback whales in the eastern north Pacific estimated by capture-recapture and line-transect methods},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {20},
  number = {1},
  pages = {63--85},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2004.tb01141.x}
}
Calambokidis, J., Steiger, G.H., Ellifrit, D.K., Troutman, B.L. and Bowlby, C.E. Distribution and abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) and other marine mammals off the northern Washington coast 2004 Fisheries Bulletin
Vol. 102, pp. 563-580 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Calambokidis2004a,
  author = {Calambokidis, John and Steiger, Gretchen H. and Ellifrit, David K. and Troutman, Barry L. and Bowlby, C. Edward},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) and other marine mammals off the northern Washington coast},
  journal = {Fisheries Bulletin},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {102},
  pages = {563--580}
}
Camacho, C., Feinberg, J. and Green, T. Use of the program distance to assess population size of the eastern hognose snake (Heterodon platirhinos) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory 2005   unpublished  
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Camacho,
  author = {Camacho and C. and Feinberg, J. and Green, T.},
  title = {Use of the program distance to assess population size of the eastern hognose snake (Heterodon platirhinos) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory},
  year = {2005}
}
Camp, R. Measurement errors in Hawaiian forest bird surveys and their effect on density estimation 2007 (Technical Report HCSU-005)School: Hawai'i Cooperative Studies Unit. University of Hawai'i at Hilo  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Camp2007,
  author = {Camp, Rick},
  title = {Measurement errors in Hawaiian forest bird surveys and their effect on density estimation},
  school = {Hawai'i Cooperative Studies Unit. University of Hawai'i at Hilo},
  year = {2007},
  number = {Technical Report HCSU-005}
}
Camp, R.J., Brinck, K.W., Gorresen, P.M. and Paxton, E.H. Evaluating abundance and trends in a Hawaiian avian community using state-space analysis 2016 Bird Conservation International
Vol. 26, pp. 225-242 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Camp2016,
  author = {Camp, Richard J. and Brinck, Kevin W. and Gorresen, P. Marcos and Paxton, Eben H.},
  title = {Evaluating abundance and trends in a Hawaiian avian community using state-space analysis},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {225--242},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270915000088}
}
Camp, R.J., Marshall, T.K., Amidon, A.P., Williams, F. and Pratt, L.L. Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered nightingale reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia 2009 Bird Conservation International
Vol. 19(4), pp. 323-337 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Camp2009323,
  author = {Camp, R. J. and Marshall, T. K. and Amidon, A. P. and Williams, F. and Pratt, L. L.},
  title = {Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered nightingale reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {19},
  number = {4},
  pages = {323--337},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270909008417}
}
Campbell, G.S., Thomas, L., Whitaker, K., Douglas, A.B., Calambokidis, J. and Hildebrand, J.A. Inter-annual and seasonal trends in cetacean distribution, density and abundance off southern California 2015 Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography
Vol. 112(0), pp. 143-157 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Campbell2014,
  author = {Campbell, Gregory S. and Thomas, Len and Whitaker, Katherine and Douglas, Annie B. and Calambokidis, John and Hildebrand, John A.},
  title = {Inter-annual and seasonal trends in cetacean distribution, density and abundance off southern California},
  journal = {Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {112},
  number = {0},
  pages = {143--157},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.10.008}
}
Campos-Cerqueira, M., Arendt, W.J., Wunderle, J.M. and Aide, T.M. Have bird distributions shifted along an elevational gradient on a tropical mountain? 2017 Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 7(23), pp. 9914-9924 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Campos-Cerqueira2017,
  author = {Campos-Cerqueira, Marconi and Arendt, Wayne J. and Wunderle, Joseph M. and Aide, T. Mitchell},
  title = {Have bird distributions shifted along an elevational gradient on a tropical mountain?},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {7},
  number = {23},
  pages = {9914--9924},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3520}
}
Cañadas, A., Desportes, G. and Borchers, D. The estimation of the detection function and g(0) for shortbeaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), using double platform data collected during the NASS-95 Faroese survey 2004 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 6, pp. 191-198 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{CANADAS2004,
  author = {Cañadas, A. and Desportes, G. and Borchers, D.},
  title = {The estimation of the detection function and g(0) for shortbeaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), using double platform data collected during the NASS-95 Faroese survey},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {191--198}
}
Cañadas, A. and Hammond, P.S. Abundance and habitat preferences of the short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the southwestern mediterranean: implications for conservation 2008 Endangered Species Research
Vol. 4(3), pp. 309-331 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Canadas2008,
  author = {Cañadas, A. and Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {Abundance and habitat preferences of the short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the southwestern mediterranean: implications for conservation},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  publisher = {Inter-Research Science Center},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {4},
  number = {3},
  pages = {309--331},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00073}
}
Cañadas, A. and Hammond, P.S. Model-based abundance estimates for bottlenose dolphins off southern Spain: implications for conservation and management 2006 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 8, pp. 13-27 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Canadas2006,
  author = {Cañadas, A. and Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {Model-based abundance estimates for bottlenose dolphins off southern Spain: implications for conservation and management},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {13--27}
}
Cappelle, N., Després-Einspenner, M.-L., Howe, E.J., Boesch, C. and Kühl, H.S. Validating camera trap distance sampling for chimpanzees 2019 American Journal of Primatology
Vol. 81(3), pp. e22962 
article DOI  
Abstract: The extension of distance sampling methods to accommodate observations from camera traps has recently enhanced the potential to remotely monitor multiple species without the need of additional data collection (sign production and decay rates) or individual identification. However, the method requires that the proportion of time is quantifiable when animals can be detected by the cameras. This can be problematic, for instance, when animals spend time above the ground, which is the case for most primates. In this study, we aimed to validate camera trap distance sampling (CTDS) for the semiarboreal western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire by estimating abundance of a population of known size and comparing estimates to those from other commonly applied methods. We estimated chimpanzee abundance using CTDS and accounted for limited availability for detection (semiarboreal). We evaluated bias and precision of estimates, as well as costs and efforts required to obtain them, and compared them to those from spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) and line transect nest surveys. Abundance estimates obtained by CTDS and SECR produced a similar negligible bias, but CTDS yielded a larger coefficient of variation (CV = 39.70% for CTDS vs. 1%/19% for SECR). Line transects generated the most biased abundance estimates but yielded a better coefficient of variation (27.40– 27.85%) than CTDS. Camera trap surveys were twice more costly than line transects because of the initial cost of cameras, while line transects surveys required more than twice as much time in the field. This study demonstrates the potential to obtain unbiased estimates of the abundance of semiarboreal species like chimpanzees by CTDS. HIGHLIGHTS Camera trap distance sampling produced accurate density estimates for semiarboreal chimpanzees. Availability for detection must be accounted for and can be derived from the activity pattern.
BibTeX:
@article{cappelle_validating_2019,
  author = {Cappelle, Noémie and Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne and Howe, Eric J. and Boesch, Christophe and Kühl, Hjalmar S.},
  title = {Validating camera trap distance sampling for chimpanzees},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {81},
  number = {3},
  pages = {e22962},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22962}
}
Carlucci, R., Cipriano, G., Paoli, C., Ricci, P., Fanizza, C., Capezzuto, F. and Vassallo, P. Random forest population modelling of striped and common-bottlenose dolphins in the gulf of taranto (Gulf of Taranto (northern Ionian Sea, central Mediterranean Sea) 2018 Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
Vol. 204, pp. 177-192 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Carlucci2018,
  author = {Carlucci, Roberto and Cipriano, Giulia and Paoli, Chiara and Ricci, Pasquale and Fanizza, Carmelo and Capezzuto, Francesca and Vassallo, Paolo},
  title = {Random forest population modelling of striped and common-bottlenose dolphins in the gulf of taranto (Gulf of Taranto (northern Ionian Sea, central Mediterranean Sea)},
  journal = {Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {204},
  pages = {177--192},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2018.02.034}
}
Carlucci, R., Ricci, P., Cipriano, G. and Fanizza, C. Abundance, activity and critical habitat of the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba in the Gulf of Taranto (northern Ionian Sea, central Mediterranean Sea) 2017 Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Carlucci2017,
  author = {Carlucci, Roberto and Ricci, Pasquale and Cipriano, Giulia and Fanizza, Carmelo},
  title = {Abundance, activity and critical habitat of the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba in the Gulf of Taranto (northern Ionian Sea, central Mediterranean Sea)},
  journal = {Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2017},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2867}
}
Carrascal, L.M., Seoane, J. and Palomino, D. Density bias estimations using strip transects in dry open–country environments in the Canary Islands 2008 Animal Biodiversity and Conservation
Vol. 31, pp. 45-50 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Carrascal2008,
  author = {Carrascal, L. M. and Seoane, J. and Palomino, D.},
  title = {Density bias estimations using strip transects in dry open–country environments in the Canary Islands},
  journal = {Animal Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {45--50}
}
Carretta, J.V., Chivers, S.J. and Perryman, W.L. Abundance of the long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis) in California and western Baja California waters estimated from a 2009 ship-based line-transect survey 2011 Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences
Vol. 110, pp. 152-164 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Carretta2011,
  author = {Carretta, J. V. and Chivers, S. J. and Perryman, W. L.},
  title = {Abundance of the long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis) in California and western Baja California waters estimated from a 2009 ship-based line-transect survey},
  journal = {Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {110},
  pages = {152--164},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3160/0038-3872-110.3.152}
}
Carretta, J.V., Forney, K.A. and Laake, J.L. Abundance of California coastal bottlenose dolphins estimated from tandem aerial surveys 1998 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 14, pp. 655-675 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Caretal98,
  author = {Carretta, J. V. and Forney, K. A. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Abundance of California coastal bottlenose dolphins estimated from tandem aerial surveys},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {655--675},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00755.x}
}
Carretta, J.V., Taylor, B.L. and Chivers, S.J. Abundance and depth distribution of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in northern California determined from a 1995 ship survey 2001 Fishery Bulletin
Vol. 99(1), pp. 29-39 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Carretta2001,
  author = {Carretta, J. V. and Taylor, B. L. and Chivers, S. J.},
  title = {Abundance and depth distribution of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in northern California determined from a 1995 ship survey},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {99},
  number = {1},
  pages = {29--39}
}
Carroll, J.M. and Krementz, D.G. Density and abundance of Wilson's snipe Gallinago delicata in winter in the lower Mississippi flyway, USA 2014 Wildlife Biology
Vol. 20(2), pp. 108-114 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Carroll2014,
  author = {Carroll, James M. and Krementz, David G.},
  title = {Density and abundance of Wilson's snipe Gallinago delicata in winter in the lower Mississippi flyway, USA},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology},
  publisher = {Nordic Board for Wildlife Research},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {20},
  number = {2},
  pages = {108--114},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2981/wlb.13075}
}
Carvalho, J.S., Marques, T.A. and Vicente, L. Population status of Pan troglodytes verus in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau 2013 Plos ONE
Vol. 8, pp. e71527 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Carvalho2013,
  author = {Carvalho, Joana Silva and Marques, Tiago A. and Vicente, Luis},
  title = {Population status of Pan troglodytes verus in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau},
  journal = {Plos ONE},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {e71527},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071527}
}
Casagrande, D.G. and Beissinger, S.R. Evaluation of four methods for estimating parrot population size 1997 Condor, The
Vol. 99, pp. 445-457 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CasBei97,
  author = {Casagrande, D. G. and Beissinger, S. R.},
  title = {Evaluation of four methods for estimating parrot population size},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {99},
  pages = {445--457},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1369951}
}
Cassey, P. Estimating animal abundance by distance sampling techniques 1999 School: School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Cassey1999a,
  author = {Cassey, Phillip},
  title = {Estimating animal abundance by distance sampling techniques},
  school = {School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland},
  year = {1999}
}
Cassey, P., Craig, J.L., McArdle, B.H. and Barraclough, R.K. Distance sampling techniques compared for a New Zealand endemic passerine (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater) 2007 New Zealand Journal of Ecology
Vol. 31, pp. 223-231 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Cassey2007,
  author = {Cassey, Phillip and Craig, John L. and McArdle, Brian H. and Barraclough, Rosemary K.},
  title = {Distance sampling techniques compared for a New Zealand endemic passerine (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater)},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {223--231},
  url = {https://newzealandecology.org/nzje/2837}
}
Cassey, P. and McArdle, B.H. An assessment of distance sampling techniques for estimating animal abundance 1999 Environmetrics
Vol. 10(3), pp. 261-278 
article DOI  
Abstract: Line transects have been widely applied for the estimation of animal abundance because they are regarded as simple, economical, and relatively precise. The recent development of automated techniques for the estimation of animal density from distance sampling data allows greater potential for field biologists and wildlife managers to become involved in the analytical summary of their research. An assessment was made of the ability of program DISTANCE to produce unbiased estimates of density in spite of potential sources of error from the estimation of transect and population density. Populations were simulated to investigate the robustness of program DISTANCE to changes in the density, distribution, and detection of animals across sampling areas and transects. It is concluded that if distance sampling data is collected reliably from a random sample of possible primary sampling units (PSUs) it can be expected that estimates of density will be presented accurately and with correct estimates of variance. If the proportion of the study area surveyed by transects is large however, then the presence of large between PSU variation will cause the variance estimates from program DISTANCE to be a sizeable overestimate.
BibTeX:
@article{Cassey1999,
  author = {Cassey, P. and McArdle, B. H.},
  title = {An assessment of distance sampling techniques for estimating animal abundance},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {10},
  number = {3},
  pages = {261--278},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-095X(199905/06)10:3%3C261::AID-ENV351%3E3.0.CO;2-O}
}
Cassey, P. and Usher, G.T. Estimating abundance of tuatara 1999 Biological Conservation
Vol. 88, pp. 361-366 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CasUsh99,
  author = {Cassey, P. and Usher, G. T.},
  title = {Estimating abundance of tuatara},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {361--366},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00114-1}
}
Catry, F.X., Rego, F.C., Santos, T., Almeida, J. and Relvas, P. Forest fires prevention in Portugal - using GIS to help improving early fire detection effectiveness 2007 Proceedings of the 4th International Wildland Fire Conference  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Catry2007,
  author = {Catry, F. X. and Rego, F. C. and Santos, T. and Almeida, J. and Relvas, P.},
  title = {Forest fires prevention in Portugal - using GIS to help improving early fire detection effectiveness},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th International Wildland Fire Conference},
  year = {2007}
}
Catt, D.C., Baines, D., Picozzi, N., Moss, R. and Summers, R.W. Abundance and distribution of capercaillie Tetrao urogallus in Scotland 1992-1994 1998 Biological Conservation
Vol. 85, pp. 257-267 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Catetal98,
  author = {Catt, D. C. and Baines, D. and Picozzi, N. and Moss, R. and Summers, R. W.},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of capercaillie Tetrao urogallus in Scotland 1992-1994},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {257--267},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(97)00171-7}
}
Caughley, G. Bias in aerial survey 1974 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 38, pp. 921-933 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cau74,
  author = {Caughley, G.},
  title = {Bias in aerial survey},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {921--933},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800067}
}
Caughley, G. Improving the estimates from inaccurate censuses 1972 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 36, pp. 135-140 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cau72,
  author = {Caughley, G.},
  title = {Improving the estimates from inaccurate censuses},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1972},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {135--140},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3799197}
}
Caughley, G., Sinclair, R. and Scott-Kemmis, D. Experiments in aerial survey 1976 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 40, pp. 290-300 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cauetal76,
  author = {Caughley, G. and Sinclair, R. and Scott-Kemmis, D.},
  title = {Experiments in aerial survey},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {290--300},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800428}
}
Ceia, R.S., Ramos, J.A., Heleno, R.H., Hilton, G.M. and Marques, T.A. Status assessment of the critically endangered Azores bullfinch Pyrrhula murina 2011 Bird Conservation International
Vol. 21, pp. 477-489 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ceia2011,
  author = {Ceia, Ricardo S. and Ramos, Jaime A. and Heleno, Ruben H. and Hilton, Geoff M. and Marques, Tiago A.},
  title = {Status assessment of the critically endangered Azores bullfinch Pyrrhula murina},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {477--489},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270911000025}
}
Chafota, J. Effect of measurement errors in estimating density from line transect sampling 1988 School: Colorado State University  mastersthesis  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Cha88,
  author = {Chafota, J.},
  title = {Effect of measurement errors in estimating density from line transect sampling},
  school = {Colorado State University},
  year = {1988}
}
Chandler, R.B., Royle, J.A. and King, D.I. Inference about density and temporary emigration in unmarked populations. 2011 Ecology
Vol. 92, pp. 1429-1435 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ChandlerRB2011,
  author = {Chandler, R. B. and Royle, J. A. and King, D. I.},
  title = {Inference about density and temporary emigration in unmarked populations.},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {92},
  pages = {1429--1435},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/10-2433.1}
}
Chantrey, J., Dale, T.D., Read, J.M., White, S., Whitfield, F., Jones, D., McInnes, C.J. and Begon, M. European red squirrel population dynamics driven by squirrelpox at a gray squirrel invasion interface 2014 Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 4(19), pp. 3788-3799 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Chantrey2014,
  author = {Chantrey, Julian and Dale, Timothy D. and Read, Jonathan M. and White, Steve and Whitfield, Fiona and Jones, David and McInnes, Colin J. and Begon, Michael},
  title = {European red squirrel population dynamics driven by squirrelpox at a gray squirrel invasion interface},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {4},
  number = {19},
  pages = {3788--3799},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1216}
}
Chapman, C.A. and Lambert, J.E. Habitat alteration and the conservation of African primates: case study of Kibale National Park, Uganda 2000 American Journal of Primatology
Vol. 50, pp. 169-185 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ChaLam00,
  author = {Chapman, C. A. and Lambert, J. E.},
  title = {Habitat alteration and the conservation of African primates: case study of Kibale National Park, Uganda},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {169--185},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(200003)50:3%3C169::AID-AJP1%3E3.0.CO;2-P}
}
Chatterjee, S. and Basu, P. Food preferences determine habitat selection at multiple scales: implication for bird conservation in tropical forests 2018 Animal Conservation
Vol. 21(4), pp. 332-342 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Chatterjee2018,
  author = {Chatterjee, S. and Basu, P.},
  title = {Food preferences determine habitat selection at multiple scales: implication for bird conservation in tropical forests},
  journal = {Animal Conservation},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {21},
  number = {4},
  pages = {332--342},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12397}
}
Chauvenet, A.L.M., Gill, R.M.A., Smith, G.C., Ward, A.I. and Massei, G. Quantifying the bias in density estimated from distance sampling and camera trapping of unmarked individuals 2017 Ecological Modelling
Vol. 350, pp. 79-86 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Chauvenet2017,
  author = {Chauvenet, Alienor L. M. and Gill, Robin M. A. and Smith, Graham C. and Ward, Alastair I. and Massei, Giovanna},
  title = {Quantifying the bias in density estimated from distance sampling and camera trapping of unmarked individuals},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {350},
  pages = {79--86},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2017.02.007}
}
Chav́ez-Leoń, G. and Velaźquez, A. Abundance and distribution of the long-tailed wood-partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) in a temperate coniferous forest 2004 Journal of Field Ornithology
Vol. 75(4), pp. 345-352 
article DOI  
Abstract: The Long-tailed Wood-Partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) is a species endemic to Mexico, inhabiting dense coniferous forests of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Sierra Madre del Sur, of which little is known about its ecology and conservation status. The abundance and density of the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge was estimated by point counts with playback distance sampling from March-October of 1998-2000 in a temperate coniferous forest managed for timber production by a Mexican indigenous community. The average detection rate was 0.31 individuals per point, resulting in a mean estimate for population density of 20.9 birds/km2 and a mean population estimate of 2679 individuals, estimated using the half-normal key function with cosine adjustments. Density estimates of the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge were 8 individuals/km2 in dry, open, scrubby habitats with deep ash and sand volcanic deposits subject to intense human use and in closed canopy, humid forests with moderate human disturbance. Density estimates were 14.6 and 21.5 individuals/km2 in humid, closed canopy, multi-stratified forests. The latter areas are recommended as the core area for protection of the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge.
BibTeX:
@article{Chavez-Leon2004,
  author = {Chav́ez-Leoń, G. and Velaźquez, A.},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of the long-tailed wood-partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) in a temperate coniferous forest},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {75},
  number = {4},
  pages = {345--352},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1648/0273-8570-75.4.345}
}
Chelgren, N.D., Samora, B., Adams, M.J. and Mccreary, B. Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed western toads (Anaxyrus boreas) 2011 Herpetological Conservation and Biology
Vol. 6, pp. 175-190 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Chelgren2011a,
  author = {Chelgren, Nathan D. and Samora, Barbara and Adams, Michael J. and Mccreary, Brome},
  title = {Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed western toads (Anaxyrus boreas)},
  journal = {Herpetological Conservation and Biology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {175--190}
}
Chen, B., Zheng, D., Zhai, F., X. Xu, P.S., Wang, Q. and Yang, G. Abundance, distribution and conservation of chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Xiamen, China 2008 Mammalian Biology
Vol. 73, pp. 156-164 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Chen2008,
  author = {Chen, Bingyao and Zheng, Dongmei and Zhai, Feifei and X. Xu, P. Sun and Wang, Q. and Yang, G.},
  title = {Abundance, distribution and conservation of chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Xiamen, China},
  journal = {Mammalian Biology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {156--164},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2006.12.002}
}
Chen, S.X. Animal abundance estimation in independent observer line transect surveys 2000 Environmental and Ecological Statistics
Vol. 7, pp. 285-299 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Che00,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Animal abundance estimation in independent observer line transect surveys},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {285--299},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009623301208}
}
Chen, S.X. Estimation in independent observer line transect surveys for clustered populations 1999 Biometrics
Vol. 55, pp. 754-759 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Che99,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Estimation in independent observer line transect surveys for clustered populations},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {754--759},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.1999.00754.x}
}
Chen, S.X. Measurement errors in line transect surveys 1998 Biometrics
Vol. 54, pp. 899-908 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CHE98,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Measurement errors in line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {899--908},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533844}
}
Chen, S.X. Studying school size effects in line transect sampling using the kernel method 1996 Biometrics
Vol. 52, pp. 1283-1294 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Che96b,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Studying school size effects in line transect sampling using the kernel method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {1283--1294},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2532844}
}
Chen, S.X. A kernel estimate for the density of a biological population by using line transect sampling 1996 Applied Statstics
Vol. 45, pp. 135-150 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CHE96,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {A kernel estimate for the density of a biological population by using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Applied Statstics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {135--150},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2986150}
}
Chen, S.X. and Cowling, A. Measurement errors in line transect surveys where detectability varies with distance and size 2001 Biometrics
Vol. 57, pp. 732-742 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CHE01,
  author = {Chen, S. X. and Cowling, A.},
  title = {Measurement errors in line transect surveys where detectability varies with distance and size},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {57},
  pages = {732--742},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2001.00732.x}
}
Chen, S.X. and Lloyd, C.J. A nonparametric approach to the analysis of two-stage mark-recapture experiments 2000 Biometrika
Vol. 87, pp. 633-649 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CheLlo00,
  author = {Chen, S. X. and Lloyd, C. J.},
  title = {A nonparametric approach to the analysis of two-stage mark-recapture experiments},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {87},
  pages = {633--649},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/87.3.633}
}
Chen, S.X., Yip, P.S.F. and Zhou, Y. Sequential estimation in line transect surveys 2002 Biometrics
Vol. 58(2), pp. 263-269 
article DOI  
Abstract: This article considers using sequential procedures to determine the amount of survey effort required in a line transect survey in order to achieve a certain precision level in estimating the abundance of a biological population. Sequential procedures are constructed for both parametric and nonparametric animal abundance estimators. The criterion used to derive the stopping rules is the width of confidence intervals for the animal abundance. For each estimator considered, we develop stopping rules based on the asymptotic distributions and the bootstrap. A sequential analysis on an aerial survey of the southern bluefin tuna indicates substantial saving of survey effort can be made by employment of the proposed sequential procedures. This savings of survey effort is also observed in a simulation study designed to evaluate the empirical performance of the proposed sequential procedures.
BibTeX:
@article{ChenBiometrics2002,
  author = {Chen, Song Xi and Yip, Paul S. F. and Zhou, Yong},
  title = {Sequential estimation in line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {58},
  number = {2},
  pages = {263--269},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2002.00263.x}
}
Cherenkov, S.E. Accuracy of one-visit censuses of forest passerine birds during a breeding season 1998 Zoologichesky Zhurnal
Vol. 77, pp. 474-485 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Cher98,
  author = {Cherenkov, S. E.},
  title = {Accuracy of one-visit censuses of forest passerine birds during a breeding season},
  journal = {Zoologichesky Zhurnal},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {77},
  pages = {474--485}
}
Chiarello, A.G. Effects of fragmentation of the Atlantic forest on mammal communities in south-eastern Brazil 1999 Biological Conservation
Vol. 89, pp. 71-82 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Chi99,
  author = {Chiarello, A. G.},
  title = {Effects of fragmentation of the Atlantic forest on mammal communities in south-eastern Brazil},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {89},
  pages = {71--82},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00130-X}
}
Chiarello, A.G. and Arruda, L.N. Unpaved roads are not adequate surrogates of true transects for sampling Agoutis 2017 Mammalia
Vol. 81(5), pp. 489-501 
article DOI  
Abstract:

Abstract

The distance sampling is one of the most widely used techniques for estimating abundance and density, particularly for mammals. Managers/researchers sometimes sample unpaved roads assuming that these do not violate important assumptions. However, relatively few studies have attempted to address this, simultaneously comparing behavior between roads and transects, a key issue as behavior can potentially affect detection. Here, we used distance sampling to compare abundance and behavior of agoutis between transects and unpaved roads. We sampled an isolated agouti population during two contrasting seasons. Road densities (347– 432 agoutis/km2 for dry and wet seasons, respectively) were statistically similar to those from transects (373– 322 agoutis/km2, respectively). However, road data had a different variance contribution, lower detection probability and poorer model fitting. We also found that agoutis move/interact and forage/feed differently on roads in comparison with transects and were more vigilant in transects than in roads during the first season we sampled (wet). Together, these findings indicated that (1) we detect agoutis differently on these two transect types and (2) road sampling more seriously violates the assumption of randomness of transects in relation to animals. We conclude that while avoiding roads is unfeasible given time and logistical limitations, researchers should be aware of the potential bias, making this clear when discussing and comparing their results.

BibTeX:
@article{chiarello_unpaved_2017,
  author = {Chiarello, Adriano G. and Arruda, Licia N.},
  title = {Unpaved roads are not adequate surrogates of true transects for sampling Agoutis},
  journal = {Mammalia},
  publisher = {De Gruyter},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {81},
  number = {5},
  pages = {489--501},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/mammalia-2015-0134}
}
Chiatante, G. and Meriggi, A. Habitat Selection and Density of Common Pheasant (Phasianus Colchicus) in Northern Italy: Effects of Land Use Cover and Landscape Configuration 2022 European Journal of Wildlife Research
Vol. 68(3), pp. 26 
article DOI  
Abstract: Knowing the ecology of game species is important to define sustainable hunting pressure and to plan management actions aimed to maintain viable populations. Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) is one of the main gamebird species in Europe and North America, despite its native range extending from the Caucasus to Eastern China. This research aimed to define the environmental variables shaping the spatial distribution of male pheasants and to estimate their breeding density in an agroecosystem of northern Italy. During the breeding season, 2015, we carried out 372 point counts with unlimited distances, randomly placed following a stratified sampling survey design. The habitat requirements of the pheasant were evaluated following a presence vs. availability approach, using environmental variables related to land use cover and landscape configuration. We built generalized linear models with a binary distribution, selecting variables following an information-theoretic approach. Densities were estimated through both conventional and multiple-covariate distance sampling. We estimated a density of 1.45 males/km2, with 4.26 males/km2 in suitable areas and 0.91 males/km2 in unsuitable ones. We found pheasants in areas with meadows and tree plantations, which were used to find food and refuges from predators and bad weather conditions. Similarly, woodlands have a positive effect on species occurrence, whereas arable lands were avoided, specifically maize and paddy fields. We found little evidence that landscape configuration affects pheasant occurrence. We found pheasants to be negatively affected by the length of edges between woodlands and arable lands, whereas edges between woodlands and grasslands seem to be beneficial for the species. These findings could help landscape and wildlife managers to plan habitat improvement actions useful to maintain self-sustaining populations of this species, by increasing cover of woodlands, meadows, and tree plantations.
BibTeX:
@article{Chiatante2022,
  author = {Chiatante, Gianpasquale and Meriggi, Alberto},
  title = {Habitat Selection and Density of Common Pheasant (Phasianus Colchicus) in Northern Italy: Effects of Land Use Cover and Landscape Configuration},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2022},
  volume = {68},
  number = {3},
  pages = {26},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-022-01575-w}
}
Childs, J.E., Robinson, L.E., Sadek, R., Madden, A., Miranda, M.E. and Miranda, N.L. Density estimates of rural dog populations and an assessment of marking methods during a rabies vaccination campaign in the Philippines 1998 Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Vol. 33(1-4), pp. 207-218 
article DOI  
Abstract: We estimated the population density of dogs by distance sampling and assessed the potential utility of two marking methods for capture-mark-recapture applications following a mass canine rabies-vaccination campaign in Sorsogon Province, the Republic of the Philippines. Thirty villages selected to assess vaccine coverage and for dog surveys were visited 1 to 11 days after the vaccinating team. Measurements of the distance of dogs or groups of dogs from transect lines were obtained in 1088 instances (N = 1278 dogs; mean group size = 1.2). Various functions modelling the probability of detection were fitted to a truncated distribution of distances of dogs from transect lines. A hazard rate model provided the best fit and an overall estimate of dog-population density of 468/km2 (95% confidence interval, 359 to 611). At vaccination, most dogs were marked with either a paint stick or a black plastic collar. Overall, 34.8% of 2167 and 28.5% of 2115 dogs could be accurately identified as wearing a collar or showing a paint mark; 49.1% of the dogs had either mark. Increasing time interval between vaccination-team visit and dog survey and increasing distance from transect line were inversely associated with the probability of observing a paint mark. Probability of observing a collar was positively associated with increasing estimated density of the dog population in a given village and with animals not associated with a house. The data indicate that distance sampling is a relatively simple and adaptable method for estimating dog-population density and is not prone to problems associated with meeting some model assumptions inherent to mark-recapture estimators. textcopyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Childs1998,
  author = {Childs, J. E. and Robinson, L. E. and Sadek, R. and Madden, A. and Miranda, M. E. and Miranda, N. L.},
  title = {Density estimates of rural dog populations and an assessment of marking methods during a rabies vaccination campaign in the Philippines},
  journal = {Preventive Veterinary Medicine},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {33},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {207--218},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(97)00039-1}
}
Clancy, T.F., Pople, A.R. and Gibson, L.A. Comparison of helicopter line transects with walked line transects for estimating densities of kangaroos 1997 Wildlife Research
Vol. 24, pp. 397-409 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Claetal97,
  author = {Clancy, T. F. and Pople, A. R. and Gibson, L. A.},
  title = {Comparison of helicopter line transects with walked line transects for estimating densities of kangaroos},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {397--409},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR96103}
}
Clark, P.J. and Evans, F.C. Distance to nearest neighbour as a measure of spatial relationships in populations 1954 Ecology
Vol. 35, pp. 23-30 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ClaEva54,
  author = {Clark, P. J. and Evans, F. C.},
  title = {Distance to nearest neighbour as a measure of spatial relationships in populations},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1954},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {23--30},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1931034}
}
Clarke, R.H., Boulton, R.L. and Clarke, M.F. Estimating population size of the black-eared miner, with an assessment of landscape-scale habitat requirements 2005 Pacific Conservation Biology
Vol. 11(3), pp. 174-188 
article DOI  
Abstract: The decline of the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis has been caused primarily by habitat degradation and vegetation clearance. To better direct conservation actions for this species there was a need to assess habitat requirements on a regional-scale and to estimate the population size using quantitative methods. We used vegetation mapping and the current distribution of the Black-eared Miner to determine regional-scale habitat requirements. These findings were combined with the results of distance sampling to provide population estimates. The species is restricted to large tracts of intact mallee in the Murray Mallee of southeastern Australia that have not been burnt for at least 45 years. The density of Black-eared Miners is highest in areas that are dominated by mallee-Triodia associations and have not been intensively grazed. The Bookmark Biosphere Reserve supports an estimated 501 (270-927, 95% Cl) colonies, containing 3 758 (2 026-6 954) phenotypically pure Black-eared Miners, 2 255 (1 215-4170) hybrids and small numbers of Yellow-throated Miners Manorina flavigula. However, the effective population size is considerably smaller (390 Black-eared Miners (210-726) and 234 hybrids (126-433)), due to a skewed adult sex ratio (1 female: 1.81 males) and complex social organization. A smaller population also persists in the Murray Sunset National Park containing 53 (32-85) Black-eared Miner/hybrid colonies. Both populations face a high risk of extinction from large-scale wildfire. The endangered status of the species under IUCN criteria remains warranted.
BibTeX:
@article{Clarke2005,
  author = {Clarke, R. H. and Boulton, R. L. and Clarke, M. F.},
  title = {Estimating population size of the black-eared miner, with an assessment of landscape-scale habitat requirements},
  journal = {Pacific Conservation Biology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {11},
  number = {3},
  pages = {174--188},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/PC050174}
}
Clement, D., Slooten, D., Dawson, S. and DuFresne, S. Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Farewell Spit and Motunau 2001 (22)School: Department of Conservation  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Clement2001,
  author = {Clement, D. and Slooten, D. and Dawson, S. and DuFresne, S.},
  title = {Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Farewell Spit and Motunau},
  school = {Department of Conservation},
  year = {2001},
  number = {22}
}
Clement, M.J., Converse, S.J. and Royle, J.A. Accounting for imperfect detection of groups and individuals when estimating abundance 2017 Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 7(18), pp. 7304-7310 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Clement2017,
  author = {Clement, Matthew J. and Converse, Sarah J. and Royle, J. Andrew},
  title = {Accounting for imperfect detection of groups and individuals when estimating abundance},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {7},
  number = {18},
  pages = {7304--7310},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3284}
}
Coelho, L. Estimativa de densidade de aves utilizando amostragem por distâncias em uma área verde urbana 2009 School: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Biociencias  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Coelho2009,
  author = {Coelho, Liliane},
  title = {Estimativa de densidade de aves utilizando amostragem por distâncias em uma área verde urbana},
  school = {Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Biociencias},
  year = {2009}
}
Colket, B. and Church, K.E. A comparison of traditional counts and distance sampling methods for estimating the abundance of ute ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis) 2005 School: Idaho Conservation Data Center Idaho Department of Fish and Game. US Fish and Wildlife Service  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Colket2005,
  author = {Colket, Beth and Church, Kevin E.},
  title = {A comparison of traditional counts and distance sampling methods for estimating the abundance of ute ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis)},
  school = {Idaho Conservation Data Center Idaho Department of Fish and Game. US Fish and Wildlife Service},
  year = {2005}
}
Collier, B.A., Farrell, S.L., Long, A.M., Campomizzi, A.J., Hays, K.B., Laake, J.L., Morrison, M.L. and Wilkins, R.N. Modeling spatially explicit densities of endangered avian species in a heterogeneous landscape 2013 The Auk
Vol. 130, pp. 666-676 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Collier2013,
  author = {Collier, Bret A. and Farrell, Shannon L. and Long, Ashley M. and Campomizzi, Andrew J. and Hays, K. Brian and Laake, Jeffrey L. and Morrison, Michael L. and Wilkins, R. Neal},
  title = {Modeling spatially explicit densities of endangered avian species in a heterogeneous landscape},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {130},
  pages = {666--676},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2013.13017}
}
Compton, R., Banks, A., Goodwin, L. and Hooker, S.K. Pilot cetacean survey of the sub-arctic north Atlantic utilizing a cruise-ship platform 2007 Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
Vol. 87, pp. 321-325 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Compton2007,
  author = {Compton, Ross and Banks, Aaron and Goodwin, Lissa and Hooker, Sascha K.},
  title = {Pilot cetacean survey of the sub-arctic north Atlantic utilizing a cruise-ship platform},
  journal = {Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {87},
  pages = {321--325},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315407054781}
}
Conn, P.B. and Alisauskas, R.T. Simultaneous modelling of movement, measurement error, and observer dependence in mark-recapture distance sampling: an application to arctic bird surveys 2018 The Annals of Applied Statistics
Vol. 12(1), pp. 96-122 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Conn2018,
  author = {Conn, Paul B. and Alisauskas, Ray T.},
  title = {Simultaneous modelling of movement, measurement error, and observer dependence in mark-recapture distance sampling: an application to arctic bird surveys},
  journal = {The Annals of Applied Statistics},
  publisher = {Institute of Mathematical Statistics},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {12},
  number = {1},
  pages = {96--122},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1214/17-AOAS1108}
}
Conn, P.B., Arthur, A.D., Bailey, L.L. and Singleton, G.R. Estimating the abundance of mouse populations of known size: promises and pitfalls of new methods 2006 Ecological Applications
Vol. 16(2), pp. 829-837 
article DOI  
Abstract: Knowledge of animal abundance is fundamental to many ecological studies. Frequently, researchers cannot determine true abundance, and so must estimate it using a method such as mark-recapture or distance sampling. Recent advances in abundance estimation allow one to model heterogeneity with individual covariates or mixture distributions and to derive multimodel abundance estimators that explicitly address uncertainty about which model parameterization best represents truth. Further, it is possible to borrow information on detection probability across several populations when data are sparse. While promising, these methods have not been evaluated using mark-recapture data from populations of known abundance, and thus far have largely been overlooked by ecologists. In this paper, we explored the utility of newly developed mark-recapture methods for estimating the abundance of 12 captive populations of wild house mice (Mus musculus). We found that mark-recapture methods employing individual covariates yielded satisfactory abundance estimates for most populations. In contrast, model sets with heterogeneity formulations consisting solely of mixture distributions did not perform well for several of the populations. We show through simulation that a higher number of trapping occasions would have been necessary to achieve good estimator performance in this case. Finally, we show that simultaneous analysis of data from low abundance populations can yield viable abundance estimates. textcopyright 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.
BibTeX:
@article{Conn2006,
  author = {Conn, P. B. and Arthur, A. D. and Bailey, L. L. and Singleton, G. R.},
  title = {Estimating the abundance of mouse populations of known size: promises and pitfalls of new methods},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {16},
  number = {2},
  pages = {829--837},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016%5B0829:ETAOMP%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Conn, P.B., Johnson, D.S., London, J.M. and Boveng, P.L. Accounting for missing data when assessing availability in animal population surveys: an application to ice-associated seals in the Bering Sea 2012 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 3(6), pp. 1039-1046 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{MEE3:MEE3238,
  author = {Conn, Paul B. and Johnson, Devin S. and London, Josh M. and Boveng, Peter L.},
  title = {Accounting for missing data when assessing availability in animal population surveys: an application to ice-associated seals in the Bering Sea},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1039--1046},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00238.x}
}
Conn, P.B., Laake, J.L. and Johnson, D.S. A hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer transect surveys 2012 PLoS ONE
Vol. 7, pp. e42294 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Conn2012,
  author = {Conn, P. B. and Laake, J. L. and Johnson, D. S.},
  title = {A hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer transect surveys},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {e42294},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042294}
}
Conroy, M.J., Nichols, J.D. and Asanza, E.R. Métodos cuantitativos contemporáneos para entender y manejar poblaciones y comunidades animales [Contemporary quantitative methods to understand and manage animal populations and communities] 1997 Interciencia
Vol. 22, pp. 247-258 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Conetal97,
  author = {Conroy, M. J. and Nichols, J. D. and Asanza, E. R.},
  title = {Métodos cuantitativos contemporáneos para entender y manejar poblaciones y comunidades animales [Contemporary quantitative methods to understand and manage animal populations and communities]},
  journal = {Interciencia},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {247--258}
}
Cook, J.R. and Stefanski, L.A. Simulation-extrapolation estimation in parametric measurement error models 1994 Journal of the American Statistical Association
Vol. 89, pp. 1314-1328 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{COO94,
  author = {Cook, J. R. and Stefanski, L. A.},
  title = {Simulation-extrapolation estimation in parametric measurement error models},
  journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {89},
  pages = {1314--1328},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1994.10476871}
}
Cook, R.D. and Jacobsen, J.O. A design for estimating visibility bias in aerial surveys 1979 Biometrics
Vol. 35, pp. 735-742 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CooJac79,
  author = {Cook, R. D. and Jacobsen, J. O.},
  title = {A design for estimating visibility bias in aerial surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {735--742},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530104}
}
Cooke, J.G. A modification of the radial distance method for dual-platform line transect analysis, to improve robustness 2001 (Paper SC/53/IA31)School: Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Coo01,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {A modification of the radial distance method for dual-platform line transect analysis, to improve robustness},
  school = {Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {2001},
  number = {Paper SC/53/IA31}
}
Cooke, J.G. An implementation of a surfacing-based approach to abundance estimation of minke whales from shipborne surveys 1997 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 47, pp. 513-528 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Coo97,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {An implementation of a surfacing-based approach to abundance estimation of minke whales from shipborne surveys},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {47},
  pages = {513--528}
}
Cooke, J.G. Estimation of the population of minke whales in Antarctic Area IVW in 1984/85 1987 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 37, pp. 273-276 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Coo87,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {Estimation of the population of minke whales in Antarctic Area IVW in 1984/85},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {273--276}
}
Cooke, J.G. Notes on the estimation of whale density from line transects 1985 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 35, pp. 319-323 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Coo85,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {Notes on the estimation of whale density from line transects},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {319--323}
}
Cooke, J.G. and Leaper, R. General modelling framework for the estimation of whale abundance from line transect surveys 1998 (Paper SC/50/RMP21)School: Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{CooLea98,
  author = {Cooke, J. G. and Leaper, R.},
  title = {General modelling framework for the estimation of whale abundance from line transect surveys},
  school = {Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1998},
  number = {Paper SC/50/RMP21}
}
Corlatti, L., Nelli, L., Bertolini, M., Zibordi, F. and Pedrotti, L. A comparison of four different methods to estimate population size of Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) 2017 Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy
Vol. 28 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Corlatti2017,
  author = {Corlatti, Luca and Nelli, Luca and Bertolini, Matteo and Zibordi, Filippo and Pedrotti, Luca},
  title = {A comparison of four different methods to estimate population size of Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota)},
  journal = {Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy},
  publisher = {Associazione Teriologica Italiana},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {28},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-28.1-11698}
}
Corn, J.L. and Conroy, M.J. Estimation of density of mongooses with capture-recapture and distance sampling 1998 Journal of Mammalogy
Vol. 79(3), pp. 1009-1015 
article DOI  
Abstract: We captured mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) in live traps arranged in trapping webs in Antigua, West Indies, and used capture-recapture and distance sampling to estimate density. Distance estimation and program DISTANCE were used to provide estimates of density from the trapping-web data. Mean density based on trapping webs was 9.5 mongooses/ha (range, 5.9-10.2/ha); estimates had coefficients of variation ranging from 29.82-31.58% (X = 30.46%). Mark-recapture models were used to estimate abundance, which was converted to density using estimates of effective trap area. Tests of model assumptions provided by CAPTURE indicated pronounced heterogeneity in capture probabilities and some indication of behavioral response and variation over time. Mean estimated density was 1.80 mongooses/ha (range, 1.37-2.15/ha) with estimated coefficients of variation of 4.68-11.92% (X = 7.46%). Estimates of density based on mark-recapture data depended heavily on assumptions about animal home ranges; variances of densities also may be underestimated, leading to unrealistically narrow confidence intervals. Estimates based on trap webs require fewer assumptions, and estimated variances may be a more realistic representation of sampling variation. Because trap webs are established easily and provide adequate data for estimation in a few sample occasions, the method should be efficient and reliable for estimating densities of mongooses.
BibTeX:
@article{Corn1998,
  author = {Corn, J. L. and Conroy, M. J.},
  title = {Estimation of density of mongooses with capture-recapture and distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {79},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1009--1015},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1383109}
}
Cosens, S.E. and Innes, S. Distribution and numbers of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in northwestern hudson bay in august 1995 2000 Arctic
Vol. 53(1), pp. 36-41 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cosens2000,
  author = {Cosens, S. E. and Innes, S.},
  title = {Distribution and numbers of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in northwestern hudson bay in august 1995},
  journal = {Arctic},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {53},
  number = {1},
  pages = {36--41},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic832}
}
Cottam, G. and Curtis, J.T. The use of distance measures in phytosociological sampling 1956 Ecology
Vol. 37, pp. 451-460 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CotCur56,
  author = {Cottam, G. and Curtis, J. T.},
  title = {The use of distance measures in phytosociological sampling},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1956},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {451--460},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1930167}
}
Cotté, C., Guinet, C., Taupier-Letage, I., Mate, B. and Petiau, E. Scale-dependent habitat use by a large free-ranging predator, the mediterranean fin whale 2009 Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
Vol. 56(5), pp. 801-811 
article DOI  
Abstract: Since the heterogeneity of oceanographic conditions drives abundance, distribution, and availability of prey, it is essential to understand how foraging predators interact with their dynamic environment at various spatial and temporal scales. We examined the spatio-temporal relationships between oceanographic features and abundance of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), the largest free-ranging predator in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WM), through two independent approaches. First, spatial modeling was used to estimate whale density, using waiting distance (the distance between detections) for fin whales along ferry routes across the WM, in relation to remotely sensed oceanographic parameters. At a large scale (basin and year), fin whales exhibited fidelity to the northern WM with a summer-aggregated and winter-dispersed pattern. At mesoscale (20-100Â km), whales were found in colder, saltier (from an on-board system) and dynamic areas defined by steep altimetric and temperature gradients. Second, using an independent fin whale satellite tracking dataset, we showed that tracked whales were effectively preferentially located in favorable habitats, i.e. in areas of high predicted densities as identified by our previous model using oceanographic data contemporaneous to the tracking period. We suggest that the large-scale fidelity corresponds to temporally and spatially predictable habitat of whale favorite prey, the northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica), while mesoscale relationships are likely to identify areas of high prey concentration and availability.
BibTeX:
@article{Cotte2009,
  author = {Cotté, Cédric and Guinet, Christophe and Taupier-Letage, Isabelle and Mate, Bruce and Petiau, Estelle},
  title = {Scale-dependent habitat use by a large free-ranging predator, the mediterranean fin whale},
  journal = {Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {56},
  number = {5},
  pages = {801--811},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2008.12.008}
}
Coulson, G. Use of heterogeneous habitat by the western gray kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus 1993 Wildlife Research
Vol. 20, pp. 137-149 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Cou93,
  author = {Coulson, G.},
  title = {Use of heterogeneous habitat by the western gray kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {137--149}
}
Coulson, G.M. and Raines, J.A. Methods for small-scale surveys of grey kangaroo populations 1985 Australian Wildlife Research
Vol. 12, pp. 119-125 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CouRai85,
  author = {Coulson, G. M. and Raines, J. A.},
  title = {Methods for small-scale surveys of grey kangaroo populations},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {119--125},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9850119}
}
Cowling, A. Spatial methods for line transect surveys 1998 Biometrics
Vol. 54, pp. 828-839 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cow98,
  author = {Cowling, A.},
  title = {Spatial methods for line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {828--839},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533837}
}
Cox, M.J., Borchers, D.L., Demer, D.A., Cutter, G.R. and Brierley, A.S. Estimating the density of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from multi-beam echo-sounder observations using distance sampling methods 2011 Applied Statistics
Vol. 60, pp. 301-316 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cox2011,
  author = {Cox, Martin J. and Borchers, David L. and Demer, David A. and Cutter, George R. and Brierley, Andrew S.},
  title = {Estimating the density of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from multi-beam echo-sounder observations using distance sampling methods},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {301--316},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9876.2010.00748.x}
}
Cox, T.F. The robust estimation of the density of a forest stand using a new conditioned distance method 1976 Biometrika
Vol. 63, pp. 493-500 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cox76,
  author = {Cox, T. F.},
  title = {The robust estimation of the density of a forest stand using a new conditioned distance method},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {63},
  pages = {493--500},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/63.3.493}
}
Crain, B.R. Window sensitivity functions for line transect sampling 1998 Environmental Management
Vol. 22, pp. 471-481 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cra98b,
  author = {Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Window sensitivity functions for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Environmental Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {471--481},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s002679900120}
}
Crain, B.R. Some comments on line transect grouped data analysis 1998 Ecological Modelling
Vol. 109, pp. 243-249 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cra98,
  author = {Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Some comments on line transect grouped data analysis},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {109},
  pages = {243--249},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(98)00037-4}
}
Crain, B.R. Estimation of distributions using orthogonal expansions 1974 The Annals of Statistics
Vol. 2, pp. 454-463 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cra74,
  author = {Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Estimation of distributions using orthogonal expansions},
  journal = {The Annals of Statistics},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {454--463},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1214/aos/1176342706}
}
Crain, B.R., Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. Nonparametric estimation of population density for line transect sampling using Fourier series 1979 Biometrical Journal
Vol. 21, pp. 731-748 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Craetal79,
  author = {Crain, B. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Nonparametric estimation of population density for line transect sampling using Fourier series},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {731--748},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.4710210804}
}
Crain, B.R., Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. A Fourier series estimator of population density for line transect sampling 1978   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Craetal78,
  author = {Crain, B. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {A Fourier series estimator of population density for line transect sampling},
  publisher = {Utah State University Press},
  year = {1978}
}
Crase, B., Duguid, A., Pengart, R.N., Jakamarra, P.W., Angal, L.P. and Kemarr, M.S.P.a.A.W. Distribution and conservation status of the giant sweet potato, a rare aboriginal food plant from central Australia 2010 Northern Territory Naturalist
Vol. 22, pp. 17-30 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Crase2010,
  author = {Crase, Beth and Duguid, Angus and Pengart, Raymond Nelson and Jakamarra, Paddy Willis and Angal, Laurie Price and Kemarr, Margaret Scobie Pengart adn Aggie Woods},
  title = {Distribution and conservation status of the giant sweet potato, a rare aboriginal food plant from central Australia},
  journal = {Northern Territory Naturalist},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {17--30}
}
Crespo, E.A., Pedraza, S.N., Grandi, M.F., Dans, S.L. and Garaffo, G.V. Abundance and distribution of endangered Franciscana dolphins in Argentine waters and conservation implications 2010 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 26, pp. 17-35 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Crespo2010,
  author = {Crespo, Enrique A. and Pedraza, Susana N. and Grandi, M. Florencia and Dans, Silvana L. and Garaffo, Griselda V.},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of endangered Franciscana dolphins in Argentine waters and conservation implications},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {17--35},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00313.x}
}
Cuarón, A.D., Martínez-Morales, M.A., McFadden, K.W., Valenzuela, D. and Gompper, M.E. The status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel Island, Mexico 2004 Biodiversity and Conservation
Vol. 13(2), pp. 317-331 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cuaron2004,
  author = {Cuarón, A. D. and Martínez-Morales, M. A. and McFadden, K. W. and Valenzuela, D. and Gompper, M. E.},
  title = {The status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel Island, Mexico},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {13},
  number = {2},
  pages = {317--331},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOC.0000006501.80472.cc}
}
Cuthbert R., J., de Brooke M., L. and Torr, N. Overcoming hermit-crab interference during rodent-baiting operations: a case study from Henderson Island, south Pacific 2012 Wildlife Research
Vol. 39, pp. 70-77 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CuthbertR.2012,
  author = {Cuthbert R., J. and de Brooke M., L. and Torr, N.},
  title = {Overcoming hermit-crab interference during rodent-baiting operations: a case study from Henderson Island, south Pacific},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {70--77},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR11033}
}
Dahlheim, M., York, A., Towell, R., Waite, J. and Breiwick, J. Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) abundance in Alaska: Bristol Bay to Southeast Alaska, 1991-1993 2000 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 16, pp. 28-45 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dahetal00,
  author = {Dahlheim, M. and York, A. and Towell, R. and Waite, J. and Breiwick, J.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) abundance in Alaska: Bristol Bay to Southeast Alaska, 1991-1993},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {28--45},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2000.tb00902.x}
}
Dahlheim, M.E., Zerbini, A.N., Waite, J. and Kennedy, A.S. Temporal changes in abundance of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) inhabiting the inland waters of southeast alaska 2015 Fishery Bulletin
Vol. 113, pp. 242-255 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dahlheim2015,
  author = {Dahlheim, Marilyn E. and Zerbini, Alexandre N. and Waite, Janice and Kennedy, Amy S.},
  title = {Temporal changes in abundance of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) inhabiting the inland waters of southeast alaska},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {113},
  pages = {242--255},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7755/FB.113.3.2}
}
Dallimer, M. and King, T. Habitat preferences of the forest birds on the island of Príncipe, Gulf of Guinea 2007 African Journal of Ecology
Vol. 46, pp. 258-266 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dallimer2007,
  author = {Dallimer, Martin and King, Tony},
  title = {Habitat preferences of the forest birds on the island of Príncipe, Gulf of Guinea},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {258--266},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00891.x}
}
Dallimer, M., King, T. and Atkinson, R.J. Pervasive threats within a protected area: conserving the endemic birds of São Tomé, west Africa 2009 Animal Conservation
Vol. 12, pp. 209-219 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dallimer2009,
  author = {Dallimer, M. and King, T. and Atkinson, R. J.},
  title = {Pervasive threats within a protected area: conserving the endemic birds of São Tomé, west Africa},
  journal = {Animal Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {209--219},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00240.x}
}
Dallimer, M., Melo, M., Collar, N.J. and Jones, P.J. The príncipe thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus: a newly split, "critically endangered", forest flagship species 2010 Bird Conservation International
Vol. First View, pp. 1-7 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CambridgeJournals:7852429,
  author = {Dallimer, Martin and Melo, Martim and Collar, Nigel J. and Jones, Peter J.},
  title = {The príncipe thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus: a newly split, "critically endangered", forest flagship species},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {First View},
  pages = {1--7},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270910000390}
}
Daniel, A., Holechek, J., Valdez, R., Tembo, A., Saiwana, L., Fusco, M. and Cardenas, M. Jackrabbit densities on fair and good condition Chihuahuan desert range 1993 Journal of Range Management
Vol. 46, pp. 524-528 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Danetal93,
  author = {Daniel, A. and Holechek, J. and Valdez, R. and Tembo, A. and Saiwana, L. and Fusco, M. and Cardenas, M.},
  title = {Jackrabbit densities on fair and good condition Chihuahuan desert range},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {524--528},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/4002865}
}
Dawson, D.G. Counting birds for a relative measure (index) of density 1981 (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, pp. 12-16  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Daw81,
  author = {Dawson, D. G.},
  title = {Counting birds for a relative measure (index) of density},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {12--16}
}
Dawson, S., DuFresne, S., Slooten, E. and Wade, P. Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Motunau and Timaru 2000 (3072)School: Department of Conservation  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Dawson2000,
  author = {Dawson, S. and DuFresne, S. and Slooten, E. and Wade, P.},
  title = {Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Motunau and Timaru},
  school = {Department of Conservation},
  year = {2000},
  number = {3072}
}
Dawson, S., Slooten, E., DuFresne, S., Wade, P. and Clement, D. Small-boat surveys for coastal dolphins: line-transect surveys for Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) 2004 Fishery Bulletin
Vol. 102(3), pp. 441-451 
article  
Abstract: Management of coastal species of small cetaceans is often impeded by a lack of robust estimates of their abundance. In the Austral summers of 1997-98, 1998-99, and 1999-2000 we conducted line-transect surveys of Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) abundance off the north, east, and south coasts of the South Island of New Zealand. Survey methods were modified for the use of a 15-m sailing catamaran, which was equipped with a collapsible sighting platform giving observers an eye-height of 6 m. Eighty-six percent of 2061 km of survey effort was allocated to inshore waters (4 nautical miles [nmi] or 7.4 km from shore), and the remainder to offshore waters (4-10 nmi or 7.4-18.5 km from shore). Transects were placed at 45textdegree to the shore and spaced apart by 1, 2, 4, or 8 nmi according to pre-existing data on dolphin density. Survey effort within strata was uniform. Detection functions for sheltered waters and open coasts were fitted separately for each survey. The effect of attraction of dolphins to the survey vessel and the fraction of dolphins missed on the trackline were assessed with simultaneous boat and helicopter surveys in January 1999. Hector's dolphin abundance in the coastal zone to 4 nmi offshore was calculated at 1880 individuals (CV=15.7%, log-normal 95% CI=1384-2554). These surveys are the first line-transect surveys for cetaceans in New Zealand's coastal waters.
BibTeX:
@article{Dawetal04,
  author = {Dawson, S. and Slooten, E. and DuFresne, S. and Wade, P. and Clement, D.},
  title = {Small-boat surveys for coastal dolphins: line-transect surveys for Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori)},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {102},
  number = {3},
  pages = {441--451}
}
Dawson, S., Wade, P., Slooten, E. and Barlow, J. Design and field methods for sighting surveys of cetaceans in coastal and riverine habitats 2008 Mammal Review
Vol. 38, pp. 19-49 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{DawsonJanuary2008,
  author = {Dawson, Steve and Wade, Paul and Slooten, Elisabeth and Barlow, Jay},
  title = {Design and field methods for sighting surveys of cetaceans in coastal and riverine habitats},
  journal = {Mammal Review},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {19--49},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2907.2008.00119.x}
}
Dayananda, S.K., Mammides, C., Lee, M.-B., Liu, J.-J., Pasion, B.O., Sreekar, R., Yasuda, M., Quan, R.-C., Slik, J.W.F., Tomlinson, K.W. and Goodale, E. Topography and soil type are critical to understanding how bird and herpetofaunal communities persist in forest fragments of tropical China 2017 Biological Conservation
Vol. 215, pp. 107-115 
article DOI  
Abstract: Abstract Habitat fragmentation in heterogeneous landscapes is a non-random process, with farmers selecting lands with flat topography and fertile soils. To understand the persistence of biodiversity in forest fragments in such landscapes, it is necessary to distinguish between factors associated with fragmentation (e.g., area and distance to edge) and characteristics of where fragments are located (e.g., topography and soil conditions). Location factors have been previously demonstrated to be important in explaining the persistence of trees in fragments in the environmentally diverse region of Xishuangbanna, China (Liu and Slik, Biological Conservation, 2014). However, it is unknown how location factors influence more mobile, short-lived organisms. We sampled 42 of the previous study's plots for birds and herpetofauna across two years. A multi-model inference approach indicated that topography was the most important predictor of amphibian diversity, with valleys having more than three times the species in other locations. Topography interacted with fragment size for bird species, and particularly forest interior (FI) species: diversity in valley plots climbed strongly with fragment area, but the relationship between area and diversity was less strong in other locations. Soil type (limestone or not) most strongly influenced the score of plots on the first axis of a NMDS\ ordination of FI\ birds. These results suggest that managers should consider the location of fragments in the landscape in prioritizing forest fragments for protection. For Xishuangbanna, all valley fragments are important to protect amphibians; amalgamating them into large fragments > 1000 ha will make them most useful for bird conservation.
BibTeX:
@article{Dayananda2017,
  author = {Dayananda, Salindra K. and Mammides, Christos and Lee, Myung-Bok and Liu, Jia-Jia and Pasion, Bonifacio O. and Sreekar, Rachakonda and Yasuda, Mika and Quan, Rui-Chang and Slik, J. W. Ferry and Tomlinson, Kyle W. and Goodale, Eben},
  title = {Topography and soil type are critical to understanding how bird and herpetofaunal communities persist in forest fragments of tropical China},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {215},
  pages = {107--115},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.08.034}
}
De Boer, M.N., Leaper, R., Keith, S. and Simmonds, M.P. Winter abundance estimates for the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the western approaches of the English Channel and the effect of responsive movement 2008 Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology
Vol. 1, pp. 14-20 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{DeBoer2008,
  author = {De Boer, M. N. and Leaper, R. and Keith, S. and Simmonds, M. P.},
  title = {Winter abundance estimates for the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the western approaches of the English Channel and the effect of responsive movement},
  journal = {Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {14--20}
}
Defos du Rau, P., Bourgeois, K., Thévenet, M., Ruffino, L., Dromzée, S., Ouni, R., Abiadh, A., Estève, R., Durand, J.-P., Anselme, L., Faggio, G., Yahya, J.M., Rguibi, H., Renda, M., Miladi, B., Hamrouni, H., Alilech, S., Nefla, A., Jaouadi, W., Agrebi, S. and Renou, S. Reassessment of the size of the Scopoli's shearwater population at its main breeding site resulted in a tenfold increase: implications for the species conservation 2015 Journal of Ornithology
Vol. 156(4), pp. 877-892 
article DOI  
Abstract: Scopoli's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a Procellariiform endemic to the Mediterranean Basin which is considered to be vulnerable in Europe due to recent local declines and its susceptibility to both marine and terrestrial threats. In the 1970s– 1980s, its population size was estimated at 57,000– 76,000 breeding pairs throughout the Mediterranean Basin, with the largest colony, estimated at 15,000– 25,000 pairs, found on Zembra Island, Tunisia. The objectives of our study were to re-estimate the size of the breeding population on Zembra Island, to reassess the global population size of the species, and to analyse the implications of these findings on status and conservation of this species in the Mediterranean. Using distance sampling, we estimated the Zembra breeding population to be 141,780 pairs (95Â % confidence interval 113,720– 176,750 pairs). A review of the most recent data on populations of this species throughout the Mediterranean Basin led us to estimate its new global population size at 141,000– 223,000 breeding pairs. Using the demographic invariant and potential biological removal approaches, we estimated the maximum number of adults which could be killed annually by all non-natural causes without causing a population decline to be 8800 (range 7700– 9700) individuals, of which could be 3700 breeders. Although these results are less alarming in the context of species conservation than previously thought, uncertainties associated with global population size, trends and major threats still raise questions on the future of this species. More generally, we show how a monitoring strategy for a bird supposed to be relatively well known overall can be potentially misleading due to biases in survey design. The reduction of such biases would therefore appear to be an unavoidable prerequisite in cryptic species monitoring before any reliable inference on the conservation status of the species can be drawn.
BibTeX:
@article{DefosduRau2015,
  author = {Defos du Rau, Pierre and Bourgeois, Karen and Thévenet, Mathieu and Ruffino, Lise and Dromzée, Sylvain and Ouni, Ridha and Abiadh, Awatef and Estève, Roger and Durand, Jean-Patrick and Anselme, Lorraine and Faggio, Gilles and Yahya, Jaber Mohamed and Rguibi, Hamid and Renda, Michel and Miladi, Bayrem and Hamrouni, Hennabaal and Alilech, Slim and Nefla, Aymen and Jaouadi, Wahbi and Agrebi, Sofiene and Renou, Sébastien},
  title = {Reassessment of the size of the Scopoli's shearwater population at its main breeding site resulted in a tenfold increase: implications for the species conservation},
  journal = {Journal of Ornithology},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {156},
  number = {4},
  pages = {877--892},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-015-1187-4}
}
DeJong, M.J. and Emlen, J.T. The shape of the auditory detection function and its implication for songbird censusing 1985 Journal of Field Ornithology
Vol. 56, pp. 213-223 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{DejEml85,
  author = {DeJong, M. J. and Emlen, J. T.},
  title = {The shape of the auditory detection function and its implication for songbird censusing},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {213--223}
}
DeMaster, D.P., Lowry, L.F. and Frost, K.J. The effect of sea state on estimates of abundance for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Norton Sound, Alaska 2001 Fishery Bulletin
Vol. 99, pp. 197-201 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{DeMaster2001,
  author = {DeMaster, Douglas P. and Lowry, Lloyd F. and Frost, Kathryn J.},
  title = {The effect of sea state on estimates of abundance for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Norton Sound, Alaska},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {99},
  pages = {197--201}
}
Dénes, F.V., Silveira, L.F. and Beissinger, S.R. Estimating abundance of unmarked animal populations: accounting for imperfect detection and other sources of zero inflation 2015 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 6(5), pp. 543-556 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Denes2015,
  author = {Dénes, Francisco V. and Silveira, Luis Fabio and Beissinger, Steven R.},
  title = {Estimating abundance of unmarked animal populations: accounting for imperfect detection and other sources of zero inflation},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {6},
  number = {5},
  pages = {543--556},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12333}
}
Denis, T., Richard-Hansen, C., Brunaux, O., Etienne, M.-P., Guitet, S. and Hérault, B. Biological traits, rather than environment, shape detection curves of large vertebrates in neotropical rainforests 2017 Ecological Applications
Vol. 27(5), pp. 1564-1577 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Denis,
  author = {Denis, Thomas and Richard-Hansen, Cécile and Brunaux, Olivier and Etienne, Marie-Pierre and Guitet, Stéphane and Hérault, Bruno},
  title = {Biological traits, rather than environment, shape detection curves of large vertebrates in neotropical rainforests},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {27},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1564--1577},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.1549}
}
DeSante, D.F. A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing method in a Sierran subalpine forest habitat 1986 Condor, The
Vol. 88, pp. 129-142 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Des86,
  author = {DeSante, D. F.},
  title = {A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing method in a Sierran subalpine forest habitat},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {129--142},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1368908}
}
DeSante, D.F. A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing technique in a California coastal scrub breeding bird community 1981 (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, pp. 177-185  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Des81,
  author = {DeSante, D. F.},
  title = {A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing technique in a California coastal scrub breeding bird community},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {177--185}
}
Desbiez, A. and Tomas, W.M. Aplicabilidade do método de amostragem de distâncias em levantamentos de médios e grandes vertebrados no pantana 2003 School: Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento / Embrapa Pantanal, volume 53  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Desbiez2003,
  author = {Desbiez, Arnaud and Tomas, Walfrido Moraes},
  title = {Aplicabilidade do método de amostragem de distâncias em levantamentos de médios e grandes vertebrados no pantana},
  school = {Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento / Embrapa Pantanal, volume 53},
  year = {2003}
}
DeVries, P.G. A generalization of the Hayne-type estimator as an application of line intercept sampling 1979 Biometrics
Vol. 35, pp. 743-748 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dev79,
  author = {DeVries, P. G.},
  title = {A generalization of the Hayne-type estimator as an application of line intercept sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {743--748},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530105}
}
Devy, M.S., Ganesh, T. and Davidar, P. Patterns of butterfly distribution in the Andaman islands: implications for conservation 1998 Acta Oecologica
Vol. 19, pp. 527-534 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Devetal98,
  author = {Devy, M. S. and Ganesh, T. and Davidar, P.},
  title = {Patterns of butterfly distribution in the Andaman islands: implications for conservation},
  journal = {Acta Oecologica},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {527--534},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S1146-609X(99)80007-1}
}
DeYoung, C.A., Guthery, F.S., Beasom, S.L., Coughlin, S.P. and Heffelfinger, J.R. Improving estimates of white-tailed deer abundance from helicopter surveys 1989 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 17, pp. 275-279 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Deyetal89,
  author = {DeYoung, C. A. and Guthery, F. S. and Beasom, S. L. and Coughlin, S. P. and Heffelfinger, J. R.},
  title = {Improving estimates of white-tailed deer abundance from helicopter surveys},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {275--279},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782384}
}
Dias, F.S., Miller, D.L., Marques, T.A., Marcelino, J., Caldeira, M.C., Cerdeira, J.O. and Bugalho, M.N. Conservation zones promote oak regeneration and shrub diversity in certified mediterranean oak woodlands 2016 Biological Conservation
Vol. 195, pp. 226-234 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dias2016226,
  author = {Dias, Filipe S. and Miller, David L. and Marques, Tiago A. and Marcelino, Joana and Caldeira, Maria C. and Cerdeira, J. Orestes and Bugalho, Miguel N.},
  title = {Conservation zones promote oak regeneration and shrub diversity in certified mediterranean oak woodlands},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {195},
  pages = {226--234},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.01.009}
}
Dias, F.S., Wenceslau, J.F.C., Marques, T.A. and Miller, D.L. Density and distribution of western chimpanzees around a bauxite deposit in the Boé Sector, Guinea-Bissau 2019 American Journal of Primatology
Vol. 81(9), pp. e23047 
article DOI  
Abstract: The Boé sector in southeast Guinea-Bissau harbors a population of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) that inhabits a mosaic of forest and savanna. The Boé sector contains a substantial bauxite deposit in a region called Ronde Hill, and there are plans for the construction of a mine, which may endanger the chimpanzee population. In 1-week survey in May 2013, we used the standing crop nest counts method to obtain the number of chimpanzee nests and from that estimate the density and abundance of chimpanzees. We carried out five 1-km line transects that covered the bauxite deposit and surrounding valleys. We used density surface modeling to analyze habitat preferences, then predicted chimpanzee nest density and distribution based on environmental variables. We found the projected location of the mine partially coincides with an area of high predicted abundances of chimpanzee nests and is surrounded by highly suitable areas for chimpanzees (northeast and southwest). We conclude the mine could have significant direct and indirect effects on this population of chimpanzees whose impacts must be carefully considered and properly mitigated if the mine is built.
BibTeX:
@article{dias_density_2019,
  author = {Dias, Filipe S. and Wenceslau, José F. C. and Marques, Tiago A. and Miller, David L.},
  title = {Density and distribution of western chimpanzees around a bauxite deposit in the Boé Sector, Guinea-Bissau},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {81},
  number = {9},
  pages = {e23047},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23047}
}
Dick, D.M. and Hines, E.M. Using distance sampling techniques to estimate bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) abundance at Turneffe Atoll, Belize 2010 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 27(3), pp. 606-621 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{MMS:MMS435,
  author = {Dick, Dorothy M. and Hines, Ellen M.},
  title = {Using distance sampling techniques to estimate bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) abundance at Turneffe Atoll, Belize},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Inc},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {27},
  number = {3},
  pages = {606--621},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00435.x}
}
Dickinson, H.C. and Fa, J.E. Abundance, demographics and body condition of a translocated population of St Lucia whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus vanzoi) 2000 Journal of Zoology
Vol. 251(2), pp. 187-197 
article DOI  
Abstract: The whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus vanzoi is a large-bodied teiid found only on two islands (Maria Major and Maria Minor), off St Lucia, West Indies. In May 1995, 42 lizards from Maria Major were introduced to the smaller uninhabited Praslin Island on the same coastline. Three years post-release, we studied abundance, demography and morphometrics of the translocated lizard population, during a 6-month period covering wet and dry seasons. Age, sex, snout-vent length (SVL), body mass (BM), tail length, tail regeneration, and overall condition (moulting, reproductive condition, cuts, external parasites) of 107 animals caught during the study are analysed in the present paper. Comparisons are also made with the source population. A body condition index (CI (BM/SVL)), sex ratio (adult males: adult females), age ratio (adults: juveniles), and sexual size dimorphism ratio (SVL adult male: SVL adult females) were calculated for the study population. Distance sampling and mark-re-sight surveys were used to estimate population size and lizard density. A total of 155 ± 26 individuals were estimated. The lizard population was found to have a high growth rate (r = 0.97-3.95). There were significant seasonal changes in lizard abundance. Seasonal differences in lizard numbers, BM and CI suggest either severe resource limitation during the dry season, or selective aestivation. A high frequency of tail autotomy may point to intense intraspecific competition as the island is relatively free from main predators such as the black rat Rattus rattus. Sex ratio, sexual size dimorphism and sexual dichromatism all indicate a territorial species in a generally non-territorial family (Teiidae). Some adult males seem to maintain juvenile colours. It is suggested that the introduced population has successfully colonized its new environment and that no significant change in the animals condition or size has occurred during the 3 years since translocation.
BibTeX:
@article{Dickinson2000,
  author = {Dickinson, H. C. and Fa, J. E.},
  title = {Abundance, demographics and body condition of a translocated population of St Lucia whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus vanzoi)},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {251},
  number = {2},
  pages = {187--197},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00603.x}
}
Diefenbach, D.R., Brauning, D.W. and Mattice, J.A. Variability in grassland bird counts related to observer differences and species detection rates 2003 The Auk
Vol. 120(4), pp. 1168-1179 
article DOI  
Abstract: Differences among observers in ability to detect and identify birds has been long recognized as a potential source of error when surveying terrestrial birds. However, few published studies address that issue in their methods or study design. We used distance sampling with line transects to investigate differences in detection probabilities among observers and among three species of grassland songbirds: Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii), Grasshopper Sparrow (A. savannarum), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our review of 75 papers published in 1985-2001 found that the most commonly used methods were fixed-width transects (31%, 23 papers) and fixed-radius point counts (20%, 15 papers). The median half-width of fixed-width strip transects used by researchers was 50 m, but our results indicated detection probabilities were ¡ 1.0 at distances ¿ 25 m for most observers and species. Beyond 50 m from the transect line, we found that as many as 60% of birds were missed by observers and that the proportion missed differed among observers and species. Detection probabilities among observers ranged from 0.43 to 1.00 for Henslow's Sparrow, from 0.44 to 0.66 for Grasshopper Sparrow, and from 0.60 to 0.72 for Grasshopper Sparrow for birds detected within 58-100 m of the transect line. Using our estimates of detection probabilities for Henslow's Sparrows among six observers in a computer simulation of a monitoring program, we found that bird counts from fixed-width transects required an additional 2-3 years of monitoring to detect a given decline in abundance compared to density estimates that used a method to correct for missed birds. We recommend that researchers employ survey methods that correct for detection probabilities ¡ 1.0.
BibTeX:
@article{Diefenbach2003,
  author = {Diefenbach, D. R. and Brauning, D. W. and Mattice, J. A.},
  title = {Variability in grassland bird counts related to observer differences and species detection rates},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {120},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1168--1179},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1642/0004-8038(2003)120%5B1168:VIGBCR%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Diefenbach, D.R., Finley, J.C., Luloff, A.E., Stedman, R., Swope, C.B., Zinn, H.C. and San Julian, G.J. Bear and deer hunter density and distribution on public land in Pennsylvania 2005 Human Dimensions of Wildlife
Vol. 10, pp. 201-212 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dieetal05,
  author = {Diefenbach, D. R. and Finley, J. C. and Luloff, A. E. and Stedman, R. and Swope, C. B. and Zinn, H. C. and San Julian, G. J.},
  title = {Bear and deer hunter density and distribution on public land in Pennsylvania},
  journal = {Human Dimensions of Wildlife},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {201--212},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/10871200591003445}
}
Diefenbach, D.R., Marshall, M.R., Mattice, J.A. and Brauning, D.W. Incorporating availability for detection in estimates of bird abundance 2007 The Auk
Vol. 124(1), pp. 96-106 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dieetal07,
  author = {Diefenbach, D. R. and Marshall, M. R. and Mattice, J. A. and Brauning, D. W.},
  title = {Incorporating availability for detection in estimates of bird abundance},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {124},
  number = {1},
  pages = {96--106},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/124.1.96}
}
Diggle, P.J. A note on robust density estimation for spatial point patterns 1977 Biometrika
Vol. 64, pp. 91-95 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dig77,
  author = {Diggle, P. J.},
  title = {A note on robust density estimation for spatial point patterns},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {64},
  pages = {91--95},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/64.1.91}
}
Diggle, P.J. Robust density estimation using distance methods 1975 Biometrika
Vol. 62, pp. 39-48 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dig75,
  author = {Diggle, P. J.},
  title = {Robust density estimation using distance methods},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {39--48},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/62.1.39}
}
Dique, D., Preece, H. and de Villliers, D. Koalas in pine rivers shire: distribution, abundance and management 2003 School: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Dique2003b,
  author = {Dique, D. and Preece, H. and de Villliers, D.},
  title = {Koalas in pine rivers shire: distribution, abundance and management},
  school = {Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service},
  year = {2003}
}
Dique, D.S., De Villiers, D.L. and Preece, H.J. Evaluation of line-transect sampling for estimating koala abundance in the Pine Rivers shire, south-east Queensland 2003 Wildlife Research
Vol. 30(2), pp. 127-133 
article DOI  
Abstract: Distance sampling using line transects has not been previously used or tested for estimating koala abundance. In July 2001, a pilot survey was conducted to compare the use of line transects with strip transects for estimating koala abundance. Both methods provided a similar estimate of density. On the basis of the results of the pilot survey, the distribution and abundance of koalas in the Pine Rivers Shire, south-east Queensland, was determined using line-transect sampling. In total, 134 lines (length 64 km) were used to sample bushland areas. Eighty-two independent koalas were sighted. Analysis of the frequency distribution of sighting distances using the software program DISTANCE enabled a global detection function to be estimated for survey sites in bushland areas across the Shire. Abundance in urban parts of the Shire was estimated from densities obtained from total counts at eight urban sites that ranged from 26 to 51 ha in size. Koala abundance in the Pine Rivers Shire was estimated at 4584 (95% confidence interval, 4040-5247). Line-transect sampling is a useful method for estimating koala abundance provided experienced koala observers arc used when conducting surveys.
BibTeX:
@article{Dique2003,
  author = {Dique, D. S. and De Villiers, D. L. and Preece, H. J.},
  title = {Evaluation of line-transect sampling for estimating koala abundance in the Pine Rivers shire, south-east Queensland},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {30},
  number = {2},
  pages = {127--133},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR02042}
}
DiTraglia, F.J. Models of random wildlife movement with an application to distance sampling 2007 School: University of St Andrews  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{DiTraglia2007,
  author = {DiTraglia, Francis J.},
  title = {Models of random wildlife movement with an application to distance sampling},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2007}
}
Dobkin, D.S. and Rich, A.C. Comparison of line transect, spot map, and point count surveys for birds in riparian habitats of the Great Basin 1998 Journal of Field Ornithology
Vol. 69, pp. 430-443 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{DobRic98,
  author = {Dobkin, D. S. and Rich, A. C.},
  title = {Comparison of line transect, spot map, and point count surveys for birds in riparian habitats of the Great Basin},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {69},
  pages = {430--443}
}
Dodd, C.K. Line transect estimation of Red Hills salamander burrow density using a Fourier series 1990 Copeia
Vol. 1990(2), pp. 555-557 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dod90,
  author = {Dodd, C. K.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of Red Hills salamander burrow density using a Fourier series},
  journal = {Copeia},
  publisher = {JSTOR},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {1990},
  number = {2},
  pages = {555--557},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1446359}
}
Dohl, T.P., Bonnell, M.L. and Ford, R.G. Distribution and abundance of common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, in the Southern California Bight: a quantitative assessment based upon aerial transect data 1986 Fishery Bulletin
Vol. 84, pp. 333-343 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Dohetal,
  author = {Dohl, T. P. and Bonnell, M. L. and Ford, R. G.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, in the Southern California Bight: a quantitative assessment based upon aerial transect data},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {84},
  pages = {333--343}
}
Doi, T. Further development of whale sighting theory 1974 The Whale Problem: A Status Report, pp. 359-368  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Doi74,
  author = {Doi, T.},
  title = {Further development of whale sighting theory},
  booktitle = {The Whale Problem: A Status Report},
  publisher = {Harvard University Press},
  year = {1974},
  pages = {359--368}
}
Doi, T. Further development of sighting theory on whales 1971 Bulletin of Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory
Vol. 68, pp. 1-22 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Doi71,
  author = {Doi, T.},
  title = {Further development of sighting theory on whales},
  journal = {Bulletin of Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {68},
  pages = {1--22}
}
Doi, T., Kasamatsu, F. and Nakano, T. Further simulation studies on sighting by introducing both concentration of sighting effort by angle and aggregations of minke whales in the Antarctic 1983 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 33, pp. 403-412 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Doietal83,
  author = {Doi, T. and Kasamatsu, F. and Nakano, T.},
  title = {Further simulation studies on sighting by introducing both concentration of sighting effort by angle and aggregations of minke whales in the Antarctic},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {403--412}
}
Doi, T., Kasamatsu, F. and Nakano, T. A simulation study on sighting survey of minke whales in the Antarctic 1982 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 32, pp. 919-928 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Doietal82,
  author = {Doi, T. and Kasamatsu, F. and Nakano, T.},
  title = {A simulation study on sighting survey of minke whales in the Antarctic},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {919--928}
}
Dokter, A.M., Baptist, M.J., Ens, B.J., Krijgsveld, K.L. and van Loon, E.E. Bird radar validation in the field by time-referencing line-transect surveys 2013 PLoS ONE
Vol. 8, pp. e74129 
article DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ Track-while-scan bird radars are widely used in ornithological studies, but often the precise detection capabilities of these systems are unknown. Quantification of radar performance is essential to avoid observational biases, which requires practical methods for validating a radar’ s detection capability in specific field settings. In this study a method to quantify the detection capability of a bird radar is presented, as well a demonstration of this method in a case study. By time-referencing line-transect surveys, visually identified birds were automatically linked to individual tracks using their transect crossing time. Detection probabilities were determined as the fraction of the total set of visual observations that could be linked to radar tracks. To avoid ambiguities in assigning radar tracks to visual observations, the observer’ s accuracy in determining a bird’ s transect crossing time was taken into account. The accuracy was determined by examining the effect of a time lag applied to the visual observations on the number of matches found with radar tracks. Effects of flight altitude, distance, surface substrate and species size on the detection probability by the radar were quantified in a marine intertidal study area. Detection probability varied strongly with all these factors, as well as species-specific flight behaviour. The effective detection range for single birds flying at low altitude for an X-band marine radar based system was estimated at â{\frac{1}{4}}1.5 km. Within this range the fraction of individual flying birds that were detected by the radar was 0.50±0.06 with a detection bias towards higher flight altitudes, larger birds and high tide situations. Besides radar validation, which we consider essential when quantification of bird numbers is important, our method of linking radar tracks to ground-truthed field observations can facilitate species-specific studies using surveillance radars. The methodology may prove equally useful for optimising tracking algorithms./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Dokter2013,
  author = {Dokter, Adriaan M. and Baptist, Martin J. and Ens, Bruno J. and Krijgsveld, Karen L. and van Loon, E. Emiel},
  title = {Bird radar validation in the field by time-referencing line-transect surveys},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {e74129},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074129}
}
Donadio, E., Di Martino, S., Aubone, M. and Novaro, A.J. Feeding ecology of the Andean hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) in areas under different land use in north-western Patagonia 2004 Journal of Arid Environments
Vol. 56(4), pp. 709-718 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Donadio2004,
  author = {Donadio, E. and Di Martino, S. and Aubone, M. and Novaro, A. J.},
  title = {Feeding ecology of the Andean hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) in areas under different land use in north-western Patagonia},
  journal = {Journal of Arid Environments},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {56},
  number = {4},
  pages = {709--718},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-1963(03)00084-3}
}
Dörgeloh, W.G. Density estimates of francolin in a Sporobolus ioclados-Acacia tortilis Savanna using distance sampling 2005 South African Journal of Wildlife Research
Vol. 35(1), pp. 89-94 
article  
Abstract: The status and ecology of francolin in the savanna biome has not been studied extensively. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the line transect method to estimate population densities of three francolin species, Swainson's spurfowl, crested and Natal francolin. Surveys were conducted in Sporobolus ioclados-Acacia tortilis Savanna in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve. Relative species composition showed 75.7% Swainson's spurfowl, 16.9% crested and 7.4% Natal francolin. Early morning counts within two hours of sunrise, when temperatures are low and with no wind or cloud cover, revealed the best results. Detectability was estimated as 85.6%. The Uniform Simple polynomial model was selected based on the lowest Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) values. Population density of all three species combined was estimated as 6.76 francolin/ha with an encounter rate of 32.24 francolin/km. A coefficient of variation of 23.57% and a poor model fit (AIC 1650.28; GOF 2 P = 0.024) indicated that the line transect method may not be a suitable method to count francolin in this plant community. However, this method may be improved to some extent by including additional lines to increase replication, stratifying the study area into low- and high-density units, and including the adjacent Nyl floodplain into the survey. This study suggests a need to improve the line transect method and to investigate other counting techniques to assist in monitoring these species.
BibTeX:
@article{Dorgeloh2005,
  author = {Dörgeloh, W. G.},
  title = {Density estimates of francolin in a Sporobolus ioclados-Acacia tortilis Savanna using distance sampling},
  journal = {South African Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {35},
  number = {1},
  pages = {89--94}
}
Drummer, T.D. Planning abundance estimation surveys when detectability is <1.0 1999 Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods, pp. 67-73  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Dru99,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {Planning abundance estimation surveys when detectability is <1.0},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {67--73}
}
Drummer, T.D. Size-bias in line transect sampling 1997 (Laramie, WY, USA)School: University of Wyoming  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Dru85,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {Size-bias in line transect sampling},
  school = {University of Wyoming},
  year = {1997},
  number = {Laramie, WY, USA}
}
Drummer, T.D. Sizetran: analysis of size-biased line transect data 1991 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 19, pp. 117-118 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Dru91,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {Sizetran: analysis of size-biased line transect data},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {117--118},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2531944}
}
Drummer, T.D. Estimation of proportions and ratios from line transect data 1990 Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods
Vol. 19, pp. 3069-3091 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dru90,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {Estimation of proportions and ratios from line transect data},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {3069--3091},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/03610929008830365}
}
Drummer, T.D., Degange, A.R., Pank, L.L. and McDonald, L.L. Adjusting for group size influence in line transect sampling 1990 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 54, pp. 511-514 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Druetal90,
  author = {Drummer, T. D. and Degange, A. R. and Pank, L. L. and McDonald, L. L.},
  title = {Adjusting for group size influence in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {511--514},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3809667}
}
Drummer, T.D. and McDonald, L.L. Size bias in line transect sampling 1987 Biometrics
Vol. 43, pp. 13-21 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{DruMcD87,
  author = {Drummer, T. D. and McDonald, L. L.},
  title = {Size bias in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {13--21},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2531944}
}
Du Fresne, S., Fletcher, D. and Sawson, S. The effect of line-transect placement in a coastal distance sampling survey 2006 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 8, pp. 79-85 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Du2006,
  author = {Du Fresne, S. and Fletcher, D. and Sawson, S.},
  title = {The effect of line-transect placement in a coastal distance sampling survey},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {79--85}
}
Duffy, D.C. and Schneider, D.C. A comparison of two transect methods of counting birds at sea 1984 Cormorant
Vol. 12, pp. 95-98 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{DufSch84,
  author = {Duffy, D. C. and Schneider, D. C.},
  title = {A comparison of two transect methods of counting birds at sea},
  journal = {Cormorant},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {95--98}
}
Dunagan, S.P., Karels, T.J., Moriarty, J.G., Brown, J.L. and Riley, S.P.D. Bobcat and rabbit habitat use in an urban landscape 2019 Journal of Mammalogy
Vol. 100(2), pp. 401-409 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dunagan2019,
  author = {Dunagan, Sean P. and Karels, Tim J. and Moriarty, Joanne G. and Brown, Justin L. and Riley, Seth P. D.},
  title = {Bobcat and rabbit habitat use in an urban landscape},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {100},
  number = {2},
  pages = {401--409},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyz062}
}
Dunham, K.M. and du Toit, A.J. Using Citizen-Based Survey Data to Determine Densities of Large Mammals: A Case Study from Mana Pools National Park, Zimbabwe 2013 African Journal of Ecology
Vol. 51(3), pp. 431-440 
article DOI  
Abstract: Since 1993, members of the national wildlife society have undertaken annual surveys of large mammals in the Zambezi alluvial woodlands of Mana Pools National Park, Zimbabwe. Data are collected along 36 systematically-arranged transects. We provide the first thorough assessment of the data from any survey within this long-term project. The transect data from 2011 were analysed with DISTANCE software to assess if the data were suitable for determining the densities of large mammals using distance sampling techniques. Successful application of distance sampling depended on observers using printed, large-scale, georeferenced satellite images onto which they mapped the location of animal groups detected. The assumptions of the distance sampling were well met and thus the 2011 survey provided reliable estimates of the densities of nine species of common large mammals on the Zambezi alluvium during the late dry season. Estimated density in this dry-season concentration area varied from 3.6 km-2 for kudu, to 204 km-2 for impala. The precision of the estimates ranged from a coefficient of variation of 7.9% for elephant, to 25.5% for buffalo. For elephant, warthog and baboon, the morning and afternoon densities differed significantly.
BibTeX:
@article{Dunham2013,
  author = {Dunham, Kevin M. and du Toit, Andrew J.},
  title = {Using Citizen-Based Survey Data to Determine Densities of Large Mammals: A Case Study from Mana Pools National Park, Zimbabwe},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {51},
  number = {3},
  pages = {431--440},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12052}
}
Dunn, E.H., Bart, J., Collins, B.T., Craig, B., Dale, B., Downes, C.M., Francis, C.M., Woodley, S. and Zorn, P. Monitoring bird populations in small geographic areas 2006 School: Canadian Wildlife Service  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Dunn2006,
  author = {Dunn, Erica H. and Bart, Jon and Collins, Brian T. and Craig, Brian and Dale, Brenda and Downes, Connie M. and Francis, Charles M. and Woodley, Stephen and Zorn, Paul},
  title = {Monitoring bird populations in small geographic areas},
  school = {Canadian Wildlife Service},
  year = {2006}
}
Durant, S.M., Craft, M.E., Hilborn, R., Bashir, S., Hando, J. and Thomas, L. Long-term trends in carnivore abundance using distance sampling in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 48, pp. 1490-1500 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Durant2011,
  author = {Durant, Sarah M. and Craft, Meggan E. and Hilborn, Ray and Bashir, Sultana and Hando, Justin and Thomas, Len},
  title = {Long-term trends in carnivore abundance using distance sampling in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {1490--1500},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02042.x}
}
Durso, A.M. and Seigel, R.A. A snake in the hand is worth 10,000 in the bush 2015 Journal of Herpetology
Vol. 49(4), pp. 503-506 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Durso2015,
  author = {Durso, Andrew M. and Seigel, Richard A.},
  title = {A snake in the hand is worth 10,000 in the bush},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  publisher = {The Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {49},
  number = {4},
  pages = {503--506},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1670/15-49-04.1}
}
Eberhardt, L.L. Line-transects based on right-angle distances 1979 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 43, pp. 768-774 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe79,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Line-transects based on right-angle distances},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {768--774},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3808760}
}
Eberhardt, L.L. Transect methods for population studies 1978 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 42, pp. 1-31 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe78,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Transect methods for population studies},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {1--31},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800685}
}
Eberhardt, L.L. Appraising variability in population studies 1978 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 42, pp. 207-238 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe78b,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Appraising variability in population studies},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {207--238},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800260}
}
Eberhardt, L.L. A preliminary appraisal of line transect 1968 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 32, pp. 82-88 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe68,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {A preliminary appraisal of line transect},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {82--88},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3798239}
}
Eberhardt, L.L. Some developments in `distance sampling' 1967 Biometrics
Vol. 23(2), pp. 207-216 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Eberhardt1967,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Some developments in `distance sampling'},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1967},
  volume = {23},
  number = {2},
  pages = {207--216},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2528156}
}
Eberhardt, L.L., Chapman, D.G. and Gilbert, J.R. A review of marine mammal census methods 1979 Wildlife Monographs
Vol. 63, pp. 1-46 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Ebeetal79,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L. and Chapman, D. G. and Gilbert, J. R.},
  title = {A review of marine mammal census methods},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {63},
  pages = {1--46}
}
Edwards, D.K., Dorsey, G.L. and Crawford, J.A. A comparison of three avian census methods 1981 (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, pp. 170-176  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Edwetal81,
  author = {Edwards, D. K. and Dorsey, G. L. and Crawford, J. A.},
  title = {A comparison of three avian census methods},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {170--176}
}
Efford, M. Book review: advanced distance sampling. estimating abundance of biological populations 2008 Environmental Conservation
Vol. 35, pp. 187-192 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2008,
  author = {Efford, Murray},
  title = {Book review: advanced distance sampling. estimating abundance of biological populations},
  journal = {Environmental Conservation},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {187--192},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892908004761}
}
Efford, M.G. Density estimation in live-trapping studies 2004 Oikos
Vol. 106, pp. 598-610 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2004a,
  author = {Efford, M. G.},
  title = {Density estimation in live-trapping studies},
  journal = {Oikos},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {106},
  pages = {598--610},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.13043.x}
}
Efford, M.G. and Dawson, D.K. Effect of distance-related heterogeneity on population size estimates from point counts 2009 The Auk
Vol. 126, pp. 100-111 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2009,
  author = {Efford, Murray G. and Dawson, Deanna K.},
  title = {Effect of distance-related heterogeneity on population size estimates from point counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {126},
  pages = {100--111},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2009.07197}
}
Efford, M.G., Dawson, D.K. and Robbins, C.S. DENSITY: software for analysing capture-recapture data from passive detector arrays 2004 Animal Biodiversity and Conservation
Vol. 27, pp. 217-228 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2004,
  author = {Efford, M. G. and Dawson, D. K. and Robbins, C. S.},
  title = {DENSITY: software for analysing capture-recapture data from passive detector arrays},
  journal = {Animal Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {217--228}
}
Efford, M.G., Warburton, B., Coleman, M.C. and Barker, R.J. A field test of two methods for density estimation 2005 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 33, pp. 731-738 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2005,
  author = {Efford, M. G. and Warburton, B. and Coleman, M. C. and Barker, R. J.},
  title = {A field test of two methods for density estimation},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {731--738},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/0091-7648(2005)33%5B731:AFTOTM%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Eguchi, T. and Gerrodette, T. A Bayesian approach to line-transect analysis for estimating abundance 2009 Ecological Modelling
Vol. 220(13-14), pp. 1620-1630 
article DOI  
Abstract: Line-transect analysis is a widely used method of estimating plant and animal density and abundance. A Bayesian approach to a basic line-transect analysis is developed for a half-normal detection function. We extend the model of Karunamuni and Quinn [Karunamuni, R.J., Quinn II, T.J., 1995. Bayesian estimation of animal abundance for line-transect sampling. Biometrics 51, 1325-1337] by including a binomial likelihood function for the number of objects detected. The method computes a joint posterior distribution on the effective strip width and the density of objects in the sampled area. Analytical and computational methods for binned and unbinned perpendicular distance data are provided. Existing information about effective strip width and density can be brought into the analysis via prior distributions. The Bayesian approach is compared to a standard line-transect analysis using both real and simulated data. Results of the Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses are similar when there are no prior data on effective strip width or density, but the Bayesian approach performs better when such data are available from previous or related studies. Practical methods for including prior data on effective strip width and density are suggested. A numerical example shows how the Bayesian approach can provide valid estimates when the sample size is too small for the standard approach to work reliably. The proposed Bayesian approach can form the basis for developing more advanced analyses.
BibTeX:
@article{Eguchi2009,
  author = {Eguchi, Tomoharu and Gerrodette, Tim},
  title = {A Bayesian approach to line-transect analysis for estimating abundance},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {220},
  number = {13-14},
  pages = {1620--1630},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.04.011}
}
Eidous, O. A semiparametric model for line transect sampling 2006 Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods
Vol. 35, pp. 1211-1221 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2006,
  author = {Eidous, Omar},
  title = {A semiparametric model for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {1211--1221},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/03610920600628528}
}
Eidous, O.M. On improving kernel estimators using line transect sampling. 2005 Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods
Vol. 34, pp. 931-941 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2005b,
  author = {Eidous, O. M.},
  title = {On improving kernel estimators using line transect sampling.},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {931--941},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1081/STA-200054439}
}
Eidous, O.M. Histogram and polygon methods using line transect sampling 2005 Journal of Applied Statistical Science
Vol. 14, pp. 25-36 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2005a,
  author = {Eidous, Omar M.},
  title = {Histogram and polygon methods using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Statistical Science},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {25--36}
}
Eidous, O.M. Bias correction for histogram estimator using line transect sampling 2005 Environmetrics
Vol. 16, pp. 61-69 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2005,
  author = {Eidous, Omar M.},
  title = {Bias correction for histogram estimator using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {61--69},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/env.671}
}
Ekanayake, K.B., Weston, M.A., Dann, P. and Sutherland, D.R. Corvids congregate to breeding colonies of a burrow-nesting seabird 2016 Austral Ecology
Vol. 41, pp. 291-301 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ekanayake2016,
  author = {Ekanayake, Kasun B. and Weston, Michael A. and Dann, Peter and Sutherland, Duncan R.},
  title = {Corvids congregate to breeding colonies of a burrow-nesting seabird},
  journal = {Austral Ecology},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {291--301},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/aec.12311}
}
Ekblom, R. Evaluation of the analysis of distance sampling data: a simulation study 2010 Ornis Svecica
Vol. 20, pp. 45-53 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{EKBLOM2010,
  author = {Ekblom, Robert},
  title = {Evaluation of the analysis of distance sampling data: a simulation study},
  journal = {Ornis Svecica},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {45--53}
}
Elenga, G., Bonenfant, C. and Péron, G. Distance sampling of duikers in the rainforest: Dealing with transect avoidance 2020 PLOS ONE
Vol. 15(10), pp. e0240049 
article DOI  
Abstract: Bushmeat is a major source of protein and income in tropical regions but is often over-harvested. A better monitoring of bushmeat stocks could help achieve sustainability. We used a combination of simulations and transect survey data collected from blue duikers (Philantomba monticola) in the Lomako wildlife reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo, to investigate the use of transect-based distance sampling to monitor bushmeat stocks. The comparison of dung piles and direct observations of duikers evidenced that animals avoided both the transects in the absence of observers, and the observers themselves. This type of behavioural response appeared common in a literature survey. It causes a negative bias in the estimates of population densities from the standard distance sampling methodology. This negative bias would lead to over-pessimistic predictions of population viability, especially if the behavioural response is more intense in the locations where the animals are hunted. In turn, this would lead to excessively conservative management recommendations. To correct for the effect of the behavioural response of the animals to either the transects or the observers, we recommend recording both the forward and perpendicular distances to the observers (2D distance sampling), not just the perpendicular distance. We also recommend multiple-observer protocols. As a cautionary note, we also demonstrate a scenario where the intensity of the behavioural response is too high to reliably estimate the abundance of the population. As a perspective, we outline the general principles of a local stakeholder-based program combining distance sampling with less intensive types of ecological indicators to monitor wildlife populations.
BibTeX:
@article{elenga_distance_2020,
  author = {Elenga, Gaïus and Bonenfant, Christophe and Péron, Guillaume},
  title = {Distance sampling of duikers in the rainforest: Dealing with transect avoidance},
  journal = {PLOS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {15},
  number = {10},
  pages = {e0240049},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240049}
}
Ellingson, A.R. and Lukacs, P.M. Improving methods for regional landbird monitoring: a reply to Hutto and Young 2003 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 31, pp. 896-902 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{EliLuk03,
  author = {Ellingson, A. R. and Lukacs, P. M.},
  title = {Improving methods for regional landbird monitoring: a reply to Hutto and Young},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {896--902},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784616}
}
Ellis, A.M. and Bernard, R.T.F. Estimating the density of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in subtropical thicket using line transect surveys of dung and DISTANCE software 2005 African Journal of Ecology
Vol. 43, pp. 362-3687 
article DOI  
Abstract: Many ecotourism reserves in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa have introduced large carnivores which prey on ungulates such as kudu. Kudu occupy thick vegetation and helicopter-based counts are not appropriate. In this study we tested line transect counts of faecal pellets in conjunction with DISTANCE analysis as a method for assessing the abundance of kudu. Transects were undertaken in three regions of two game reserves and the results compared with helicopter based game counts (for two regions) and a known kudu population in the third region (an enclosed breeding centre). Estimates of kudu abundance were two to three times greater than the helicopter counts, but within the known number of kudu in the breeding centre. The increased accuracy in the breeding centre was probably because the transects covered a greater percentage of the available habitat (0.07%) than in the reserves (approximately 0.007%). We suggest that DISTANCE software and line transects counts of pellet groups can be used for kudu and probably for other ungulates in thicket-type vegetations. Accuracy will depend on the percentage of the available habitat that is surveyed and on the accuracy of the defecation and decay rates.
BibTeX:
@article{Ellis&Bernard2005,
  author = {Ellis, Amanda M. and Bernard, Richard T. F.},
  title = {Estimating the density of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in subtropical thicket using line transect surveys of dung and DISTANCE software},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {362--3687},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2005.00591.x}
}
Elphick, C.S. How you count counts: the importance of methods research in applied ecology 2008 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 45, pp. 1313-1320 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Elphick2008,
  author = {Elphick, Chris S.},
  title = {How you count counts: the importance of methods research in applied ecology},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {1313--1320},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01545.x}
}
Emlen, J.T. Estimating breeding season bird densities from transect counts 1977 The Auk
Vol. 94, pp. 455-468 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Eml77,
  author = {Emlen, J. T.},
  title = {Estimating breeding season bird densities from transect counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {94},
  pages = {455--468}
}
Emlen, J.T. Population densities of birds derived from transect counts 1971 The Auk
Vol. 88, pp. 323-342 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Eml71,
  author = {Emlen, J. T.},
  title = {Population densities of birds derived from transect counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {323--342},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/4083883}
}
Emlen, J.T. and DeJong, M.J. The application of song detection threshold distance to census operations 1981 (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, pp. 346-352  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{EmlDej81,
  author = {Emlen, J. T. and DeJong, M. J.},
  title = {The application of song detection threshold distance to census operations},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {346--352}
}
Engeman, R.M., Nielson, R.M. and Sugihara, R.T. Evaluation of optimized variable area transect sampling using totally enumerated field data sets 2005 Environmetrics
Vol. 16(7), pp. 767-772 
article DOI  
Abstract: Plotless density estimators (PDEs) can be efficient alternatives to quadrat sampling for estimating the density of stationary objects. Variable area transect (VAT) sampling had been identified, and optimized relative to effort, in previous Monte Carlo simulated population studies as a low-labor field method that demonstrated superior estimation properties among many PDEs considered. However, natural populations tend to be much more complex and less predictable in spatial distribution than computer generated populations. Therefore, we carried out a Monte Carlo simulation study that used 17 fully enumerated field populations rather than simulated populations. These natural populations represented a variety of population densities and spatial patterns. We focused on assessing the effect of the number of population members searched for along each transect (r), sample size, and transect width on estimation quality. Using relative root mean-squared error and relative bias as criteria, the optimal range for r was 5 to 7 population members encountered from each start point. Sample size was best if n ¿ 20, but returns in estimation quality diminished by n = 40. Transect width was previously uninvestigated and found to be the most important design factor affecting estimation quality. Field studies should strive for transects as wide as logistically reasonable.
BibTeX:
@article{Engeman2005,
  author = {Engeman, R. M. and Nielson, R. M. and Sugihara, R. T.},
  title = {Evaluation of optimized variable area transect sampling using totally enumerated field data sets},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {16},
  number = {7},
  pages = {767--772},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/env.736}
}
Ensign, W.E., Angermeier, P.L. and Dolloff, C.A. Use of line transect methods to estimate abundance of benthic stream fishes 1995 Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences
Vol. 52(1), pp. 213-222 
article DOI  
Abstract: Examination of the distribution of sighting distances for the Roanoke darter Percina roanoka, Roanoke logperch P. rex and black jumprock Moxostoma cervinum indicates that strip transect sighting models that assume probability of sighting remaining constant out to the limits of observer visibility are not appropriate for these benthic species. Distance sampling models that assume decreased sighting probability with increasing distance of the target from the observer provide a reasonable alternative to strip transect sighting models. -from Authors
BibTeX:
@article{Ensign1995,
  author = {Ensign, W. E. and Angermeier, P. L. and Dolloff, C. A.},
  title = {Use of line transect methods to estimate abundance of benthic stream fishes},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {52},
  number = {1},
  pages = {213--222},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/f95-021}
}
Epperly, S.P., Braun, J. and Chester, A.J. Aerial surveys for sea turtles in North Carolina inshore waters 1995 Fishery Bulletin
Vol. 93, pp. 254-261 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Eppetal95,
  author = {Epperly, S. P. and Braun, J. and Chester, A. J.},
  title = {Aerial surveys for sea turtles in North Carolina inshore waters},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {93},
  pages = {254--261}
}
Erickson, A.W., Siniff, D.B. and Harwood, J. Estimation of population sizes 1993 Antarctic Seals: Research Methods and Techniques, pp. 29-45  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Erietal93,
  author = {Erickson, A. W. and Siniff, D. B. and Harwood, J.},
  title = {Estimation of population sizes},
  booktitle = {Antarctic Seals: Research Methods and Techniques},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {29--45}
}
Ersts, P.J., Kiszka, J., Vély, M. and Rosenbaum, H.C. Density, group composition and encounter rates of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the eastern Comoros Archipelago (C2) 2011 J. Cetacean Res. Manage.
Vol. 3, pp. 175-182 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ersts_density_2011,
  author = {Ersts, Peter J. and Kiszka, Jeremy and Vély, Michel and Rosenbaum, Howard C.},
  title = {Density, group composition and encounter rates of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the eastern Comoros Archipelago (C2)},
  journal = {J. Cetacean Res. Manage.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {175--182},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.47536/jcrm.vi3.330}
}
Erwin, R.M. Observer variability in estimating numbers: an experiment 1982 Journal of Field Ornithology
Vol. 53, pp. 159-167 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Erw82,
  author = {Erwin, R. M.},
  title = {Observer variability in estimating numbers: an experiment},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {159--167}
}
Erxleben, D., Butler, M., Ballard, W., Wallace, M., Peterson, M., Silvy, N., Kuvlesky, W., Hewitt, D., DeMaso, S., Hardin, J. and Dominguez-Brazil, M. Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance sampling 2011 European Journal of Wildlife Research
Vol. 57(1), pp. 57-65 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10344-010-0399-4,
  author = {Erxleben, Devin and Butler, Matthew and Ballard, Warren and Wallace, Mark and Peterson, Markus and Silvy, Nova and Kuvlesky, William and Hewitt, David and DeMaso, Stephen and Hardin, Jason and Dominguez-Brazil, Megan},
  title = {Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance sampling},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {57},
  number = {1},
  pages = {57--65},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-010-0399-4}
}
Erxleben, D.R., Butler, M.J., Ballard, W.B., Wallace, M.C., Hardin, J.B. and Demaso, S.J. Encounter rates from road-based surveys of Rio Grande wild turkeys in Texas 2010 The Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 74, pp. 1134-1140 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Erxleben2010,
  author = {Erxleben, D. R. and Butler, M. J. and Ballard, W. B. and Wallace, M. C. and Hardin, J. B. and Demaso, S. J.},
  title = {Encounter rates from road-based surveys of Rio Grande wild turkeys in Texas},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {74},
  pages = {1134--1140},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/2009-288}
}
Esbach, M.S. and Patra, R.K. Distance sampling from curving transects in dense tropical forests 2022 Biotropica
Vol. 54(5), pp. 1182-1189 
article DOI  
Abstract: Line transect distance sampling is a popular method for estimating the density of animals across the tropics. The method relies on accurate measurements of the distance between an animal and a transect to model detectability. In dense tropical forests, surveys can become time-consuming, expensive, and dangerous when randomly placed straight line transects cross landscape features such as rivers, swamps, and dense vegetation. As a result, transects often curve as an observer deviates from an ideal, straight line. Here, we examine the practical and statistical impact of these curves. We use distance sampling simulations to assess bias in density estimates based on scenarios corresponding with different methods reliant on distinct field measurements. Methods that measure the nearest distance between the animal and the curving transect produce the most reliable density estimates. Biased estimates were obtained when using methods that ignore curves, measure the distance to an ideal line (as opposed to the curve), or inaccurately calculate the area covered in the survey. Notably, these biased estimates were most severe when observation distances were short, highlighting the importance of accurate measurements in tropical forests characterized by low visibility. Given these results and the importance of reliable density estimates to conservation efforts across the tropics, we propose a method that addresses survey design, simplifies data collection, and alleviates some of the practical field challenges associated with straight line transects. We also developed an R package (CurveTransect) based on this method with functions that ensure accurate measurements and reliable density estimates in tropical forests.
BibTeX:
@article{Esbach2022,
  author = {Esbach, Michael S. and Patra, Rohit K.},
  title = {Distance sampling from curving transects in dense tropical forests},
  journal = {Biotropica},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2022},
  volume = {54},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1182--1189},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.13141}
}
Estades, C.F. and Temple, S.A. Deciduous-forest bird communities in a fragmented landscape dominated by exotic pine plantations 1999 Ecological Applications
Vol. 9, pp. 573-585 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Esttem99,
  author = {Estades, C. F. and Temple, S. A.},
  title = {Deciduous-forest bird communities in a fragmented landscape dominated by exotic pine plantations},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {573--585},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1999)009%5B0573:DFBCIA%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Estes, J.A. and Gilbert, J.R. Evaluation of an aerial survey of Pacific walruses 1978 Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada
Vol. 35, pp. 1130-1140 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{EstGil78,
  author = {Estes, J. A. and Gilbert, J. R.},
  title = {Evaluation of an aerial survey of Pacific walruses},
  journal = {Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {1130--1140},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/f78-178}
}
Evans, B., Ashley, J. and Marsden, S.J. Abundance, habitat use and movements of blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana) and other parrots in and around an Atlantic forest reserve 2005 Wilson Bulletin
Vol. 117, pp. 154-164 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Evans2005,
  author = {Evans, B. and Ashley, J. and Marsden, S. J.},
  title = {Abundance, habitat use and movements of blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana) and other parrots in and around an Atlantic forest reserve},
  journal = {Wilson Bulletin},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {117},
  pages = {154--164},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1676/04-026}
}
Evans, K.O., Burger, L.W., Oedekoven, C.S., Smith, M.D., Riffell, S.K., Martin, J.A. and Buckland, S.T. Multi-region response to conservation buffers targeted for northern bobwhite 2013 The Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 77, pp. 716-725 
article DOI  
Abstract: We coordinated a large-scale evaluation of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population response to establishment of 9-m to 37-m linear patches (buffers) of native herbaceous vegetation along row-crop field margins as part of the Conservation Reserve Program practice Habitat Buffers for Upland Birds (CP33). We compared northern bobwhite covey densities on 1,088 paired row-crop fields with and without native herbaceous buffers in 13 states during autumn, 2006†``2008. We used a 2-stage random effects modeling approach that incorporates the effective area as an offset in generalized linear mixed models to assess regional relationships among autumn bobwhite covey densities and covariates of field type (i.e., fields with vs. without native herbaceous buffers), ecological region, year, survey week, and contracted vegetative cover (i.e., planting native grasses and forbs vs. establishing through natural regeneration). Covey density was correlated with year and interaction effects of field type and ecological region. The year effect suggested annual variation in covey densities, whereas the field type by ecological region interaction suggested covey response to buffers was dependent on spatial location, likely reflecting differences in buffer establishment, succession, and characteristics of the surrounding landscape among regions. Mean fitted covey density on fields across all survey sites was 0.047 (±0.008 bootstrap standard error [BSE]) and 0.031  coveys/ha (±0.003 BSE) on row-crop fields with and without herbaceous buffers, respectively. Covey density was greater on fields with buffers relative to matched, comparison fields without buffers in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (241%; P ¡â€‰ 0.001) and both the eastern (123%; P ¡â€‰ 0.001) and western (60%; P  =  0.01) portions of the Southeastern Coastal Plain region. Covey density was an order of magnitude greater in the central Texas region compared to other regions, but exhibited a small response to native herbaceous buffers, as did density of coveys in the Eastern Tallgrass Prairie and Central Hardwoods regions. Disproportionate response to buffers in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and Southeastern Coastal Plain suggests native herbaceous habitats might be limiting during autumn in these regions, whereas lack of response in the Eastern Tallgrass Prairie, Central Hardwoods, and central Texas regions suggests that herbaceous habitat either was not limiting or buffers failed to provide adequate requirements for bobwhites during autumn. Selection of other habitats to meet security and thermoregulatory needs might have resulted in lack of response in these regions. Native herbaceous cover provided by buffers can provide critical habitat in row-crop agricultural systems in some regions, and can contribute to regional population recovery objectives of the Northern Bobwhite Conservation Initiative (NBCI). However, range-wide NBCI recovery objectives will best be met through multiple conservation practices in row-crop agricultural systems. Âtextcopyright 2013 The Wildlife Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Evans2013,
  author = {Evans, Kristine O. and Burger, L. Wes and Oedekoven, Cornelia S. and Smith, Mark D. and Riffell, Samuel K. and Martin, James A. and Buckland, Stephen T.},
  title = {Multi-region response to conservation buffers targeted for northern bobwhite},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Inc.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {77},
  pages = {716--725},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.502}
}
Evans, T.J., Fischbach, A., Schliebe, S., Manly, B., Kalxdorff, S. and York, G. Polar bear aerial survey in the Eastern Chukchi Sea: a pilot study 2003 Arctic
Vol. 56, pp. 359-366 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Evans2003,
  author = {Evans, Thomas J. and Fischbach, Anthony and Schliebe, Scott and Manly, Bryan and Kalxdorff, Susanne and York, Geoff},
  title = {Polar bear aerial survey in the Eastern Chukchi Sea: a pilot study},
  journal = {Arctic},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {359--366},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic633}
}
Evans-Mack, D., Raphael, M.G. and Laake, J.L. Probability of detecting marbled murrelets at sea: effects of single versus paired observers 2002 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 66, pp. 865-873 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Evaetal02,
  author = {Evans-Mack, D. and Raphael, M. G. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Probability of detecting marbled murrelets at sea: effects of single versus paired observers},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {865--873},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3803151}
}
Fais, A., Lewis, T.P., Zitterbart, D.P., Álvarez, O., Tejedor, A. and Aguilar Soto, N. Abundance and distribution of sperm whales in the Canary Islands: can sperm whales in the archipelago sustain the current level of ship-strike mortalities? 2016 PLoS ONE
Vol. 11(3), pp. 1-16 
article DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km¡ sup¿ 2/sup, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120?418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Fais2016,
  author = {Fais, Andrea and Lewis, Tim P. and Zitterbart, Daniel P. and Álvarez, Omar and Tejedor, Ana and Aguilar Soto, Natacha},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of sperm whales in the Canary Islands: can sperm whales in the archipelago sustain the current level of ship-strike mortalities?},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {11},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1--16},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150660}
}
Fancy, S.G. A new approach for analyzing bird densities from variable circular-plot counts 1997 Pacific Science
Vol. 51, pp. 107-114 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Fan97,
  author = {Fancy, S. G.},
  title = {A new approach for analyzing bird densities from variable circular-plot counts},
  journal = {Pacific Science},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {107--114}
}
Fancy, S.G., Snetsinger, T.J. and Jacobi, J.D. Translocation of the palila, an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper 1997 Pacific Conservation Biology
Vol. 3, pp. 39-46 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fancy1997,
  author = {Fancy, Steven G. and Snetsinger, Thomas J. and Jacobi, James D.},
  title = {Translocation of the palila, an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper},
  journal = {Pacific Conservation Biology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {39--46},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/PC970039}
}
Farina, A. Distribution and dynamics of birds in a rural sub-Mediterranean landscape 1995 Landscape and Urban Planning
Vol. 31, pp. 269-280 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Far95,
  author = {Farina, A.},
  title = {Distribution and dynamics of birds in a rural sub-Mediterranean landscape},
  journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {269--280},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(94)01052-A}
}
Farnsworth, G.L., Nichols, J.D., Sauer, J.R., Fancy, S.G., Kenneth, Pollock, H., Shriner, S.A. and Simons, T.R. Statistical approaches to the analysis of point count data: a little extra information can go a long way 2005 (PSW-GTR-191), pp. 736-743School: USDA Forest Service  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Faretalb02,
  author = {Farnsworth, George L. and Nichols, James D. and Sauer, John R. and Fancy, Steven G. and Kenneth and Pollock, H. and Shriner, Susan A. and Simons, Theodore R.},
  title = {Statistical approaches to the analysis of point count data: a little extra information can go a long way},
  school = {USDA Forest Service},
  year = {2005},
  number = {PSW-GTR-191},
  pages = {736--743}
}
Farnsworth, G.L., Pollock, K.H., Nichols, J.D., Simons, T.R., Hines, J.E. and Sauer, J.R. A removal model for estimating detection probabilities from point-count surveys 2002 The Auk
Vol. 119, pp. 414-425 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Faretal02,
  author = {Farnsworth, G. L. and Pollock, K. H. and Nichols, J. D. and Simons, T. R. and Hines, J. E. and Sauer, J. R.},
  title = {A removal model for estimating detection probabilities from point-count surveys},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {414--425},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/119.2.414}
}
Fashing, P.J. and Cords, M. Diurnal primate densities and biomass in the Kakamega Forest: an evaluation of census methods and a comparison with other forests 2000 American Journal of Primatology
Vol. 50, pp. 139-152 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FasCor00,
  author = {Fashing, P. J. and Cords, M.},
  title = {Diurnal primate densities and biomass in the Kakamega Forest: an evaluation of census methods and a comparison with other forests},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {139--152},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(200002)50:2%3C139::AID-AJP4%3E3.0.CO;2-N}
}
Faustino, C.E.S. Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores Archipelago, Portugal 2008 School: University of St. Andrews  mastersthesis  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Faustino2008,
  author = {Faustino, Cláudia Estevinho Santos},
  title = {Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores Archipelago, Portugal},
  school = {University of St. Andrews},
  year = {2008}
}
Faustino, C.E.S., Silva, M.A., Marques, T.A. and Thomas, L. Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores Archipelago 2010 Arquipelago - Life and Marine Sciences
Vol. 27, pp. 49-58 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{FAUSTINO2010,
  author = {Faustino, C. E. S. and Silva, M. A. and Marques, T. A. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores Archipelago},
  journal = {Arquipelago - Life and Marine Sciences},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {49--58}
}
Fay, J.M. An elephant (Loxodonta africana) survey using dung counts in the forests of the Central African republic 1991 Journal of Tropical Ecology
Vol. 7, pp. 25-36 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fay,
  author = {Fay, J. M.},
  title = {An elephant (Loxodonta africana) survey using dung counts in the forests of the Central African republic},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {25--36},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400005022}
}
Fay, J.M. and Agnagna, M. A population survey of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in northern Congo 1991 African Journal of Ecology
Vol. 29, pp. 177-87 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FayAgn91,
  author = {Fay, J. M. and Agnagna, M.},
  title = {A population survey of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in northern Congo},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {177--87},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1991.tb01000.x}
}
Felce, T., Stone, E., Whiteford, J., James, E., Castrillon, J. and Evans, P.G.H. To what extent can distance sampling be combined with photo identification as a monitoring tool for Tursiops truncatus   unpublished  
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Felce,
  author = {Felce, Tom and Stone, Eleanor and Whiteford, Jim and James, Eve and Castrillon, Juliana and Evans, Peter G. H.},
  title = {To what extent can distance sampling be combined with photo identification as a monitoring tool for Tursiops truncatus}
}
Ferguson, J.M., McCartney, M.A., Blinick, N.S., Schroeder, L. and Fieberg, J. Using Distance Sampling to Estimate Densities of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena Polymorpha) in Early-Stage Invasions 2019 Freshwater Science
Vol. 38(4), pp. 856-868 
article DOI  
Abstract: Estimating the density and distribution of invasive populations is critical for management and control efforts but can be a challenge in nascent infestations when population densities are low. Statistically-valid sampling designs that account for imperfect detection of individuals are needed to estimate densities across time and space. Survey methods that yield reliable estimates allow managers to determine how invader biomass affects ecosystem services and evaluate population trends and effectiveness of control measures. We investigated the use of distance sampling via self-contained underwater breathing apparatus divers to determine densities of invasive Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in 2 recently-invaded lakes in central Minnesota. This framework allows divers to cover the large areas necessary in low-density, recent infestations. We estimated that a diver could detect between 5 and 41% of the mussels present in the surveyed area, depending on the specific diver and on whether the lake bottom was vegetated. Presence of vegetation had a greater influence on detection probability than diver identity. We also found our sampling design did not meet a key assumption of conventional distance sampling: that detection along the transect line is perfect. Therefore, accurate density estimates required a double-observer approach. These results highlight the importance of accounting for detectability when comparing estimates over time or across lakes, particularly when different observers conduct surveys. However, further evaluation is needed to determine if changes in field sampling techniques can meet the assumptions behind conventional distance sampling for freshwater mussels. We also suggest that the efficiency of distance sampling should be compared to alternatives such as quadrat sampling across a range of mussel densities.
BibTeX:
@article{Ferguson2019,
  author = {Ferguson, Jake M. and McCartney, Michael A. and Blinick, Naomi S. and Schroeder, Leslie and Fieberg, John},
  title = {Using Distance Sampling to Estimate Densities of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena Polymorpha) in Early-Stage Invasions},
  journal = {Freshwater Science},
  publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {38},
  number = {4},
  pages = {856--868},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1086/706105}
}
Ferguson, J.W.H. and Bester, M.N. The treatment of spatial autocorrelation in biological surveys: the case of line transect surveys 2002 Antarctic Science
Vol. 14(2), pp. 115-122 
article DOI  
Abstract: Marked spatial autocorrelation was encountered in an extensive data set on Antarctic seal densities as well as Antarctic pack ice characteristics. Whilst me methodology of measuring spatial autocorrelation is well developed, there is no established infrastructure for statistical inference in terms of correlation analysis or ANOVA. We survey the literature that deals with these problems, as well as some of the approaches that have been proposed for taking autocorrelation into account in inferential statistics. We apply these approaches to a data set comprising Antarctic pack ice seal counts as well as a few environmental measures. In contrast to the predictions from the existing literature, nonlinear estimation suggested that Pearson's r substantially overestimates the tree correlation between seal densities and environmental variables. When compared to spatially adjusted analysis of variance, conventional ANOVA that compared seal densities or pack ice characteristics in different areas overestimated the degree of difference between these areas in proportion to the degree of spatial autocorrelation of the particular data set. In our case, the effects of spatial autocorrelation were not neutralised by treating entire transects as single points. These results emphasise the need for a methodology that takes spatial autocorrelation into account for interpreting the spatial data on Antarctic seals collected during the Antarctic pack ice seal (APIS) program. New software written for performing these analyses is available from the senior author.
BibTeX:
@article{Ferguson2002,
  author = {Ferguson, J. W. H. and Bester, M. N.},
  title = {The treatment of spatial autocorrelation in biological surveys: the case of line transect surveys},
  journal = {Antarctic Science},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {14},
  number = {2},
  pages = {115--122},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102002000664}
}
Ferrari, S.F., Chagas, R.R. and Souza-Alves, J.P. Line transect surveying of arboreal monkeys: problems of group size and spread in a highly fragmented landscape 2010 American Journal of Primatology
Vol. 72, pp. 1100-1107 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ferrari2010,
  author = {Ferrari, S. F. and Chagas, R. R. and Souza-Alves, J. P.},
  title = {Line transect surveying of arboreal monkeys: problems of group size and spread in a highly fragmented landscape},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {1100--1107},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20873}
}
Ferreira, S.M. and Roberts, C.C. Distribution and abundance of Maui's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori maui) along the North Island west coast, New Zealand 2003 (93)School: Department of Conservation  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Ferreira2003,
  author = {Ferreira, S. M. and Roberts, C. C.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of Maui's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori maui) along the North Island west coast, New Zealand},
  school = {Department of Conservation},
  year = {2003},
  number = {93}
}
Fewster, R.M. and Jupp, P.E. Inference on population size in binomial detectability models 2009 Biometrika
Vol. 96(4), pp. 805-820 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2009,
  author = {Fewster and R.M. and Jupp, P. E.},
  title = {Inference on population size in binomial detectability models},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {96},
  number = {4},
  pages = {805--820},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/asp051}
}
Fewster, R.M. Variance estimation for systematic designs in spatial surveys 2011 Biometrics
Vol. 67(4), pp. 1518-1531 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BIOM:BIOM1604,
  author = {Fewster, R. M.},
  title = {Variance estimation for systematic designs in spatial surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Inc},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {67},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1518--1531},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2011.01604.x}
}
Fewster, R.M. and Buckland, S.T. Assessment of distance sampling estimators 2004 Advanced Distance Sampling, pp. 281-306  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{FewBuc04,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Assessment of distance sampling estimators},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {281--306}
}
Fewster, R.M., Buckland, S.T., Burnham, K.P., Borchers, D.L., Jupp, P.E., Laake, J.L. and Thomas., L. Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling 2009 Biometrics
Vol. 65, pp. 225-236 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2008b,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and Buckland, S. T. and Burnham, K. P. and Borchers, D. L. and Jupp, P. E. and Laake, J. L. and Thomas., L.},
  title = {Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {225--236},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2008.01018.x}
}
Fewster, R.M., Laake, J.L. and Buckland, S.T. Line transect sampling in small and large regions 2005 Biometrics
Vol. 61, pp. 856-859 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fewetal2005,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and Laake, J. L. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Line transect sampling in small and large regions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {61},
  pages = {856--859},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2005.00413_1.x}
}
Fewster, R.M. and Pople, A.R. A comparison of mark-recapture distance sampling methods applied to aerial surveys of Eastern grey kangaroos 2008 Wildlife Research
Vol. 35, pp. 320-330 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2008a,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and Pople, A. R.},
  title = {A comparison of mark-recapture distance sampling methods applied to aerial surveys of Eastern grey kangaroos},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {320--330},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR07078}
}
Fewster, R.M., Southwell, C., Borchers, D.L., Buckland, S.T. and Pople, A.R. The influence of animal mobility on the assumption of uniform distances in aerial line transect surveys 2008 Wildlife Research
Vol. 35, pp. 275-288 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2008,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and Southwell, C. and Borchers, D. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Pople, A. R.},
  title = {The influence of animal mobility on the assumption of uniform distances in aerial line transect surveys},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {275--288},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR07077}
}
Finlayson, G.R., Diment, A.N., Mitrovski, P., Thompson, G.G. and Thompson, S.A. Estimating western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) density using distance sampling 2010 Australian Mammalogy
Vol. 32, pp. 197-200 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Finlayson2010,
  author = {Finlayson and G.R. and Diment, A. N. and Mitrovski, P. and Thompson, G. G. and Thompson, S. A.},
  title = {Estimating western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) density using distance sampling},
  journal = {Australian Mammalogy},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {197--200},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/AM09037}
}
Fiske, I. and Chandler, R. Package unmarked 2010   techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Fiske2010,
  author = {Fiske, Ian and Chandler, Richard},
  title = {Package unmarked},
  year = {2010}
}
Fiske, I.J. and Chandler, R.B. Unmarked: an R package for fitting hierarchical models of wildlife occurrence and abundance 2011 Journal of Statistical Software
Vol. 43, pp. 1-23 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fiske2011,
  author = {Fiske, Ian J. and Chandler, Richard B.},
  title = {Unmarked: an R package for fitting hierarchical models of wildlife occurrence and abundance},
  journal = {Journal of Statistical Software},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {1--23},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v043.i10}
}
Fitzgerald, S.M. and Tanner, G.W. Avian community response to fire and mechanical shrub control in south Florida 1992 Journal of Range Management
Vol. 45, pp. 396-400 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FitTan92,
  author = {Fitzgerald, S. M. and Tanner, G. W.},
  title = {Avian community response to fire and mechanical shrub control in south Florida},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {396--400},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/4003090}
}
Fleming, K., K. and Giuliano, W.M. Effect of border-edge cuts on birds at woodlot edges in southwestern Pennsylvania 1998 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 62, pp. 1430-1437 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FleGiu98,
  author = {Fleming and K., K. and Giuliano, W. M.},
  title = {Effect of border-edge cuts on birds at woodlot edges in southwestern Pennsylvania},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {1430--1437},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802009}
}
Fletcher, J.R. and Hutto, L.R. Estimating detection probabilities of river birds using double surveys 2006 The Auk
Vol. 123, pp. 695-707 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FleHut06,
  author = {Fletcher, J. R. and Hutto, L. R.},
  title = {Estimating detection probabilities of river birds using double surveys},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {123},
  pages = {695--707},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/123.3.695}
}
Flowers, H.J. and Hightower, J.E. A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling 2013 Marine and Coastal Fisheries
Vol. 5(1), pp. 211-223 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Flowers2013,
  author = {Flowers, H. Jared and Hightower, Joseph E.},
  title = {A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling},
  journal = {Marine and Coastal Fisheries},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {5},
  number = {1},
  pages = {211--223},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/19425120.2013.816396}
}
Focardi, S., De Marinis, A.M., Rizzotto, M. and Pucci, A. Comparative evaluation of thermal infrared imaging and spotlighting to survey wildlife 2001 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 29(1), pp. 133-139 
article URL 
Abstract: Spotlighting (SL) is used widely to estimate animal abundance, but it yields density estimates that are underestimated and biased. Introduction of distance sampling has, to a large extent, contributed to solving these problems, but the reliability of this statistical method depends strongly on sample size. Thermal infrared (TI) imaging may improve number of observations, but very few studies have quantified performance of TI imaging relative to SL. This comparison is relevant because the high cost of a TI device is justified only by a significant increase of observations and a consequent reduction of labor costs. Our objectives were to compare animal detectability by SL and TI imaging as a function of animal size, species (red deer [Cervus elaphus], fallow deer [Dama dama], wild boar [Sus scrofa], red fox [Vulpes vulpes], European rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus], and brown hare [Lepus europaeus]), distance, and season. We also analyzed group size and composition for red deer and effect of grass height on detection of hares and rabbits. On average, TI imaging was more efficient (P¡ 0.001) than SL, which detected only 53.8% of the animals observed by TI imaging. This was especially true for wild boar (92.1%), but both devices observed comparable red fox (P=0.60) and fallow deer (P=0.72) numbers. Relative detectability of the 2 devices was influenced by different factors: for red deer, TI was more efficient than SL in summer and autumn, but not in winter; male groups of red deer were better observed by TI imaging than by SL; and wild boars were better imaged at short (0-100-m) distances with TI. Relative effectiveness of both instruments was not influenced by grass height (P=0.92). Our results showed that wild boar should only be surveyed using TI imager and that a strong improvement of sample size can be obtained using TI for red deer, brown hare, and European rabbit.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2001,
  author = {Focardi, S. and De Marinis, A. M. and Rizzotto, M. and Pucci, A.},
  title = {Comparative evaluation of thermal infrared imaging and spotlighting to survey wildlife},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  number = {1},
  pages = {133--139},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3783989}
}
Focardi, S., Franzetti, B. and Ronchi, F. Nocturnal distance sampling of a Mediterranean population of fallow deer is consistent with population projections 2013 Wildlife Research
Vol. 40, pp. 437-446 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2013,
  author = {Focardi, Stefano and Franzetti, Barbara and Ronchi, Francesca},
  title = {Nocturnal distance sampling of a Mediterranean population of fallow deer is consistent with population projections},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {437--446},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR12218}
}
Focardi, S., Isotti, R., Raganella Pelliccioni, E. and Iannuzzo, D. The use of distance sampling and mark-resight to estimate the local density of wildlife populations 2002 Environmetrics
Vol. 13(2), pp. 177-186 
article DOI  
Abstract: We used distance sampling (line transects) and mark-resight to estimate habitat and local area (area size, range: 3.9-44.5 ha) population density of ungulates. The distance sampling study was performed on fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) in a mediterranean forest. The mark-resight study was performed on a roe deer population in a hilly area of the Apennines. The first study allowed us to estimate the animal density into four different habitats (deciduous oak wood, evergreen oak wood, maquis and open areas with domestic-pine woods). The between habitat differences of population density are large for the three species: fallow deer are more abundant in the open areas (22.22 heads/km2, c.i. 12.42-39.74), roe deer in the deciduous oak wood (14.50 heads/km2, c.i. 7.01-30.10) and wild boar in both the open areas (11.29 heads/km2, c.i. 4.86-26.20) and evergreen oak wood (10.42 heads/km2, c.i. 6.78-16.02). The roe deer population in the Apennines is characterized by large between-zone variations of population density (range: 1997: 13.25-131.31, 1998: 29.06-78.01, 1999: 10.67-88.58). Moreover, trends of local zones may be quite different with respect to the average trend of a wider study area, suggesting a well-defined short-scale spatial structure for this population. We conclude that both survey methods may be very useful in population assessment, but they need intense field effort and careful statistical design. Care needs to be taken to satisfy the assumptions of the statistical models. Copyright textcopyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2002,
  author = {Focardi, S. and Isotti, R. and Raganella Pelliccioni, E. and Iannuzzo, D.},
  title = {The use of distance sampling and mark-resight to estimate the local density of wildlife populations},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {13},
  number = {2},
  pages = {177--186},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/env.491}
}
Focardi, S., Isotti, R. and Tinelli, A. Line transect estimates of ungulate populations in a Mediterranean forest 2002 The Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 66(1), pp. 48-58 
article DOI  
Abstract: We used line transect (distance) methodology to estimate the population density of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in a dense Mediterranean forest. Three different surveys (1 per year from 1995 to 1997) were analyzed. Density estimates, pooled among years, for fallow deer (9.9 deer/km^2, %CV = 24) and roe deer (8.5 deer/km^2, %CV = 21) were more precise than the estimate for wild boars (10.6 boars/km^2, %CV = 55). Fallow deer density was significantly higher during 1997 than during 1995 or 1996. For wild boars, we found differences among years (1995: 23.6 boars/km^2, %CV = 23; 1996: 10.9 boars/km^2, %CV = 24; 1997: 3.9 boars/km^2, %CV = 33). We attempted a confirmatory analysis using an independent survey method for fallow deer and total counts at supplementary feeding sites for wild boars. These comparisons showed that line transect estimates were negatively biased for fallow deer during 1996-1997 and for wild boars during 1997. For adults, the composition by sex from line transects was compared with information collected from fixed observation points. Differences in sex composition for fallow deer and wild boars were found when these 2 methods were compared. The structure of the roe deer population was similar when line transect information was compared with independent survey data. A spike in the detection probability function for wild boars may have been caused by the difficulty of detecting boars ¿ 20 m from the transect. The careful use of line transect sampling may prove useful for both research and management of fallow deer, roe deer, and wild boars.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2002a,
  author = {Focardi, Stefano and Isotti, Roberto and Tinelli, Aleandro},
  title = {Line transect estimates of ungulate populations in a Mediterranean forest},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {66},
  number = {1},
  pages = {48--58},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802870}
}
Focardi, S., Montanaro, P., Isotti, R., Ronchi, F., Scacco, M. and Calmanti, R. Distance sampling effectively monitored a declining population of Italian roe deer Capreolus capreolus italicus 2005 ORYX
Vol. 39(4), pp. 421-428 
article DOI  
Abstract: Monitoring rare species of wild ungulates is critical for their conservation management. The Italian roe deer Capreolus capreolus italicus was recently confirmed to be a subspecies in Mediterranean habitats of central and southern Italy. We have monitored this subspecies at Castelporziano, near Rome, since 1988, and detected an abrupt population decline in 2001. We compared distance sampling surveys undertaken before and after the population crash to determine the ability of this method to detect variations in animal density and to investigate which factors may influence the precision of the estimates. We used radio tagged roe deer to evaluate the accuracy of our surveys, comparing distance sampling and mark-resight estimates at the same site, and studying the behavioural reaction of the animals to the presence of an observer. We found that before the crash distance sampling surveys attained a good precision but that the survey conditions influenced both precision and accuracy. Post-crash surveys were less precise, but the difference in density, before and after the crash was highly significant, indicating the potential of the method to quickly detect density variations and so to allow wildlife managers to react without delay to a crisis. The direct test of distance sampling assumptions showed that estimates were almost unbiased. We conclude that the methodology was successful for monitoring this population and that it may be used in other situations where ungulates are rare and efficient monitoring must be attained with restricted budgets. textcopyright 2005 FFI.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2005,
  author = {Focardi, S. and Montanaro, P. and Isotti, R. and Ronchi, F. and Scacco, M. and Calmanti, R.},
  title = {Distance sampling effectively monitored a declining population of Italian roe deer Capreolus capreolus italicus},
  journal = {ORYX},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39},
  number = {4},
  pages = {421--428},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605305001109}
}
Fogarty, J.H. and Vilella, F.J. Evaluating methodologies to survey Eleutherodactylus Frogs in montane forests of Puerto Rico 2001 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 29, pp. 948-955 
article URL 
Abstract: The evaluation of anuran call-count survey methods against more precise population estimation techniques for validation purposes is being researched only recently. Many investigators believe that call-survey methods should be calibrated to true population size to obtain reliable records, and this has not been done for call-survey methods in Neotropical regions. We compared anuran survey methodologies in the Cordillera Central of Puerto Rico. We evaluated using mark-recapture, transects, and point counts to survey Eleutherodactylus populations for information content, logistics, and effort in native cordillera forest and eucalyptus plantations. We used programs CAPTURE and DISTANCE to generate population estimates and associated variances. Mark-recapture results showed density of E. coqui males was greater (P=0.04) in native forest. Total population estimates derived from mark-recapture were used with calling estimates to calculate proportion of calling males. Humidity was associated with density of calling males in native forest (P¡ 0.001) and eucalyptus (P=0.01) plantations. Call counts of E. coqui within 5-m radius of points were correlated with density of calling males in native (P¡ 0.001) and eucalyptus (P=0.001) sites and for combined data (P¡ 0.001). We recommend that mark-recapture be used when detailed information is needed on an anuran species. Mean species richness detected between line transect (x=1.98) and point count (x=1.67) differed significantly; only one frog species was detected using mark-recapture. Point counts required the least effort but provided the least amount of useful information. Future research should develop predictive models linking call counts to density estimates and examine seasonal effects.
BibTeX:
@article{Fogarty2001,
  author = {Fogarty, Jarrod H. and Vilella, Francisco J.},
  title = {Evaluating methodologies to survey Eleutherodactylus Frogs in montane forests of Puerto Rico},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {948--955},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784422}
}
Folkard, N.F.G. and Smith, J.N.M. Evidence for bottom up effects in the boreal forest: do passerine birds respond to large scale experimental fertilization? 1995 Canadian Journal of Zoology
Vol. 73, pp. 2231-2237 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FolSmi95,
  author = {Folkard, N. F. G. and Smith, J. N. M.},
  title = {Evidence for bottom up effects in the boreal forest: do passerine birds respond to large scale experimental fertilization?},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Zoology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {2231--2237},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/z95-264}
}
Fontaine, A.L., Kennedy, P.L. and Johnson, D.H. Effects of distance from cattle water developments on grassland birds 2004 Journal of Range Management
Vol. 57(3), pp. 238-242 
article DOI  
Abstract: Many North American grassland bird populations appear to be declining, which may be due to changes in grazing regimes on their breeding areas. Establishment of water developments and confining cattle (Bos taurus L.) to small pastures often minimizes spatial heterogeneity of cattle forage consumption, which may lead to uniformity in vegetative structure. This increased uniformity may provide suitable habitat for some bird species but not others. We assessed how cattle use, vegetative structure, and bird population densities varied with increasing distance from water developments (0-800 m) on the Little Missouri National Grassland (LMNG) in North Dakota. Lark buntings (Calamospiza melancorys Stejneger), which are typically associated with low vegetative cover, decreased with increasing distance from water developments. Horned larks (Eremophila alpestris L.), also a low-cover associate, followed a similar but weaker trend. Densities of another low-cover associate as well as moderate- and high-cover associates were not related to distance from water. Vegetative height-density and litter depth increased by 50 and 112%, respectively, while cowpie cover and structural variability decreased by 51 and 24%, respectively, with distance from water. Confidence interval overlap was common among all measures, showing substantial variability among study sites. Our results indicate cattle use is higher closer to water developments, and this pattern may positively affect the densities of lark buntings and horned larks. The absence of density gradients in the other bird species may be due to the paucity of locations ¿ 800 m from water on the LMNG.
BibTeX:
@article{Fontaine2004,
  author = {Fontaine, A. L. and Kennedy, P. L. and Johnson, D. H.},
  title = {Effects of distance from cattle water developments on grassland birds},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {57},
  number = {3},
  pages = {238--242},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/4003790}
}
Fontaine, J.B., Donato, D.C., Robinson, W.D., Law, B.E. and Kauffman, J.B. Bird communities following high-severity fire: response to single and repeat fires in a mixed-evergreen forest, Oregon, USA 2009 Forest Ecology and Management
Vol. 257(6), pp. 1496-1504 
article DOI  
Abstract: Fire is a widespread natural disturbance agent in most conifer-dominated forests. In light of climate change and the effects of fire exclusion, single and repeated high-severity (stand-replacement) fires have become prominent land management issues. We studied bird communities using point counting in the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion of Oregon, USA at various points in time after one or two high-severity fires. Time points included 2 and 3 years after a single fire, 17 and 18 years after a single fire, 2 and 3 years after a repeat fire (15 year interval between fires), and ¿ 100 years since stand-replacement fire (mature/old-growth forest). Avian species richness did not differ significantly among habitats. Bird density was highest 17 and 18 years after fire, lowest 2 years after fire, and intermediate in repeat burns and unburned forest. Bird community composition varied significantly with habitat type (AÂ =Â 0.24, PÂ ¡Â 0.0001) with two distinct gradients in species composition relating to tree structure (live to dead) and shrub stature. Using indicator species analysis, repeat burns were characterized by shrub-nesting and ground-foraging bird species while unburned mature forests were characterized by conifer-nesting and foliage-gleaning species. Bird density was not related to snag basal area but was positively related to shrub height. Contrary to expectations, repeated high-severity fire did not reduce species richness, and bird densities were greater in repeat burns than in once-burned habitats. Broad-leaved hardwoods and shrubs appear to play a major role in structuring avian communities in the Klamath-Siskiyou region. In light of these results, extended periods of early seral broadleaf dominance and short-interval high-severity fires may be important to the conservation of avian biodiversity.
BibTeX:
@article{Fontaine2009,
  author = {Fontaine, Joseph B. and Donato, Daniel C. and Robinson, W. Douglas and Law, Beverly E. and Kauffman, J. Boone},
  title = {Bird communities following high-severity fire: response to single and repeat fires in a mixed-evergreen forest, Oregon, USA},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {257},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1496--1504},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.12.030}
}
Foote, K.G. and Stefansson, G. Definition of the problem of estimating fish abundance over an area from acoustic line transect measurements of density 1993 ICES Journal of Marine Science
Vol. 50, pp. 369-381 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FooSte93,
  author = {Foote, K. G. and Stefansson, G.},
  title = {Definition of the problem of estimating fish abundance over an area from acoustic line transect measurements of density},
  journal = {ICES Journal of Marine Science},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {369--381},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1993.1042}
}
Forbes, A.R., Mueller, J.M., Mitchell, R.B., Dabbert, C.B. and Wester, D.B. Accuracy of red imported fire ant mound density estimates 2000 Southwestern Entomologist
Vol. 25(2 SUPPL.), pp. 109-112 
article  
Abstract: Accuracy of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, mound density estimates was evaluated during 1998 in the Texas Coastal Prairie. Mound densities were estimated using belt transects and distance sampling, the grasslands were burned, and the estimated mound densities compared to complete ant mound counts made on each of the five sites. Mound population density estimates did not differ among the three methods. Detection of S. invicta mounds decreased with distance from the line transect on three sites. Based on the detection function derived by Program DISTANCE for these sites, we recorded 89.9, 97.3, and 98.1% of S. invicta mounds within 1 m and 70.8, 89.9, and 92.7% of S. invicta mounds within 2 m of the line transects, respectively. The 2-m belt transects and distance sampling are accurate estimators of S. invicta mound densities in grassland habitats. Although distance sampling is more time consuming, it does not require the assumption that all mounds are observed. This benefit was not obvious in this study because of the similarity of our sites and the high detectability of mounds within the 2-m belt transects. Accuracy of belt transects would decrease if wider transects were used or if detectability of S. invicta mounds was lower, such as in denser vegetation. We recommend using belt transects or distance sampling to estimate S. invicta mound density in grassland habitats.
BibTeX:
@article{Forbes2000,
  author = {Forbes, A. R. and Mueller, J. M. and Mitchell, R. B. and Dabbert, C. B. and Wester, D. B.},
  title = {Accuracy of red imported fire ant mound density estimates},
  journal = {Southwestern Entomologist},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {25},
  number = {2 SUPPL.},
  pages = {109--112}
}
Forcada, J. Multivariate methods for size-dependent detection in conventional line transect sampling 2002 School: Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Forcada2002,
  author = {Forcada, J.},
  title = {Multivariate methods for size-dependent detection in conventional line transect sampling},
  school = {Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA},
  year = {2002}
}
Forcada, J., Disciara, G.N. and Fabbri, F. Abundance of fin whales and striped dolphins summering in the Corso-Ligurian basin 1995 Mammalia
Vol. 59, pp. 127-140 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Foretal95,
  author = {Forcada, J. and Disciara, G. N. and Fabbri, F.},
  title = {Abundance of fin whales and striped dolphins summering in the Corso-Ligurian basin},
  journal = {Mammalia},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {127--140},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.1995.59.1.127}
}
Forcada, J., Gazo, M., Aguilar, A., Gonzalvo, J. and Fernández-Contreras, M. Bottlenose dolphin abundance in the NW Mediterranean: addressing heterogeneity in distribution 2004 Marine Ecology Progress Series
Vol. 275, pp. 275-287 
article DOI  
Abstract: Line-transect estimators were developed to assess abundance of coastal dolphins Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba encountered in low densities during aerial sighting surveys. The analysis improved on conventional approaches by objectively combining data from different species, survey areas and other covariates affecting dolphin detectability. Model selection and multimodel inference allowed robust estimates of precision in accounting for covariate selection uncertainty. These methods were used to estimate bottlenose dolphin abundance in NE Mediterranean waters that included a putative subpopulation in the Balearic Islands. Total abundance was estimated as 7654 (coefficient of variation, CV = 0.47; 95 % CI = 1608 to 15 766) and the abundance in inshore waters of the Balearic Islands varied from 727 (CV = 0.47; 95 % CI = 149 to 1481) dolphins in spring 2002 to 1333 (CV = 0.44; 95 % CI = 419 to 2617) dolphins in autumn 2002, with an average estimate of 1030 (CV = 0.35; 95 % CI = 415 to 1849). The results do not support an exclusively coastal Balearic Island subpopulation, but they strongly indicate that the islands contain critical habitats required for the conservation of the species. Given the observed decline of the species during the last few decades, conservation-oriented management should focus on reducing or eliminating adverse fishing interactions while key areas are protected from encroachment produced by human development.
BibTeX:
@article{Foretal04,
  author = {Forcada, J. and Gazo, M. and Aguilar, A. and Gonzalvo, J. and Fernández-Contreras, M.},
  title = {Bottlenose dolphin abundance in the NW Mediterranean: addressing heterogeneity in distribution},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {275},
  pages = {275--287},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps275275}
}
Forcada, J. and Hammond, P. Geographical variation in abundance of striped and common dolphins of the western Mediterranean 1998 Journal of Sea Research
Vol. 39, pp. 313-325 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ForHam98,
  author = {Forcada, J. and Hammond, P.},
  title = {Geographical variation in abundance of striped and common dolphins of the western Mediterranean},
  journal = {Journal of Sea Research},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {313--325},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S1385-1101(97)00063-4}
}
Forney, K.A. and Barlow, J. Seasonal patterns in the abundance and distribution of California cetaceans, 1991-1992 1998 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 14, pp. 460-489 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ForBar98,
  author = {Forney, K. A. and Barlow, J.},
  title = {Seasonal patterns in the abundance and distribution of California cetaceans, 1991-1992},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {460--489},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00737.x}
}
Forsyth, D.M., Comte, S., Davis, N.E., Bengsen, A.J., Côté, S.D., Hewitt, D.G., Morellet, N. and Mysterud, A. Methodology Matters When Estimating Deer Abundance: A Global Systematic Review and Recommendations for Improvements 2022 The Journal of Wildlife Management  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Forsyth2022,
  author = {Forsyth, David M. and Comte, Sebastien and Davis, Naomi E. and Bengsen, Andrew J. and Côté, Steeve D. and Hewitt, David G. and Morellet, Nicolas and Mysterud, Atle},
  title = {Methodology Matters When Estimating Deer Abundance: A Global Systematic Review and Recommendations for Improvements},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2022},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.22207}
}
Fossette, S., Abrahms, B., Hazen, E.L., Bograd, S.J., Zilliacus, K.M., Calambokidis, J., Burrows, J.A., Goldbogen, J.A., Harvey, J.T., Marinovic, B., Tershy, B. and Croll, D.A. Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California current 2017 Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 7(21), pp. 9085-9097 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fossette2017,
  author = {Fossette, Sabrina and Abrahms, Briana and Hazen, Elliott L. and Bograd, Steven J. and Zilliacus, Kelly M. and Calambokidis, John and Burrows, Julia A. and Goldbogen, Jeremy A. and Harvey, James T. and Marinovic, Baldo and Tershy, Bernie and Croll, Donald A.},
  title = {Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California current},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {7},
  number = {21},
  pages = {9085--9097},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3409}
}
Fox, C.H., Robertson, C., O’Hara, P.D., Tadey, R. and Morgan, K.H. Spatial Assessment of Albatrosses, Commercial Fisheries, and Bycatch Incidents on Canada's Pacific Coast 2021 Marine Ecology Progress Series
Vol. 672, pp. 205-222 
article DOI  
Abstract: Fisheries bycatch mortality poses a primary threat to the majority of the world's 22 albatross species, 15 of which are at risk of extinction. Although quantitative estimates of albatross bycatch are often unavailable due to a relative or total absence of monitoring, spatial overlap between fisheries and albatrosses is often used to estimate the extent of interaction, a proxy for exposure to bycatch, and to inform avoidance and mitigation actions. Using comprehensive records of commercial demersal longline and trap fishing and survey information for albatrosses (black-footed albatross Phoebastria nigripes, Laysan albatross P. immutabilis, short-tailed albatross P. albatrus), the extent of spatial potential interaction was estimated in Canada's Pacific coast waters and examined across breeding and non-breeding seasons. The distributions of albatrosses and longline and trap fisheries were found to substantially overlap, with potential interaction hotspots concentrated along the continental shelf break. Trap fisheries reported 1 albatross bycatch incident, suggesting that these fisheries are responsible for negligible albatross mortalities. In contrast, >80% of recorded albatross bycatch incidents occurred within 10 km of albatross-longline fisheries hotspot locations, providing evidence that longline-albatross potential interaction hotspots represent actual areas of elevated bycatch mortality risk. Indicative of potential conservation concern, 60% of short-tailed albatross sightings occurred within 10 km, and 93% within 30 km, of longline-albatross potential interaction hotspots. By contributing knowledge regarding albatross-fisheries interactions, in addition to undertaking the first evaluation of albatross-fisheries hotspots with recorded bycatch incidents on Canada's Pacific coast, this study represents a step towards enhancing albatross conservation through bycatch avoidance and mitigation.
BibTeX:
@article{Fox2021,
  author = {Fox, C. H. and Robertson, C. and O’Hara, P. D. and Tadey, R. and Morgan, K. H.},
  title = {Spatial Assessment of Albatrosses, Commercial Fisheries, and Bycatch Incidents on Canada's Pacific Coast},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2021},
  volume = {672},
  pages = {205--222},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13783}
}
Franceschi, S., Nelli, L., Pisani, C., Franzoi, A., Fattorini, L. and Meriggi, A. A Monte Carlo appraisal of plot and distance sampling for surveys of black grouse and rock ptarmigan populations in alpine protected areas 2014 The Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 78(2), pp. 359-368 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JWMG:JWMG661,
  author = {Franceschi, Sara and Nelli, Luca and Pisani, Caterina and Franzoi, Alessandro and Fattorini, Lorenzo and Meriggi, Alberto},
  title = {A Monte Carlo appraisal of plot and distance sampling for surveys of black grouse and rock ptarmigan populations in alpine protected areas},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {78},
  number = {2},
  pages = {359--368},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.661}
}
Francksen, R.M., Whittingham, M.J., Ludwig, S.C., Roos, S. and Baines, D. Numerical and functional responses of common buzzards Buteo buteo to prey abundance on a Scottish grouse moor 2017 Ibis
Vol. 159(3), pp. 541-553 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Francksen2017,
  author = {Francksen, Richard M. and Whittingham, Mark J. and Ludwig, Sonja C. and Roos, Staffan and Baines, David},
  title = {Numerical and functional responses of common buzzards Buteo buteo to prey abundance on a Scottish grouse moor},
  journal = {Ibis},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {159},
  number = {3},
  pages = {541--553},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12471}
}
Franklin, A.B., Anderson, D.R. and Burnham, K.P. Estimation of long-term trends and variation in avian survival probabilities using random effects models 2002 Journal of Applied Statistics
Vol. 29, pp. 267-287 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fraetal02,
  author = {Franklin, A. B. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {Estimation of long-term trends and variation in avian survival probabilities using random effects models},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Statistics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {267--287},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/02664760120108719}
}
Franzreb, K.E. Determination of avian densities using the variable-strip and fixed-width transect surveying methods 1981 (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, pp. 139-145  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Fra81,
  author = {Franzreb, K. E.},
  title = {Determination of avian densities using the variable-strip and fixed-width transect surveying methods},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {139--145}
}
Franzreb, K.E. Comparison of variable strip transect and spot-map methods for censusing avian populations in a mixed-coniferous forest 1976 Condor, The
Vol. 78, pp. 260-262 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fra76,
  author = {Franzreb, K. E.},
  title = {Comparison of variable strip transect and spot-map methods for censusing avian populations in a mixed-coniferous forest},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {78},
  pages = {260--262},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1366864}
}
Freed, L.A., Bodner, R.L. and Cann, G.R. Incipient extinction of a major population of the Hawaii akepa owing to introduced species 2008 Evolutionary Ecology Research
Vol. 10(7), pp. 931-965 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Freed2008931,
  author = {Freed, L. A. and Bodner, R. L. and Cann, G. R.},
  title = {Incipient extinction of a major population of the Hawaii akepa owing to introduced species},
  journal = {Evolutionary Ecology Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {10},
  number = {7},
  pages = {931--965}
}
Freilich, J., Burnham, K.P., Collins, C.M. and Garry, C.A. Factors affecting population assessments of desert tortoises 2000 Conservation Biology
Vol. 14, pp. 1479-1489 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Freetal00,
  author = {Freilich, J. and Burnham, K. P. and Collins, C. M. and Garry, C. A.},
  title = {Factors affecting population assessments of desert tortoises},
  journal = {Conservation Biology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {1479--1489},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.98360.x}
}
Freilich, J.E., Camp, R.J., Duda, J.J. and Karl, A.E. Problems with sampling desert tortoises: a simulation analysis based on field data 2005 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 69(1), pp. 45-56 
article DOI  
Abstract: The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) was listed as a U.S. threatened species in 1990 based largely on population declines inferred from mark-recapture surveys of 2.59-km2 (1-mi2) plots. Since then, several census methods have been proposed and tested, but all methods still pose logistical or statistical difficulties. We conducted computer simulations using actual tortoise location data from 2 1-mi2 plot surveys in southern California, USA, to identify strengths and weaknesses of current sampling strategies. We considered tortoise population estimates based on these plots as ``truth" and then tested various sampling methods based on sampling smaller plots or transect lines passing through the mile squares. Data were analyzed using Schnabel's mark-recapture estimate and program CAPTURE. Experimental subsampling with replacement of the 1-mi2 data using 1-km2 and 0.25-km2 plot boundaries produced data sets of smaller plot sizes, which we compared to estimates from the 1-mi 2 plots. We also tested distance sampling by saturating a 1-mi 2 site with computer simulated transect lines, once again evaluating bias in density estimates. Subsampling estimates from 1-km2 plots did not differ significantly from the estimates derived at 1-mi2. The 0.25-km2 subsamples significantly overestimated population sizes, chiefly because too few recaptures were made. Distance sampling simulations were biased 80% of the time and had high coefficient of variation to density ratios. Furthermore, a prospective power analysis suggested limited ability to detect population declines as high as 50%. We concluded that poor performance and bias of both sampling procedures was driven by insufficient sample size, suggesting that all efforts must be directed to increasing numbers found in order to produce reliable results. Our results suggest that present methods may not be capable of accurately estimating desert tortoise populations.
BibTeX:
@article{Freilich2005,
  author = {Freilich, J. E. and Camp, R. J. and Duda, J. J. and Karl, A. E.},
  title = {Problems with sampling desert tortoises: a simulation analysis based on field data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {69},
  number = {1},
  pages = {45--56},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/0022-541X(2005)069%3C0045:PWSDTA%3E2.0.CO;2}
}
Fuller, R.J. and Langslow, D.R. Estimating numbers of birds by point counts: how long should counts last? 1984 Bird Study
Vol. 31, pp. 195-202 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FulLan84,
  author = {Fuller, R. J. and Langslow, D. R.},
  title = {Estimating numbers of birds by point counts: how long should counts last?},
  journal = {Bird Study},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {195--202},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/00063658409476841}
}
Fulling, G.L., Thorson, P.H. and Rivers, J. Distribution and abundance estimates for cetaceans in the waters off Guam and the commonwealth of the northern Mariana islands 2011 Pacific Science
Vol. 65, pp. 321-343 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fullinginpress,
  author = {Fulling, G. L. and Thorson, P. H. and Rivers, J.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance estimates for cetaceans in the waters off Guam and the commonwealth of the northern Mariana islands},
  journal = {Pacific Science},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {321--343},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2984/65.3.321}
}
Funk, W.C., Almeida-Reinoso, D., Nogales-Sornosa, F. and Bustamante, M.R. Monitoring population trends of Eleutherodactylus frogs 2003 Journal of Herpetology
Vol. 37(2), pp. 245-256 
article DOI  
Abstract: Like many Neotropical frogs, a number in the genus Eleutherodactylus have declined or gone extinct in the past two decades. However, the extent of Eleutherodactylus population declines is unknown. Our objective was to identify a good method for monitoring the density of Eleutherodactylus populations to assess the extent of declines. We did this in two ways. First, we compared two methods of directly estimating density, closed population capture-recapture analysis and distance sampling, and one method of indirectly estimating density, visual encounter surveys, for multiple Eleutherodactylus species at three sites in Ecuador. We then conducted a power analysis to estimate the power of our current sampling design to detect declines. Distance sampling estimates of density were biased low compared to capture-recapture estimates. When we corrected this bias, distance sampling estimates became imprecise. Estimates of density from visual encounter surveys were also imprecise. In contrast, capture-recapture estimates were fairly precise and most likely unbiased. Moreover, capture-recapture analysis had the most power to detect declines, although even with capture-recapture analysis, power was low with only five years of sampling. We conclude that capture-recapture analysis is a good method for monitoring Eleutherodactylus density over time, but the sampling area and/or the number of sampling occasions should be increased from the area and number of occasions used here in order to increase sample sizes and therefore power.
BibTeX:
@article{Funk2003,
  author = {Funk, W. C. and Almeida-Reinoso, D. and Nogales-Sornosa, F. and Bustamante, M. R.},
  title = {Monitoring population trends of Eleutherodactylus frogs},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {37},
  number = {2},
  pages = {245--256},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1670/0022-1511(2003)037%5B0245:MPTOEF%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Gabelli, F.M., Fernández, G.J., Ferretti, V., Posse, G., Coconier, E., Gavieiro, H.J., Llambías, P.E., Peláez, P.I., Vallés, M.L. and Tubaro, P.L. Range contraction in the pampas meadowlark Sturnella defilippii in the southern pampas grasslands of argentina 2004 ORYX
Vol. 38(2), pp. 164-170 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gabelli2004,
  author = {Gabelli, F. M. and Fernández, G. J. and Ferretti, V. and Posse, G. and Coconier, E. and Gavieiro, H. J. and Llambías, P. E. and Peláez, P. I. and Vallés, M. L. and Tubaro, P. L.},
  title = {Range contraction in the pampas meadowlark Sturnella defilippii in the southern pampas grasslands of argentina},
  journal = {ORYX},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {38},
  number = {2},
  pages = {164--170},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605304000304}
}
Gadimang, P. and Masunga, G.S. Ground survey of red lechwe in the linyanti swamps and chobe floodplains, northern Botswana 2017 Koedoe
Vol. 59, pp. a1413 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gadimang2017,
  author = {Gadimang, P. and Masunga, G. S.},
  title = {Ground survey of red lechwe in the linyanti swamps and chobe floodplains, northern Botswana},
  journal = {Koedoe},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {a1413},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i2.1413}
}
Gaillard, J.M., Boutin, J.-M. and Van Laere, G. The use of line transects for estimating the population density of roe deer — a feasibility study 1993 Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie
Vol. 48, pp. 73-85 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Gaietal93,
  author = {Gaillard, J. M. and Boutin, J.-M. and Van Laere, G.},
  title = {The use of line transects for estimating the population density of roe deer — a feasibility study},
  journal = {Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {73--85}
}
Gale, G.A., Round, P.D. and Pierce, A.J. A field test of distance sampling methods for a tropical forest bird community 2009 The Auk
Vol. 126, pp. 439-448 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gale2009,
  author = {Gale, George A. and Round, Philip D. and Pierce, Andrew J.},
  title = {A field test of distance sampling methods for a tropical forest bird community},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {126},
  pages = {439--448},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2009.08087}
}
Gale, G.A. and Thongaree, S. Density estimates of nine hornbill species in a lowland forest site in southern Thailand 2006 Bird Conservation International
Vol. 16(1), pp. 57-69 
article DOI  
Abstract: Hornbills are useful indicators of forest condition and human disturbance because they require large tracts of unfragmented forest with large fruiting trees for feeding and nesting. They are relatively large-bodied, which makes them targets for hunting. Density estimates of such species are critical for population monitoring and serve as a baseline against which future changes can be measured. In this study we used variable-width line transect surveys to estimate the densities of nine hornbill species in the Bala portion of the Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary on the Thai-Malaysia border, one of the few remaining areas of lowland forest in Thailand. The hornbill species were: Rhinoceros (Buceros rhinoceros), Great (B. bicornis), Helmeted (B. vigil), Black (Anthracoceros malayanus), Bushy-crested (Anorrhinus galeritus), White-crowned (Aceros comatus), Wrinkled (A. corrugatus), Wreathed (A. undulatus) and Plain-pouched (A. subruficollis). Between January 2001 and April 2002, 11 transects along trails, old logging roads and one paved road were surveyed once per month. A total of 1,261 observations of the nine species were made during the observation period. Estimates for Rhinoceros and Helmeted Hornbill were 2.69 and 1.21 individuals/ km2, respectively, and were similar or slightly higher than densities reported elsewhere. Estimates for Great (0.12), Bushy-crested (0.64), Wrinkled (0.08), White-crowned (0.08) and Wreathed Hornbills (0.69) were generally lower than estimates from other areas in the region. It was not possible to obtain density estimates using distance sampling for Black and Plain-pouched Hornbills due to the small number of observations, but our data did suggest that their densities were also low (¿ 0.10 individuals/km2). Potential reasons for differences between this and other areas include a scarcity of lowland habitat, habitat isolation, lower abundance of specific fruit resources and interspecific competition, but these factors require further investigation. Standardization of survey techniques among studies would significantly improve assessments of habitat requirements as well as of the effects of human disturbance on Asian hornbills, most of which are globally threatened. Our study specifically underscores the need for additional research on the Plain-pouched Hornbill, the most threatened of the species studied, as density estimates from elsewhere in its range are lacking, while more generally it highlights the need to investigate the underlying causes of the often substantial variation in hornbill densities among species and sites. textcopyright BirdLife International 2006.
BibTeX:
@article{Gale2006,
  author = {Gale, G. A. and Thongaree, S.},
  title = {Density estimates of nine hornbill species in a lowland forest site in southern Thailand},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {16},
  number = {1},
  pages = {57--69},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270906000037}
}
Galela, R.S. and Roscom, B.A. Distance sampling simulated for density estimation 2004 9th National Convention on Statistics (Ncs)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Galela2004,
  author = {Galela, Rebecca S. and Roscom, Brigida A.},
  title = {Distance sampling simulated for density estimation},
  booktitle = {9th National Convention on Statistics (Ncs)},
  year = {2004}
}
Galindo, J.A., Serrano, A., Vázquez-Castán, L., González-Gándara, C. and López-Ortega, M. Cetacean diversity, distribution, and abundance in Northern Veracruz, Mexico 2009 Aquatic Mammals
Vol. 35, pp. 12-18 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Galindo2009,
  author = {Galindo, José A. and Serrano, Arturo and Vázquez-Castán, Laura and González-Gándara, Carlos and López-Ortega, Marisela},
  title = {Cetacean diversity, distribution, and abundance in Northern Veracruz, Mexico},
  journal = {Aquatic Mammals},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {12--18},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.35.1.2009.12}
}
Gangadharan, A. Density estimation and time trend analysis of large herbivores in Nagarhole, India 2005 School: Mathematics and Statistics, St. Andrews University  mastersthesis  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Gangadharan2005,
  author = {Gangadharan, A.},
  title = {Density estimation and time trend analysis of large herbivores in Nagarhole, India},
  school = {Mathematics and Statistics, St. Andrews University},
  year = {2005}
}
Gannier, A. Using existing data and focused surveys to highlight Cuvier's beaked whales favourable areas: a case study in the central tyrrhenian sea 2011 Marine Pollution Bulletin
Vol. 63(1-4), pp. 10-17 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gannier2011,
  author = {Gannier, Alexandre},
  title = {Using existing data and focused surveys to highlight Cuvier's beaked whales favourable areas: a case study in the central tyrrhenian sea},
  journal = {Marine Pollution Bulletin},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {63},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {10--17},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.03.037}
}
Gannier, A. Estimation of summer abundance of the striped dolphin StenellaCoeruleoalbaa (Meyen, 1833) in the future northwestern Mediterranean international marine sanctuary 1998 Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie
Vol. 53, pp. 255-272 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Gan98,
  author = {Gannier, A.},
  title = {Estimation of summer abundance of the striped dolphin StenellaCoeruleoalbaa (Meyen, 1833) in the future northwestern Mediterranean international marine sanctuary},
  journal = {Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {255--272}
}
Gannier, A. Estimation of summer abundance of the fin whale BalaenopteraPhysaluss (Linne, 1758) in the Liguro-Provencal Basin (West Mediterranean) 1997 Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie
Vol. 52, pp. 69-86 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Gan97,
  author = {Gannier, A.},
  title = {Estimation of summer abundance of the fin whale BalaenopteraPhysaluss (Linne, 1758) in the Liguro-Provencal Basin (West Mediterranean)},
  journal = {Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {69--86}
}
Garcia-del-Rey, E. and Rodriguez-Lorenzo, J.A. Avian mortality due to power lines in the Canary Islands with special reference to the steppe-land birds 2011 Journal of Natural History
Vol. 45, pp. 2159-2169 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Rey2011,
  author = {Garcia-del-Rey, Eduardo and Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Juan Antonio},
  title = {Avian mortality due to power lines in the Canary Islands with special reference to the steppe-land birds},
  journal = {Journal of Natural History},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {2159--2169},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2011.589916}
}
Gardner, C.J., Fanning, E., Thomas, H. and Kidney, D. The lemur diversity of the Fiherenana - Manombo complex, southwest Madagascar 2009 Madagascar Conservation & Development
Vol. 4, pp. 38-43 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gardner2009,
  author = {Gardner, Charlie J. and Fanning, Eibleis and Thomas, Hannah and Kidney, Darren},
  title = {The lemur diversity of the Fiherenana - Manombo complex, southwest Madagascar},
  journal = {Madagascar Conservation & Development},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {38--43},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4314/mcd.v4i1.44011}
}
Garrett-Logan, N. and Smith, T. A hand-held pen-based computer system for marine mammal sighting surveys 1997 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 13, pp. 694-700 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GarSmi97,
  author = {Garrett-Logan, N. and Smith, T.},
  title = {A hand-held pen-based computer system for marine mammal sighting surveys},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {694--700},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1997.tb00092.x}
}
Gasner, M.R., Jankowski, J.E., Ciecka, A.L., Kyle, K.O. and Rabenold, K.N. Projecting the local impacts of climate change on a Central American montane avian community 2010 Biological Conservation
Vol. 143(5), pp. 1250-1258 
article DOI  
Abstract: Significant changes in the climates of Central America are expected over the next century. Lowland rainforests harbor high alpha diversity on local scales (¡ 1 km2), yet montane landscapes often support higher beta diversity on 10-100 km2 scales. Climate change will likely disrupt the altitudinal zonation of montane communities that produces such landscape diversity. Projections of biotic response to climate change have often used broad-scale modelling of geographical ranges, but understanding likely impacts on population viability is also necessary for anticipating local and global extinctions. We model species' abundances and estimate range shifts for birds in the Tilará n Mountains of Costa Rica, asking whether projected changes in temperature and rainfall could be sufficient to imperil high-elevation endemics and whether these variables will likely impact communities similarly. We find that nearly half of 77 forest bird species can be expected to decline in the next century. Almost half of species projected to decline are endemic to Central America, and seven of eight species projected to become locally extinct are endemic to the highlands of Costa Rica and PanamÃtextexclamdown. Logistic-regression modelling of distributions and similarity in projections produced by temperature and rainfall models suggest that changes in both variables will be important. Although these projections are probably conservative because they do not explicitly incorporate biological or climate variable interactions, they provide a starting point for incorporating more realistic biological complexity into community-change models. Prudent conservation planning for tropical mountains should focus on regions with room for altitudinal reorganization of communities comprised of ecological specialists.
BibTeX:
@article{Gasner2010,
  author = {Gasner, Matthew R. and Jankowski, Jill E. and Ciecka, Anna L. and Kyle, Keiller O. and Rabenold, Kerry N.},
  title = {Projecting the local impacts of climate change on a Central American montane avian community},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {143},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1250--1258},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.02.034}
}
Gaston A. J., B.L.C. and Diamond, A.W. The `snapshot' count for estimating densities of flying seabirds during boat transects: a cautionary comment 1987 The Auk
Vol. 104, pp. 336-8 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gasetal87,
  author = {Gaston, A. J., B. L. Collins and Diamond, A. W.},
  title = {The `snapshot' count for estimating densities of flying seabirds during boat transects: a cautionary comment},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {104},
  pages = {336--8},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/104.2.336}
}
Gates, C.E. LINETRAN, a general computer program for analyzing line transect data 1980 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 44, pp. 658-661 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gat80,
  author = {Gates, C. E.},
  title = {LINETRAN, a general computer program for analyzing line transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {658--661},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3808012}
}
Gates, C.E. Line transect and related issues 1979 Sampling Biological Populations, pp. 71-154  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Gat79,
  author = {Gates, C. E.},
  title = {Line transect and related issues},
  booktitle = {Sampling Biological Populations},
  publisher = {International Co-operative Publishing House},
  year = {1979},
  pages = {71--154}
}
Gates, C.E. Simulation study of estimators for the line transect sampling method 1969 Biometrics
Vol. 25, pp. 317-328 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gat69,
  author = {Gates, C. E.},
  title = {Simulation study of estimators for the line transect sampling method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1969},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {317--328},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2528792}
}
Gates, C.E., Evans, W., Gober, D.R., Guthery, F.S. and Grant, W.E. Line transect estimation of animal densities from large data sets 1985 Game Harvest Management, pp. 37-50  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Gatetal85,
  author = {Gates, C. E. and Evans, W. and Gober, D. R. and Guthery, F. S. and Grant, W. E.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of animal densities from large data sets},
  booktitle = {Game Harvest Management},
  publisher = {Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&I University},
  year = {1985},
  pages = {37--50}
}
Gates, C.E., Marshall, W.H. and Olson, D.P. Line transect method of estimating grouse population densities 1968 Biometrics
Vol. 24, pp. 135-145 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gatetal68,
  author = {Gates, C. E. and Marshall, W. H. and Olson, D. P.},
  title = {Line transect method of estimating grouse population densities},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {135--145},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2528465}
}
Gates, C.E. and Smith, P.W. An implementation of the Burnham-Anderson distribution free method of estimating wildlife densities from line transect data 1980 Biometrics
Vol. 36, pp. 155-160 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GatSmi80,
  author = {Gates, C. E. and Smith, P. W.},
  title = {An implementation of the Burnham-Anderson distribution free method of estimating wildlife densities from line transect data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {155--160},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530506}
}
Geimsdell, J.J.R. and Westley, S.B.(e. Low-level aerial survey techniques 1979   book  
BibTeX:
@book{GeiWes79,
  author = {Geimsdell, J. J. R. and Westley, S. B. (eds)},
  title = {Low-level aerial survey techniques},
  publisher = {International Livestock Centre for Africa},
  year = {1979}
}
Gelatt, T.S. and Siniff, D.B. Line transect survey of crabeater seals in the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas, 1994 1999 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 27, pp. 330-336 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{GelSin99,
  author = {Gelatt, T. S. and Siniff, D. B.},
  title = {Line transect survey of crabeater seals in the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas, 1994},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {330--336},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3783898}
}
Gerard, P.D. and Schucany, W.R. Combining population density estimates in line transect sampling using the kernel method 2002 Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics
Vol. 7(2), pp. 233-242 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gerard2002,
  author = {Gerard, P. D. and Schucany, W. R.},
  title = {Combining population density estimates in line transect sampling using the kernel method},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {7},
  number = {2},
  pages = {233--242},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1198/10857110260141265}
}
Gerard, P.D. and Schucany, W.R. Local bandwidth selection for kernel estimation of population densities with line transect sampling 1999 Biometrics
Vol. 55, pp. 769-773 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GerSch99,
  author = {Gerard, P. D. and Schucany, W. R.},
  title = {Local bandwidth selection for kernel estimation of population densities with line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {769--773},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.1999.00769.x}
}
Gerdel, K. Leopard (Panthera pardus) prey prediction using line transect sampling in the western soutpansberg mountain range, limpopo province, south africa 2008 School: University of Tübingen  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Gerdel2008,
  author = {Gerdel, Katharina},
  title = {Leopard (Panthera pardus) prey prediction using line transect sampling in the western soutpansberg mountain range, limpopo province, south africa},
  school = {University of Tübingen},
  year = {2008}
}
Gerrodette, T. and Eguchi, T. Precautionary design of a marine protected area based on a habitat model 2011 Endangered Species Research
Vol. 15(2), pp. 159-166 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gerrodette2011159,
  author = {Gerrodette, T. and Eguchi, T.},
  title = {Precautionary design of a marine protected area based on a habitat model},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {15},
  number = {2},
  pages = {159--166},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00369}
}
Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J. Non-recovery of two spotted and spinner dolphin populations in the eastern tropical pacific ocean 2005 Marine Ecology Progress Series
Vol. 291, pp. 1-21 
article DOI  
Abstract: Populations of northeastern offshore spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata attenuata and eastern spinner dolphins S. longirostris orientalis have been reduced because the dolphins are bycatch in the purse-seine fishery for yellowfin tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (the 'tuna-dolphin issue'). Abundance and trends of these dolphin stocks were assessed from 12 large-scale pelagic surveys carried out between 1979 and 2000. Estimates of abundance were based on a multivariate line-transect analysis, using covariates to model the detection process and group size. Current estimates of abundance are about 640 000 northeastern offshore spotted dolphins (CV = 0.17) and 450 000 eastern spinner dolphins (CV = 0.23). For the whole period from 1979 to 2000, annual estimates of abundance ranged from 494 000 to 954 000 for northeastern offshore spotted dolphins and from 271 000 to 734 000 for eastern spinner dolphins. Management actions by USA and international fishing agencies over 3 decades have successfully reduced dolphin bycatch by 2 orders of magnitude, yet neither stock is showing clear signs of recovery. Possible reasons include underreporting of dolphin bycatch, effects of chase and encirclement on dolphin survival and reproduction, long-term changes in the ecosystem, and effects of other species on spotted and spinner dolphin population dynamics. textcopyright Inter-Research 2005.
BibTeX:
@article{GerFor05,
  author = {Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J.},
  title = {Non-recovery of two spotted and spinner dolphin populations in the eastern tropical pacific ocean},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {291},
  pages = {1--21},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps291001}
}
Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J. Estimates of abundance of western/southern spotted, whitebelly spinner, striped and common dolphins, and pilot, sperm and bryde's whales in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean 2002 School: Southwest Fisheries Science Center  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gerrodette2002,
  author = {Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J.},
  title = {Estimates of abundance of western/southern spotted, whitebelly spinner, striped and common dolphins, and pilot, sperm and bryde's whales in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean},
  school = {Southwest Fisheries Science Center},
  year = {2002}
}
Gerrodette, T., Taylor, B.L., Swift, R., Rankin, S., Jaramillo-Legorreta, A.M. and Rojas-Bracho, L. A combined visual and acoustic estimate of 2008 abundance, and change in abundance since 1997, for the vaquita, Phocoena sinus 2011 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 27, pp. E79-E100 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gerrodette2011,
  author = {Gerrodette, Tim and Taylor, Barbara L. and Swift, René and Rankin, Shannon and Jaramillo-Legorreta, Armando M. and Rojas-Bracho, Lorenzo},
  title = {A combined visual and acoustic estimate of 2008 abundance, and change in abundance since 1997, for the vaquita, Phocoena sinus},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {E79--E100},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00438.x}
}
Gerrodette, T., Watters, G., Perryman, W. and Ballance, L.T. Estimates of 2006 dolphin abundance in the eastern tropical Pacific, with revised estimates from 1986– 2003 2008 School: U.S. Department of Commerce, Southwest Fisheries Science Center NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-422  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gerrodette2008,
  author = {Gerrodette, T. and Watters, G. and Perryman, W. and Ballance, L. T.},
  title = {Estimates of 2006 dolphin abundance in the eastern tropical Pacific, with revised estimates from 1986– 2003},
  school = {U.S. Department of Commerce, Southwest Fisheries Science Center NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-422},
  year = {2008}
}
Ghoddousi, A., Soofi, M., Hamidi, A.K., Ashayeri, S., Egli, L., Ghoddousi, S., Speicher, J., Khorozyan, I., Kiabi, B.H. and Waltert, M. The decline of ungulate populations in Iranian protected areas calls for urgent action against poaching 2017 Oryx
Vol. 53(1), pp. 151-158 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ghoddousi2017,
  author = {Ghoddousi, Arash and Soofi, Mahmood and Hamidi, Amirhossein Kh. and Ashayeri, Sheyda and Egli, Lukas and Ghoddousi, Siavash and Speicher, Julian and Khorozyan, Igor and Kiabi, Bahram H. and Waltert, Matthias},
  title = {The decline of ungulate populations in Iranian protected areas calls for urgent action against poaching},
  journal = {Oryx},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {53},
  number = {1},
  pages = {151--158},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S003060531600154X}
}
Gilbert, D.W., Anderson, D.R., Ringelman, J.K. and Szymczak, M.R. Response of nesting ducks to habitat management on the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado 1996 Wildlife Monographs
Vol. 131, pp. 1-44 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Giletal96,
  author = {Gilbert, D. W. and Anderson, D. R. and Ringelman, J. K. and Szymczak, M. R.},
  title = {Response of nesting ducks to habitat management on the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {131},
  pages = {1--44}
}
Gilbert, M., Buuveibaatar, B., Fine, A.E., Jambal, L. and Strindberg, S. Declining breeding populations of white-naped cranes in eastern Mongolia, a ten-year update 2016 Bird Conservation International
Vol. 26(4), pp. 490-504 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gilbert2016,
  author = {Gilbert, Martin and Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar and Fine, Amanda E. and Jambal, Losolmaa and Strindberg, Samantha},
  title = {Declining breeding populations of white-naped cranes in eastern Mongolia, a ten-year update},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {26},
  number = {4},
  pages = {490--504},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270915000301}
}
Gilhooly, L.J., Rayadin, Y. and Cheyne, S.M. A comparison of Hylobatid survey methods using triangulation on Müller's Gibbon (Hylobates muelleri) in Sungai Wain Protection Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia 2015 International Journal of Primatology
Vol. 36(3), pp. 567-582 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{raey,
  author = {Gilhooly, Lauren J. and Rayadin, Yaya and Cheyne, Susan M.},
  title = {A comparison of Hylobatid survey methods using triangulation on Müller's Gibbon (Hylobates muelleri) in Sungai Wain Protection Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia},
  journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
  publisher = {Springer US},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {36},
  number = {3},
  pages = {567--582},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-015-9845-1}
}
Gill, R.M.A., Thomas, M.L. and Stocker, D. The use of portable thermal imaging for estimating deer population density in forest habitats 1997 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 34(5), pp. 1273-1286 
article DOI  
Abstract: 1. The reliability of deer population management could be improved with good density estimates, but current methods are either labour-intensive or suffer from uncertainties regarding accuracy. 2. Visibility varies substantially in forests depending on stand type, age and understorey vegetation. In such conditions distance sampling would be an efficient estimation method, but observer disturbance often results in bias when the method is applied to deer. 3. The performance of thermal imaging for estimating deer density by distance sampling was assessed in seven forest deer populations. Thermal imaging equipment can detect the long-wave energy radiated by natural objects, clearly revealing warm-bodied animals even if partly obscured by vegetation. 4. Many more deer were detected at night using a thermal imager than along the same transect routes in daytime. Detection distances were correlated with visibility but were substantially longer than the average distances at which most animals were disturbed. Most deer were detected without causing prior disturbance. 5. Densities were estimated with a coefficient of variation ranging from 10.2-28.4%. Precision depended on sampling effort and sample sizes obtained. 6. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed a quadratic relationship between accuracy and visibility, with accuracy increasing with average visibility and a tendency for deer to select more open habitats within a forest. Under conditions that are likely to be typical of temperate forests (¡ 40% thicket and neutral selection, or ¡ 70% thicket if thicket is avoided), accuracy was generally good and changed relatively little in relation to visibility and habitat selection. 7. Likely sources of bias as well as alternatives to thermal imaging are discussed. It is concluded that the method would be suitable for estimating ungulate densities in forests with an adequate network of tracks.
BibTeX:
@article{Gill1997,
  author = {Gill, R. M. A. and Thomas, M. L. and Stocker, D.},
  title = {The use of portable thermal imaging for estimating deer population density in forest habitats},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {34},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1273--1286},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2405237}
}
Gilles, A., Adler, S., Kaschner, K., Scheidat, M. and Siebert, U. Modelling harbour porpoise seasonal density as a function of the german bight environment: implications for management 2011 Endangered Species Research
Vol. 14, pp. 157-169 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gilles2011,
  author = {Gilles, A. and Adler, S. and Kaschner, K. and Scheidat, M. and Siebert, U.},
  title = {Modelling harbour porpoise seasonal density as a function of the german bight environment: implications for management},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {157--169},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00344}
}
Gilles, A., Scheidat, M. and Siebert, U. Seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and possible interference of offshore wind farms in the German North Sea 2009 Marine Ecology Progress Series
Vol. 383, pp. 295-307 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gilles2009,
  author = {Gilles, Anita and Scheidat, Meike and Siebert, Ursula},
  title = {Seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and possible interference of offshore wind farms in the German North Sea},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {383},
  pages = {295--307},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08020}
}
Gilles, A., Viquerat, S., Becker, E.A., Forney, K.A., Geelhoed, S.C.V., Haelters, J., Nabe-Nielsen, J., Scheidat, M., Siebert, U., Sveegaard, S., van Beest, F.M., van Bemmelen, R. and Aarts, G. Seasonal habitat-based density models for a marine top predator, the harbor porpoise, in a dynamic environment 2016 Ecosphere
Vol. 7(6), pp. e01367 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ECS2:ECS21367,
  author = {Gilles, A. and Viquerat, S. and Becker, E. A. and Forney, K. A. and Geelhoed, S. C. V. and Haelters, J. and Nabe-Nielsen, J. and Scheidat, M. and Siebert, U. and Sveegaard, S. and van Beest, F. M. and van Bemmelen, R. and Aarts, G.},
  title = {Seasonal habitat-based density models for a marine top predator, the harbor porpoise, in a dynamic environment},
  journal = {Ecosphere},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {7},
  number = {6},
  pages = {e01367},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1367}
}
Gillings, S., Fuller, R.J. and Henderson, A.C.B. Avian community composition and patterns of bird distribution within birch-heath mosaics in north-east Scotland 1998 Ornis Fennica
Vol. 75(1), pp. 27-37 
article  
Abstract: Territory mapping and transect counts were made in upland birch scrub (46 ha) in north-east Scotland to document the bird community and assess responses of birds to habitat variation. The bird community was species poor, supporting approximately 20 species. Richness and diversity were low compared with other British scrub habitats. The two dominant species were Willow Warbler (52% of territory mapping registra-tions) and Chaffinch (18% of registrations). Densities derived from territory mapping and transect counts (Distance sampling) were similar. Willow Warbler densities were high and comparable with preferred habitats in lowland England and Fennoscandia. Contour mapping, correlation and canonical correspondence analysis demonstrated that successional stage, represented by birch cover, was the single most important factor determining community composition and individual species' distributions. Meadow Pipits persisted at low densities in sparse birch; Tree Pipits occurred through-out the range of birch densities. Willow Warblers preferred areas of medium height birch at intermediate canopy cover. Wren, Great Tit and Long-tailed Tit occurred in older birch scrub. The relatively simple bird-habitat relationships reported are con-trasted with more complex patterns elsewhere. These findings are discussed in the context of scrub and woodland regeneration in upland Britain with particular reference to mosaics and maintenance of avian diversity.
BibTeX:
@article{Gillings1998,
  author = {Gillings, S. and Fuller, R. J. and Henderson, A. C. B.},
  title = {Avian community composition and patterns of bird distribution within birch-heath mosaics in north-east Scotland},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {75},
  number = {1},
  pages = {27--37}
}
Gil-Sánchez, J.M., Herrera-Sánchez, F.J., Álvarez, B., Arredondo, Á., Bautista, J., Cancio, I., Castillo, S., D\iaz-Portero, M.Á., de Lucas, J., McCain, E., Pérez, J., Rodr\iguez-Siles, J., Sáez, J.M., Mart\inez-Valderrama, J., Valenzuela, G., Qninba, A. and Virgós, E. Evaluating methods for surveying the Endangered Cuvier's gazelle Gazella cuvieri in arid landscapes 2016 Oryx
Vol. 51(4), pp. 648-655 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gil-Sanchez2016,
  author = {Gil-Sánchez, Jose Mar\ia and Herrera-Sánchez, F. Javier and Álvarez, Begoña and Arredondo, Ángel and Bautista, Jesús and Cancio, Inmaculada and Castillo, Salvador and D\iaz-Portero, Miguel Ángel and de Lucas, Jesús and McCain, Emil and Pérez, Joaqu\in and Rodr\iguez-Siles, Javier and Sáez, Juan Manuel and Mart\inez-Valderrama, Jaime and Valenzuela, Gerardo and Qninba, Abdeljebbar and Virgós, Emilio},
  title = {Evaluating methods for surveying the Endangered Cuvier's gazelle Gazella cuvieri in arid landscapes},
  journal = {Oryx},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {51},
  number = {4},
  pages = {648--655},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/s0030605316000430}
}
Giunchi, D., Gaggini, V. and Baldaccini, N. Distance sampling as an effective method for monitoring feral pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) urban populations 2007 Urban Ecosystems
Vol. 10, pp. 397-412 
article DOI  
Abstract: Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;Current methods for estimating feral pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) population size and for monitoring population trends are mainly based on indices, which according to the current literature on wildlife census methods often produce biased results. Distance Sampling techniques have never been used in this context, even though they could theoretically produce absolute abundance estimates at relatively low costs. The aim of this paper was to investigate the performance of Distance Sampling to census feral pigeons, and to compare these results with those obtained by using Quadrate Counts, a widespread method for monitoring these birds. Surveys were performed in Pisa (Italy) in two different periods of the year 2004 (end of January†``beginning of February, and November), which correspond to minimum (January†``February) and maximum (November) numbers for pigeon populations. We considered 40 line transects each about 250&nbsp;m long for Distance Sampling, and 40 250 ï{\frac{1}{2}}  250&nbsp;m cells for Quadrate Counts. In both cases, sampling units were randomized in a stratified design. In contrast to Quadrate Counts, Distance Sampling detected the predicted increase of abundance from January†``February to November with an acceptable precision and no increase of costs per survey. Even though the possible biases (due to the not rigorously random distribution of transects and to the spiked nature of collected distance data) should be further investigated, results suggest that Distance Sampling is a viable and efficient alternative to the traditional methods used to estimate feral pigeons population size and to monitor trends.
BibTeX:
@article{Giunchi2007,
  author = {Giunchi, Dimitri and Gaggini, Valentina and Baldaccini, N.},
  title = {Distance sampling as an effective method for monitoring feral pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) urban populations},
  journal = {Urban Ecosystems},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {397--412},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-007-0032-9}
}
Gladilina, E.V., Vishnyakova, K.A., Neprokin, O.O., Ivanchikova, Y.F., Derkacheva, T.A., Kryukova, A.A., Savenko, O.V. and Gol'din, P.E. Linear transect surveys of abundance and density of cetaceans in the area near the Dzharylgach Island in the north-western Black Sea 2017 Vestnik Zoologii
Vol. 51(4), pp. 335-342 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gladilina2017,
  author = {E. V. Gladilina and K. A. Vishnyakova and O. O. Neprokin and Yu. F. Ivanchikova and T. A. Derkacheva and A. A. Kryukova and O. V. Savenko and P. E. Gol'din},
  title = {Linear transect surveys of abundance and density of cetaceans in the area near the Dzharylgach Island in the north-western Black Sea},
  journal = {Vestnik Zoologii},
  publisher = {Walter de Gruyter GmbH},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {51},
  number = {4},
  pages = {335--342},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/vzoo-2017-0038}
}
Glass, R., Forsyth, D.M., Coulson, G. and Festa-Bianchet, M. Precision, accuracy and bias of walked line-transect distance sampling to estimate eastern grey kangaroo population size 2016 Wildlife Research
Vol. 42, pp. 633-641 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Glass2016,
  author = {Glass, Ruth and Forsyth, David M. and Coulson, Graeme and Festa-Bianchet, Marco},
  title = {Precision, accuracy and bias of walked line-transect distance sampling to estimate eastern grey kangaroo population size},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {633--641},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR15029}
}
Glennie, R., Buckland, S.T., Langrock, R., Gerrodette, T., Ballance, L.T., Chivers, S.J. and Scott, M.D. Incorporating animal movement into distance sampling 2020 Journal of the American Statistical Association
Vol. 0(0), pp. 1-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Distance sampling is a popular statistical method to estimate the density of wild animal populations. Conventional distance sampling represents animals as fixed points in space that are detected with an unknown probability that depends on the distance between the observer and the animal. Animal movement can cause substantial bias in density estimation. Methods to correct for responsive animal movement exist, but none account for nonresponsive movement independent of the observer. Here, an explicit animal movement model is incorporated into distance sampling, combining distance sampling survey data with animal telemetry data. Detection probability depends on the entire unobserved path the animal travels. The intractable integration over all possible animal paths is approximated by a hidden Markov model. A simulation study shows the method to be negligibly biased (<5%) in scenarios where conventional distance sampling overestimates abundance by up to 100%. The method is applied to line transect surveys (1999– 2006) of spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) in the eastern tropical Pacific where abundance is shown to be positively biased by 21% on average, which can have substantial impact on the population dynamics estimated from these abundance estimates and on the choice of statistical methodology applied to future surveys. Supplementary materials for this article, including a standardized description of the materials available for reproducing the work, are available as an online supplement.
BibTeX:
@article{glennie_incorporating_2020,
  author = {Glennie, R. and Buckland, S. T. and Langrock, R. and Gerrodette, T. and Ballance, L. T. and Chivers, S. J. and Scott, M. D.},
  title = {Incorporating animal movement into distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  publisher = {Taylor & Francis},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {0},
  number = {0},
  pages = {1--9},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.2020.1764362}
}
Gogan, P.J., Thompson, S.C., Pierce, W. and Barrett, R.H. Line-transect censuses of fallow and black-tailed deer on the Point Reyes Peninsula 1986 California Game and Fish
Vol. 72, pp. 47-61 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Gogetal86,
  author = {Gogan, P. J. and Thompson, S. C. and Pierce, W. and Barrett, R. H.},
  title = {Line-transect censuses of fallow and black-tailed deer on the Point Reyes Peninsula},
  journal = {California Game and Fish},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {47--61}
}
Gogoi, K., Kumar, U., Banerjee, K. and Jhala, Y.V. Spatially explicit density and its determinants for Asiatic lions in the Gir forests 2020 PLOS ONE
Vol. 15(2), pp. e0228374 
article DOI  
Abstract: Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) are an icon of conservation success, yet their status is inferred from total counts that cannot account for detection bias and double counts. With an effort of 4,797 km in 725 km2 of western Gir Protected Area, India, we used polygon search based spatially explicit capture recapture framework to estimate lion density. Using vibrissae patterns and permanent body marks we identified 67 lions from 368 lion sightings. We conducted distance sampling on 35 transects with an effort of 101.5 km to estimate spatial prey density using generalized additive modeling (GAM). Subsequently, we modeled lion spatial density with prey, habitat characteristics, anthropogenic factors and distance to baiting sites. Lion density (>1-year-old lions) was estimated at 8.53 (SE 1.05) /100 km2 with lionesses having smaller movement parameter (σ = 2.55 km; SE 0.12) compared to males (σ = 5.32 km; SE 0.33). Detection corrected sex ratio (female:male lions) was 1.14 (SE 0.02). Chital (Axis axis) was the most abundant ungulate with a density of 63.29 (SE 10.14) as determined by conventional distance sampling (CDS) and 58.17 (SE 22.17)/km2 with density surface modeling (DSM), followed by sambar (Rusa unicolor) at 3.84 (SE 1.07) and 4.73 (SE 1.48)/km2 estimated by CDS and DSM respectively. Spatial lion density was best explained by proximity to baiting sites and flat valley habitat but not as much by prey density. We demonstrate a scientifically robust approach to estimate lion abundance, that due to its spatial context, can be useful for management of habitat and human-lion interface. We recommend this method for lion population assessment across their range. High lion densities in western Gir were correlated with baiting. The management practice of attracting lions for tourism can perturb natural lion densities, disrupt behavior, lion social dynamics and have detrimental effects on local prey densities.
BibTeX:
@article{gogoi_spatially_2020,
  author = {Gogoi, Keshab and Kumar, Ujjwal and Banerjee, Kausik and Jhala, Yadvendradev V.},
  title = {Spatially explicit density and its determinants for Asiatic lions in the Gir forests},
  journal = {PLOS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {15},
  number = {2},
  pages = {e0228374},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0228374}
}
Goldberg, C.S. and Schwalbe, C.R. Considerations for monitoring a rare anuran (Eleutherodactylus augusti) 2004 Southwestern Naturalist
Vol. 49(4), pp. 442-448 
article DOI  
Abstract: Monitoring wildlife populations is a challenging task for scientists and resource managers. We assessed 4 methods for monitoring population size of barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in southern Arizona: mark-recapture, distance sampling, call counts, and visual encounter surveys. Because of the ecology and behavior of this species, all methods produced data that contained too much variability and bias to be useful for monitoring population size. For cryptic species such as barking frogs, monitoring programs might be more effective if they focus on parameters other than population size.
BibTeX:
@article{Goldberg2004,
  author = {Goldberg, C. S. and Schwalbe, C. R.},
  title = {Considerations for monitoring a rare anuran (Eleutherodactylus augusti)},
  journal = {Southwestern Naturalist},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {49},
  number = {4},
  pages = {442--448},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1894/0038-4909(2004)049%3C0442:CFMARA%3E2.0.CO;2}
}
Gómez De Segura, A., Tomás, J., Pedraza, S.N., Crespo, E.A. and Raga, J.A. Preliminary patterns of distribution and abundance of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, around columbretes islands marine reserve, spanish mediterranean 2003 Marine Biology
Vol. 143(4), pp. 817-823 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gomez2003,
  author = {Gómez De Segura, A. and Tomás, J. and Pedraza, S. N. and Crespo, E. A. and Raga, J. A.},
  title = {Preliminary patterns of distribution and abundance of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, around columbretes islands marine reserve, spanish mediterranean},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {143},
  number = {4},
  pages = {817--823},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-003-1125-5}
}
Gómez-Hoyos, D.A., Suarez-Joaquin, T., Bolívar, W. and García, J.L. Population assessment strategy for Atelopus elegans (Bufonidae) in the Gorgona National Natural Park, Colombia 2017 North-Western Journal of Zoology
Vol. 13, pp. 154-158 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{DiegoA.GOMEZ-HOYOS12017,
  author = {Gómez-Hoyos, Diego A. and Suarez-Joaquin, Tatiana and Bolívar, Wilmar and García, José Luis},
  title = {Population assessment strategy for Atelopus elegans (Bufonidae) in the Gorgona National Natural Park, Colombia},
  journal = {North-Western Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {154--158}
}
Gong, R.-B., Ma, Y.-B. and Zhou, Y. Confident estimation for density of a biological population based on line transect sampling 2009 Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica
Vol. 26(1), pp. 79-92 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gong200979,
  author = {Gong, R.-B. and Ma, Y.-B. and Zhou, Y.},
  title = {Confident estimation for density of a biological population based on line transect sampling},
  journal = {Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {26},
  number = {1},
  pages = {79--92},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10255-009-9008-2}
}
Gonzalez, R.P., Thomas, L. and Marques, T.A. Estimation bias under model selection for distance sampling detection functions 2017 Environmental and Ecological Statistics
Vol. 24, pp. 399-414 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gonzalez2017,
  author = {Gonzalez, Rocio Prieto and Thomas, Len and Marques, Tiago A.},
  title = {Estimation bias under model selection for distance sampling detection functions},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {399--414},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10651-017-0376-0}
}
Good, E., R., Nielson, R.M., Sawyer, H.H. and McDonald, L.L. Population level survey of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the western United States 2004 School: Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. for the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Good2004,
  author = {Good and R., E. and Nielson, R. M. and Sawyer, H. H. and McDonald, L. L.},
  title = {Population level survey of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the western United States},
  school = {Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. for the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service},
  year = {2004}
}
Gordon, J. Measuring the range to animals at sea from boats using photographic and video images 2001 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 38, pp. 879-887 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GOR01,
  author = {Gordon, J.},
  title = {Measuring the range to animals at sea from boats using photographic and video images},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {879--887},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2001.00615.x}
}
Gormezano, L.J. Exploring the variance components of distance sampling to simplify abundance estimation of white-tailed deer 2005 School: State University Of New York, Col. Of Environmental Science & Forestry  mastersthesis  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Gormezano2005,
  author = {Gormezano, Linda J.},
  title = {Exploring the variance components of distance sampling to simplify abundance estimation of white-tailed deer},
  school = {State University Of New York, Col. Of Environmental Science & Forestry},
  year = {2005}
}
Gosselin, J.-F. Abundance indices of belugas in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay in summer 2004 2005 (2005/011)School: Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gosselin2005,
  author = {Gosselin, Jean-François},
  title = {Abundance indices of belugas in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay in summer 2004},
  school = {Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute},
  year = {2005},
  number = {2005/011}
}
Gotmark, F. and Post, P. Prey selection by sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus: relative predation risk for breeding passerine birds in relation to their size, ecology and behaviour 1996 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B
Vol. 351, pp. 1559-1577 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GotPos96,
  author = {Gotmark, F. and Post, P.},
  title = {Prey selection by sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus: relative predation risk for breeding passerine birds in relation to their size, ecology and behaviour},
  journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {351},
  pages = {1559--1577},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1996.0141}
}
Gottschalk, T. and Huettmann, F. Comparison of distance sampling and territory mapping methods for birds in four different habitats 2011 Journal of Ornithology
Vol. 152, pp. 421-429 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gottschalk2011,
  author = {Gottschalk, Thomas and Huettmann, Falk},
  title = {Comparison of distance sampling and territory mapping methods for birds in four different habitats},
  journal = {Journal of Ornithology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {152},
  pages = {421--429},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-010-0601-1}
}
Gottschalk, T.K., Dittrich, R., DiekÃ, T., Sheridan, P., Wolters, V. and Ekschmitt, K. Modelling land-use sustainability using farmland birds as indicators 2010 Ecological Indicators
Vol. 10(1), pp. 15-23 
article DOI  
Abstract: Biodiversity on farmland is declining due to agricultural intensification and occurs across many taxa such as plants, insects or birds. Here, we modelled population sizes of five farmland birds in central Germany as the German Sustainability Indicator for Species Diversity (SISD) is based on this taxon. We explored options for sustainable farmland management by generating land-use scenarios at the regional scale. For individual bird species, high SISD scores could be reached by changing environmental variables, such as landscape or crop diversity, percent cover of spring cereals or hedge density. However, contrasting species responses to these variables prevented from reaching high scores for all species simultaneously. We were able to improve the total SISD score from 0.77 at present to 0.94 by increasing landscape and crop diversity or to 0.87 by increasing hedge density and reducing spring cereals, respectively. An economic evaluation of the return losses associated with these changes revealed that annual costs of approx. 5.5Â [euro]/ha farmland would suffice for this latter increase by optimizing hedges and spring cereals towards high SISD. We conclude that balancing three levels of trade-offs, i.e. contrasting requirements of species, diverging responses in different landscapes, and alternative economic options, is difficult to achieve without systematic modelling. Yet, by accounting for differences in landscape structure and species distributions at a regional spatial scale and by focusing on clearly defined measures such as hedge density or the cover of spring cereals rather than composite indices like landscape or crop diversity it seems possible to develop realisable, affordable and sustainable management strategies.
BibTeX:
@article{Gottschalk2010,
  author = {Gottschalk, Thomas K. and Dittrich, Ralf and DiekÃ, Tim and Sheridan, Patrick and Wolters, Volkmar and Ekschmitt, Klemens},
  title = {Modelling land-use sustainability using farmland birds as indicators},
  journal = {Ecological Indicators},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1},
  pages = {15--23},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2009.05.008}
}
Gowan, T.A. and Ortega-Ortiz, J.G. Wintering habitat model for the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) in the southeastern United States 2014 PLoS ONE
Vol. 9(4), pp. e95126 
article DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ The coastal waters off the southeastern United States (SEUS) are a primary wintering ground for the endangered North Atlantic right whale (¡ italic¿ Eubalaena glacialis/italic¿ ), used by calving females along with other adult and juvenile whales. Management actions implemented in this area for the recovery of the right whale population rely on accurate habitat characterization and the ability to predict whale distribution over time. We developed a temporally dynamic habitat model to predict wintering right whale distribution in the SEUS using a generalized additive model framework and aerial survey data from 2003/2004 through 2012/2013. We built upon previous habitat models for right whales in the SEUS and include data from new aerial surveys that extend the spatial coverage of the analysis, particularly in the northern portion of this wintering ground. We summarized whale sightings, survey effort corrected for probability of whale detection, and environmental data at a semimonthly resolution. Consistent with previous studies, sea surface temperature (SST), water depth, and survey year were significant predictors of right whale relative abundance. Additionally, distance to shore, distance to the 22Âtextdegree C SST isotherm, and an interaction between time of year and latitude (to account for the latitudinal migration of whales) were also selected in the analysis presented here. Predictions from the model revealed that the location of preferred habitat differs within and between years in correspondence with variation in environmental conditions. Although cow-calf pairs were rarely sighted in the company of other whales, there was minimal evidence that the preferred habitat of cow-calf pairs was different than that of whale groups without calves at the scale of this study. The results of this updated habitat model can be used to inform management decisions for a migratory species in a dynamic oceanic environment./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Gowan2014,
  author = {Timothy A. Gowan and Joel G. Ortega-Ortiz},
  title = {Wintering habitat model for the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) in the southeastern United States},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {9},
  number = {4},
  pages = {e95126},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095126}
}
Graham, A. and Bell, R. Investigating observer bias in aerial survey by simultaneous double-counts 1989 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 53, pp. 1009-1016 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GraBel89,
  author = {Graham, A. and Bell, R.},
  title = {Investigating observer bias in aerial survey by simultaneous double-counts},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {1009--1016},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3809603}
}
Granholm, S.L. Bias in density estimates due to movement of birds 1983 Condor, The
Vol. 85, pp. 243-248 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gra83,
  author = {Granholm, S. L.},
  title = {Bias in density estimates due to movement of birds},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {243--248},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1367261}
}
Granjon, L., Cosson, J.F., Judas, J. and Ringuet, S. Influence of tropical rainforest fragmentation on mammal communities in French Guiana: short-term effects. 1996 Acta Oecologica
Vol. 17, pp. 673-684 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Graetal96,
  author = {Granjon, L. and Cosson, J. F. and Judas, J. and Ringuet, S.},
  title = {Influence of tropical rainforest fragmentation on mammal communities in French Guiana: short-term effects.},
  journal = {Acta Oecologica},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {673--684}
}
Green, N., Wildhaber, M. and Albers, J. Effectiveness of a distance sampling from roads program for white-tailed deer in the National Capital Region parks 2021 School: National Park Service  techreport DOI  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Green2021,
  author = {Nicholas Green and Mark Wildhaber and Janice Albers},
  title = {Effectiveness of a distance sampling from roads program for white-tailed deer in the National Capital Region parks},
  publisher = {National Park Service},
  school = {National Park Service},
  year = {2021},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.36967/nrr-2284469}
}
Greene, K., Bell, D., Kioko, J. and Kiffner, C. Performance of ground-based and aerial survey methods for monitoring wildlife assemblages in a conservation area of northern Tanzania 2017 European Journal of Wildlife Research
Vol. 63(5), pp. 77 
article DOI  
Abstract: Validating and improving field-sampling techniques for estimating wildlife community composition and population size is essential for wildlife management and conservation. We conducted ground distance sampling surveys along line transects and block counts from a small aircraft in Manyara Ranch in Northern Tanzania and contrasted estimates of species richness and species-specific densities from both sampling techniques. We used regression analyses (logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models) and model selection to investigate whether a species' body size, group size, body color, as well as vegetation cover explained the variation in species presence/absence and relative density differences in aerial vs. ground-based sampling. Ground surveys detected significantly more species than aerial surveys. However, aerial surveys detected three species that were missed by ground surveys (African lions, African buffalo, and spotted hyena). Model selection suggested that species with smaller body mass and small group sizes were more likely to be missed in aerial surveys. Densities estimated from the aerial surveys were generally but non-significantly lower than the densities estimated from the ground surveys, with the exception of density estimates for African elephants which were slightly higher from aerial surveys. Density differences between the two methods were greater for species with small group size, light body color, and in areas with denser vegetation cover; these variables explained 75% of the variation in density differences between the two survey methods. Albeit being similar in operational costs in our relatively small study area, ground surveys yielded (1) more complete information with respect to wildlife community composition and (2) density estimates were mostly higher and (3) more precise and (4) appear more feasible to be implemented in community-based conservation schemes.
BibTeX:
@article{Greene2017,
  author = {Greene, Kathryn and Bell, Damian and Kioko, John and Kiffner, Christian},
  title = {Performance of ground-based and aerial survey methods for monitoring wildlife assemblages in a conservation area of northern Tanzania},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {63},
  number = {5},
  pages = {77},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-017-1133-2}
}
Greene, T. Distance sampling populations of New Zealand birds - estimating kaka and kereru abundance   unpublished  
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Greene,
  author = {Greene, Terry},
  title = {Distance sampling populations of New Zealand birds - estimating kaka and kereru abundance}
}
Greene, T., Jones, A., Dennis, G. and Sachtleben, T. Distance sampling to determine kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) density within Waipapa Ecological Area, Pureora 2010 New Zealand Journal of Ecology
Vol. 34, pp. 297-305 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Greene2010,
  author = {Greene, Terry and Jones, Alan and Dennis, Gillian and Sachtleben, Thalia},
  title = {Distance sampling to determine kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) density within Waipapa Ecological Area, Pureora},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {297--305},
  url = {https://newzealandecology.org/nzje/2935}
}
Greene, T., Thurley, T. and Basse, B. Recovery of North Island Kākā (Nestor Meridionalis Septentrionalis) within Pureora Forest Park, 2000– 2020 2022 New Zealand Journal of Ecology  article DOI  
Abstract: To test the long-term efficacy of mammalian pest control, annual distance sampling estimates of the density of North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) within the southern Waipapa Ecological Area (WEA), Pureora Forest Park from 2008– 2020 are compared to previously published estimates made at the same sites and time of year (October) between 2000– 2007. Kākā density increased approximately four-fold from an average of c. 0.5 (95% CI 0.5– 0.6) birds ha-1 between 2000 and 2007 to c. 2.3 (95% CI 1.9– 2.8) birds ha-1 in 2020. The average of rate of increase between 2000 and 2018 was c. 6.9% per annum. Kākā recovery is likely to be a function of multiple mast events and long-term (> 20 years), large-scale, frequent, effective control of possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) and probably mustelids. It is recommended that the current pest control as well as kākā and pest monitoring continue.
BibTeX:
@article{Greene2022,
  author = {Greene, Terry and Thurley, Tertia and Basse, Britta},
  title = {Recovery of North Island Kākā (Nestor Meridionalis Septentrionalis) within Pureora Forest Park, 2000– 2020},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2022},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.20417/nzjecol.47.3511}
}
Gregory, C.J., Dinsmore, S.J., Powell, L.A. and Jorgensen, J.G. Estimating the abundance of long-billed curlews in Nebraska 2012 Journal of Field Ornithology
Vol. 83, pp. 122-129 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gregory2012,
  author = {Gregory, Cory J. and Dinsmore, Stephen J. and Powell, Larkin A. and Jorgensen, Joel G.},
  title = {Estimating the abundance of long-billed curlews in Nebraska},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {83},
  pages = {122--129},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1557-9263.2012.00362.x}
}
Gregory, R.D. and Baillie, S.R. Large-scale habitat use of some declining British birds 1998 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 35(5), pp. 785-799 
article DOI  
Abstract: 1. Large-scale habitat use of eight species of breeding birds was considered using data collected across Britain. The species were skylark Alauda arvensis (L.), dunnock Prunella modularis (L.), blackbird Turdus merula (L.), song thrush Turdus philomelos (L.), starling Sturnus vulgaris (L.), linnet Carduelis cannabina (L.), bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula (L.) and reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus (L.). All are linked by roughly synchronous population declines over the last 25 years in southern Britain (and mostly in farmland landscapes). Discussion is limited to the conservation status of these species. 2. Breeding densities were estimated for broad habitat types and these were used to estimate population sizes within habitat types. Confidence limits on the estimates were derived using a bootstrap procedure. 3. For most species considered, farmland holds a high proportion of their population (in excess of 50% for four species), reflecting the predominance of this land use across Britain. This suggests that sympathetic changes in farming practices are likely to provide the best mechanism for improving the status of these species. 4. Substantial proportions of particular species occur outside farmland, but different species occur in different habitats. A considerable proportion of skylarks occur on upland moor, bullfinches in wooded habitats, and reed buntings in riparian habitats. Conservation of this group of species thus requires appropriate management of the wider countryside, including their main habitats. 5. Habitats associated with human habitation hold ¿ 20% of the British populations of blackbird, song thrush and starling, and considerable numbers of other species. The management of parks, gardens and other 'green space' may have an important impact on their populations and should not be neglected by conservationists.
BibTeX:
@article{Gregory1998,
  author = {Gregory, R. D. and Baillie, S. R.},
  title = {Large-scale habitat use of some declining British birds},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {35},
  number = {5},
  pages = {785--799},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.1998.355349.x}
}
Gregory, S.K. Comparison of density estimators for white-tailed deer using aerial thermal infrared videography 2005 School: University of Arkansas  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Gregory2005,
  author = {Gregory, S. K.},
  title = {Comparison of density estimators for white-tailed deer using aerial thermal infrared videography},
  school = {University of Arkansas},
  year = {2005}
}
Grigg, G.C., Pople, A.R. and Beard, L.A. Application of an ultralight aircraft to aerial surveys of kangaroos on grazing properties 1997 Wildlife Research
Vol. 24, pp. 359-372 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Grietal97,
  author = {Grigg, G. C. and Pople, A. R. and Beard, L. A.},
  title = {Application of an ultralight aircraft to aerial surveys of kangaroos on grazing properties},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {359--372},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR96047}
}
Groom, J.D., McKinney, L.B., Ball, L.C. and Winchell, C.S. Quantifying off-highway vehicle impacts on density and survival of a threatened dune-endemic plant 2007 Biological Conservation
Vol. 135(1), pp. 119-134 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Groom2007119,
  author = {Groom, Jeremiah D. and McKinney, Lloyd B. and Ball, Lianne C. and Winchell, Clark S.},
  title = {Quantifying off-highway vehicle impacts on density and survival of a threatened dune-endemic plant},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {135},
  number = {1},
  pages = {119--134},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.10.005}
}
Gross, J.E., Stoddart, L.C. and Wagner, F.H. Demographic analysis of a northern Utah jackrabbit population 1974 Wildlife Monographs
Vol. 40, pp. 1-68 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Groetal74,
  author = {Gross, J. E. and Stoddart, L. C. and Wagner, F. H.},
  title = {Demographic analysis of a northern Utah jackrabbit population},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {1--68}
}
Guenzel, R.J. Estimating pronghorn abundance using aerial line transect sampling 1997 School: Wyoming Game and Fish Dept.  techreport URL 
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gue97,
  author = {Guenzel, R. J.},
  title = {Estimating pronghorn abundance using aerial line transect sampling},
  school = {Wyoming Game and Fish Dept.},
  year = {1997},
  url = {https://u.pcloud.link/publink/show?code=XZ9d3r7ZJkMhsYntVJX6T12F6YamEQtzkHfX}
}
Guix, J.C., Martín, M. and Manõsa, S. Conservation status of parrot populations in an Atlantic rainforest area of southeastern Brazil 1999 Biodiversity and Conservation
Vol. 8(8), pp. 1079-1088 
article DOI  
Abstract: A census of four species of syntopic parrots was carried out using distance sampling methods on Sao Sebastiao island, SE Brazil. Most of the 33 593 ha island is covered by mature and secondary Atlantic rainforest. Almost 80% of these forests are within the Ilhabela Park. Although the species counted have marked differences in size and weight, density (individuals/km2) and estimated population size in 23 500 ha of well-preserved forests were similar: Amazona farinosa (13.82 ± 5.94; 3247 ± 1395), Pionus maximiliani (15.79 ± 7.04; 3712 ± 1654), Brotogeris tirica (15.05 ± 4.87; 3537 ± 1143) and Pyrrhura frontalis (13.06 ± 5.53; 3068 ± 1298). Encounter rates of Forpus crassirostris and Pionopsitta pileata were very low, which suggests that there is only a small population of these species on the island. The Sao Sebastiao forests still support healthy populations of parrots. Although woodpecker population estimates on the island are large enough to provide nesting sites for parrots, competition for holes with other secondary cavity nesters such as toucans, flycatchers and tytiras, and the selective cutting of dead trees for canoe construction, which is a common practice on the island, may limit hole availability for parrots.
BibTeX:
@article{Guix1999,
  author = {Guix, J. C. and Martín, M. and Manõsa, S.},
  title = {Conservation status of parrot populations in an Atlantic rainforest area of southeastern Brazil},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {8},
  number = {8},
  pages = {1079--1088},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008851215269}
}
Gunnlaugsson, T. and Sigurjónsson, J. NASS-87: estimation of whale abundance based on observations made on board Icelandic and Faroese survey vessels 1990 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 40, pp. 571-580 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{GunSig90,
  author = {Gunnlaugsson, Th. and Sigurjónsson, J.},
  title = {NASS-87: estimation of whale abundance based on observations made on board Icelandic and Faroese survey vessels},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {571--580}
}
Gunnlaugsson, T., Víkingsson, G.A. and Pike, D.G. Combined line-transect and cue-count estimate of sperm whale abundance in the north Atlantic, from Icelandic NASS-2001 shipboard survey 2009 NAMMCO Sci. Publ.
Vol. 7, pp. 73-80 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gunnlaugsson2009,
  author = {Gunnlaugsson, Th. and Víkingsson, G. A. and Pike, D. G.},
  title = {Combined line-transect and cue-count estimate of sperm whale abundance in the north Atlantic, from Icelandic NASS-2001 shipboard survey},
  journal = {NAMMCO Sci. Publ.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {73--80},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.2706}
}
Guthery, F.S. Line transect sampling of bobwhite density on rangeland: evaluation and recommendations 1988 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 16, pp. 193-203 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Gut88,
  author = {Guthery, F. S.},
  title = {Line transect sampling of bobwhite density on rangeland: evaluation and recommendations},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {193--203},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782189}
}
Guthery, F.S. and Mecozzi, G.E. Developing the concept of estimating bobwhite density with pointing dogs 2008 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 72, pp. 1175-1180 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Guthery2008,
  author = {Guthery, Fred S. and Mecozzi, Grant E.},
  title = {Developing the concept of estimating bobwhite density with pointing dogs},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {1175--1180},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/2007-379}
}
Gutzwiller, K.J. and Marcum, H.A. Bird reactions to observer clothing color: implications for distance-sampling techniques 1997 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 61(3), pp. 935-947 
article DOI  
Abstract: The species-confidence hypothesis asserts that birds prefer mates whose colors match those of their species and avoid potential mates whose colors are atypical of conspecifics. Earlier point-count research indicated this mate-choice hypothesis also may explain avian reactions to observer clothing color. In central Texas, during January and February 1993, we tested further whether the species-confidence hypothesis holds for reactions to observer clothing color by determining how close an investigator could get to individuals before they flushed (approach distance) and how long individuals remained visible near their initial flush point (detectability period). The same investigator experimentally wore or did not wear a hunter-orange vest, which some wildlife biologists wear as a safety precaution during hunting-season field studies. The vest did not affect approach distance for species with red or orange on their bodies (American robin [Turdus migratorius], P = 0.247; northern cardinal [Cardinalis cardinalis], P = 0.196: ruby-crowned kinglet [Regulus calendula], P = 0.434; red-bellied woodpecker [Melanerpes carolinus], P = 0.113). In contrast, approach distances for species without red or orange were longer when the vest was worn than when it was not worn (Carolina chickadee [Parus carolinensis], P = 0.032; northern mockingbird [Mimus polyglottos], P = 0.033; yellow-rumped warbler [Dendroica coronata], P = 0.001). Differences in detectability period between vest conditions depended on air temperature for American robins (P = 0.003) and on the variation in visibility within habitats for northern cardinals (P ¡ 0.001). Detectability period was shorter when the vest was worn than when it was not worn for Carolina chickadees (P = 0.057) and yellow-rumped warblers (P = 0.060). Thus, for several species this matechoice hypothesis seems to apply to garment color as well. Some species' reactions demonstrated that, if birds respond significantly to clothing color, important assumptions of distance-sampling techniques used to estimate avian richness, density, and abundance will be violated, and these parameters will be underestimated. Wildlife scientists will be more likely to draw valid inferences and recommend effective management practices from avian data gathered via distance-sampling methods if reactions to clothing color are precluded.
BibTeX:
@article{Gutzwiller1997,
  author = {Gutzwiller, K. J. and Marcum, H. A.},
  title = {Bird reactions to observer clothing color: implications for distance-sampling techniques},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {61},
  number = {3},
  pages = {935--947},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802203}
}
Haakonsson, J.E., Harvey, J. and Rivera-Milán, F.F. Conservation status of grand cayman (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis) and cayman brac (Amazona leucocephala hesterna) parrots 2017 The Journal of Caribbean Ornithology
Vol. 30, pp. 33-38 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Haakonsson2017,
  author = {Haakonsson, Jane Ebert and Harvey, Jessica and Rivera-Milán, Frank F.},
  title = {Conservation status of grand cayman (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis) and cayman brac (Amazona leucocephala hesterna) parrots},
  journal = {The Journal of Caribbean Ornithology},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {33--38}
}
Hagen, G. and Schweder, T. Point clustering of minke whales in the northeastern Atlantic 1995 Whales, Seals, Fish and Man, pp. 27-33  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{HagSch95,
  author = {Hagen, G. and Schweder, T.},
  title = {Point clustering of minke whales in the northeastern Atlantic},
  booktitle = {Whales, Seals, Fish and Man},
  publisher = {Elsevier Science B. V.},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {27--33}
}
Hain, J.H.W., Ellis, S.L., Kenney, R.D. and Slay, C.K. Sightability of right whales in coastal waters of the southeastern United States with implications for the aerial monitoring program 1999 Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods, pp. 191-207  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Haietal99,
  author = {Hain, J. H. W. and Ellis, S. L. and Kenney, R. D. and Slay, C. K.},
  title = {Sightability of right whales in coastal waters of the southeastern United States with implications for the aerial monitoring program},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {191--207}
}
Hakamada, T., Matsuoka, K. and Nishiwaki, S. An update of Antarctic minke whales abundance estimate based on JARPA data including comparison to IDCR/SOWER estimates 2005 (JA/J05/JR 4)  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hakamada2005,
  author = {Hakamada, T. and Matsuoka, K. and Nishiwaki, S.},
  title = {An update of Antarctic minke whales abundance estimate based on JARPA data including comparison to IDCR/SOWER estimates},
  year = {2005},
  number = {JA/J05/JR 4}
}
Hall, A.M. Seasonal abundance, distribution and prey species of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in southern Vancouver Island waters 2004 School: University of British Columbia  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Hall2004,
  author = {Hall, A. M.},
  title = {Seasonal abundance, distribution and prey species of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in southern Vancouver Island waters},
  school = {University of British Columbia},
  year = {2004}
}
Hamel, P.B. Response to Tomiatojc and Verner 1990 The Auk
Vol. 107, pp. 451-453 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ham90,
  author = {Hamel, P. B.},
  title = {Response to Tomiatojc and Verner},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {107},
  pages = {451--453},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/4087641}
}
Hamel, P.B. Comparison of variable circular-plot and spot-map censusing methods in temperate forest 1984 Ornis Scandinavica
Vol. 15, pp. 266-274 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ham84,
  author = {Hamel, P. B.},
  title = {Comparison of variable circular-plot and spot-map censusing methods in temperate forest},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {266--274},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3675936}
}
Hamel, P.B., Smith, W.P. and Wahl, J.W. Wintering bird populations of fragmented forest habitat in the Central Basin, Tennessee 1993 Biological Conservation
Vol. 66, pp. 107-115 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hametal93,
  author = {Hamel, P. B. and Smith, W. P. and Wahl, J. W.},
  title = {Wintering bird populations of fragmented forest habitat in the Central Basin, Tennessee},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {107--115},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(93)90141-M}
}
Hammill, M.O., Lesage, V., Gosselin, J.-F., Bourdages, H., March, B.G.E.D. and Kingsley, M.C.S. Evidence for a decline in northern Quebec (Nunavik) belugas 2004 Arctic
Vol. 57, pp. 183-195 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hammill2004,
  author = {Hammill, M. O. and Lesage, V. and Gosselin, J.-F. and Bourdages, H. and March, B. G. E. De and Kingsley, M. C. S.},
  title = {Evidence for a decline in northern Quebec (Nunavik) belugas},
  journal = {Arctic},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {57},
  pages = {183--195},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic494}
}
Hammond, P.S. An investigation into the effects of different techniques of smearing the IWC/IDCR minke whale sighting data and the use of different models to estimate density of schools 1984 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 34, pp. 301-307 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Hamm84,
  author = {Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {An investigation into the effects of different techniques of smearing the IWC/IDCR minke whale sighting data and the use of different models to estimate density of schools},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {301--307}
}
Hammond, P.S., Berggren, P., Benke, H., Borchers, D.L., Collet, A., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Heimlich, S., Hiby, A.R., Leopold, M.F. and Øien, N. Abundance of harbour porpoise and other cetaceans in the North Sea and adjacent waters 2002 The Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 39, pp. 361-376 
article DOI  
Abstract: 1. The status of small cetaceans in the North Sea and adjacent waters has been of concern for many years. Shipboard and aerial line transect surveys were conducted to provide accurate and precise estimates of abundance as a basis for conservation strategy in European waters. 2. The survey, known as SCANS (Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea), was conducted in summer 1994 and designed to generate precise and unbiased abundance estimates. Thus the intensity of survey was high, and data collection and analysis methods allowed for the probability of detection of animals on the transect line being less than unity and, for shipboard surveys, also allowed for animal movement in response to the survey platform. 3. Shipboard transects covered 20 000 km in an area of 890 000 km^2. Aerial transects covered 7000 km in an area of 150 000 km^2. 4. Three species dominated the data. Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena were encountered throughout the survey area except in the Channel and the southern North Sea. Whitebeaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata were found mainly in the north-western North Sea. 5. Phocoena phocoena abundance for the entire survey area was estimated as 341 366 [coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 260 000-449 000]. The estimated number of B. acutorostrata was 8445 (CV = 0.24; 95% CI 5000-13 500). The estimate for L. albirostris based on confirmed sightings of this species was 7856 (CV = 0.30; 95% CI = 4000-13 000). When Atlantic whitesided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus and Lagenorhynchus spp. sightings were included, this estimate increased to 11 760 (CV = 0.26; 95% CI 5900-18 500). 6. Shortbeaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis were found almost exclusively in the Celtic Sea. Abundance was estimated as 75 450 (CV = 0.67; 95% CI = 23 000-149 000). 7. Current assessments and recommendations by international fora concerning the impact on P. phocoena of bycatch in gillnet fisheries in the North Sea and adjacent waters are based on these estimates.
BibTeX:
@article{Hammond2002,
  author = {Hammond, P. S. and Berggren, P. and Benke, H. and Borchers, D. L. and Collet, A. and Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Heimlich, S. and Hiby, A. R. and Leopold, M. F. and Øien, N.},
  title = {Abundance of harbour porpoise and other cetaceans in the North Sea and adjacent waters},
  journal = {The Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {361--376},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00713.x}
}
Hammond, P.S. and Laake, J.L. Estimates of sperm whale density in the eastern tropical Pacific, 1974– 1982 1984 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 34, pp. 255-258 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{HamLaa84,
  author = {Hammond, P. S. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Estimates of sperm whale density in the eastern tropical Pacific, 1974– 1982},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {255--258}
}
Hammond, P.S. and Laake, J.L. Trends in estimates of abundance of dolphins (Stenella spp. and Delphinus delphis) involved in the purse-seine fishery for tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean 1983 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 33, pp. 565-588 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{HamLaa83,
  author = {Hammond, P. S. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Trends in estimates of abundance of dolphins (Stenella spp. and Delphinus delphis) involved in the purse-seine fishery for tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {565--588}
}
Hammond, P.S., Macleod, K., Berggren, P., Borchers, D.L., Burt, L., Cañadas, A., Desportes, G., Donovan, G.P., Gilles, A., Gillespie, D., Gordon, J., Hiby, L., Kuklik, I., Leaper, R., Lehnert, K., Leopold, M., Lovell, P., Øien, N., Paxton, C.G.M., Ridoux, V., Rogan, E., Samarra, F., Scheidat, M., Sequeira, M., Siebert, U., Skov, H., Swift, R., Tasker, M.L., Teilmann, J., Canneyt, O.V. and Vázquez, J.A. Cetacean abundance and distribution in European Atlantic shelf waters to inform conservation and management 2013 Biological Conservation
Vol. 164, pp. 107-122 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hammond2013107,
  author = {Hammond, Philip S. and Macleod, Kelly and Berggren, Per and Borchers, David L. and Burt, Louise and Cañadas, Ana and Desportes, Geneviève and Donovan, Greg P. and Gilles, Anita and Gillespie, Douglas and Gordon, Jonathan and Hiby, Lex and Kuklik, Iwona and Leaper, Russell and Lehnert, Kristina and Leopold, Mardik and Lovell, Phil and Øien, Nils and Paxton, Charles G. M. and Ridoux, Vincent and Rogan, Emer and Samarra, Filipa and Scheidat, Meike and Sequeira, Marina and Siebert, Ursula and Skov, Henrik and Swift, René and Tasker, Mark L. and Teilmann, Jonas and Canneyt, Olivier Van and Vázquez, José Antonio},
  title = {Cetacean abundance and distribution in European Atlantic shelf waters to inform conservation and management},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {164},
  pages = {107--122},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.04.010}
}
Hamrick, R.G., Pirgalioglu, T., Gunduz, S. and Carroll, J.P. Feral donkey Equus asinus populations on the karpaz peninsula, cyprus 2005 European Journal of Wildlife Research
Vol. 51(2), pp. 108-116 
article DOI  
Abstract: Numerous researchers have documented the adverse effects of feral donkeys Equus asinus introduced to semi-arid ecosystems. With the release of feral donkeys and potential increasing populations in natural habitats in northern Cyprus, there is concern for negative impacts on vegetation and native species. In the north of the island, there has been only one published study of feral donkey populations, and population estimators were relatively subjective. We estimated feral donkey populations on the Karpaz Peninsula using line transect surveys and quantitative distance sampling estimators. We stratified the sampling by using 11 sample units within the study area. We evaluated potential biases associated with habitat, topography, and perpendicular distance from the transect line and found that these variables did not bias donkey detections during our surveys. Using program DISTANCE, we found that a hazard rate cosine model was the best model that described our distance data based on model selection criterion (Akaike's Information Criteria adjusted for small sample bias). Estimated effective strip width was 280.19 m and detection probability was 0.47 with this model. Estimated donkey density was 6.7 donkeys/km 2, and estimated total abundance was 800 donkeys for the entire 132.5 km2 study area. Of 95 donkey groups detected: 16% were detected in agricultural habitats with flat topography, 9% were detected in agricultural habitats with sloped topography, 24% were detected in shrub/forest habitats with flat topography, and 51% were detected in shrub/forest habitats with sloped topography. Of 102 behavioral observations recorded (multiple behaviors were detected in groups), frequencies of behaviors were 1% bedded, 70% standing, 22% grazing, 6% moving, and 2% other. Our estimated donkey population density in the Karpaz Peninsula was ¿ 2 times densities reported in arid regions of the United States and Australia, but slightly lower than earlier density estimates reported for the Karpaz region. These estimates of feral donkey populations in the Karpaz Peninsula provide a quantitative baseline from which to make population management decisions. textcopyright Springer-Verlag 2005.
BibTeX:
@article{Hamrick2005,
  author = {Hamrick, R. G. and Pirgalioglu, T. and Gunduz, S. and Carroll, J. P.},
  title = {Feral donkey Equus asinus populations on the karpaz peninsula, cyprus},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {51},
  number = {2},
  pages = {108--116},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-005-0085-0}
}
Handel, C., Tibbetts, L., Cady, M., Ruthrauff, D. and Thompson, B. Quantifying and correcting measurement error in point transect counts   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Handel,
  author = {Handel, Colleen and Tibbetts, Lee and Cady, Melissa and Ruthrauff, Dan and Thompson, Bill},
  title = {Quantifying and correcting measurement error in point transect counts}
}
Hanni, D. Sand creek massacre national historic site inventory and monitoring: final report 2005 School: Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hanni2005,
  author = {Hanni, David},
  title = {Sand creek massacre national historic site inventory and monitoring: final report},
  school = {Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory},
  year = {2005}
}
Hanowski, J.M. and Niemi, G.J. Experimental design considerations for establishing an off-road, habitat-specific bird monitoring program using point-counts 1995 (PSW-GTR-149)School: USDA Forest Service  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hanowski1995,
  author = {Hanowski, JoAnn M. and Niemi, Gerald J.},
  title = {Experimental design considerations for establishing an off-road, habitat-specific bird monitoring program using point-counts},
  school = {USDA Forest Service},
  year = {1995},
  number = {PSW-GTR-149}
}
Hanowski, J.M., Niemi, G.J. and Blake, J.G. Statistical perspectives and experimental design when counting birds on line transects 1990 Condor, The
Vol. 92, pp. 326-335 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hanetal90,
  author = {Hanowski, J. M. and Niemi, G. J. and Blake, J. G.},
  title = {Statistical perspectives and experimental design when counting birds on line transects},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {92},
  pages = {326--335},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1368230}
}
Hansen, R.G., Boye, T.K., Larsen, R.S., Nielsen, N.H., Tervo, O., Nielsen, R.D., Rasmussen, M.H., Sinding, M.H.S. and Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. Abundance of whales in west and east Greenland in summer 2015 2019 NAMMCO Scientific Publications
Vol. 11 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hansen2019,
  author = {Hansen, Rikke Guldborg and Boye, Tenna K. and Larsen, Rasmus S. and Nielsen, Nynne H. and Tervo, Outi and Nielsen, Rasmus D. and Rasmussen, Marianne H. and Sinding, Mikkel H. S. and Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter},
  title = {Abundance of whales in west and east Greenland in summer 2015},
  journal = {NAMMCO Scientific Publications},
  publisher = {UiT The Arctic University of Norway},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {11},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.4689}
}
Hansen, R.G., Pike, D., Thorgilsson, B., Gunnlaugsson, T. and Lawson, J. The Geometer: a new device for recording angles in visual surveys 2019 NAMMCO Scientific Publications
Vol. 11 
article DOI  
Abstract: The Geometer is a new handheld USB device that facilitates a relatively accurate measurement of the declination to a target with instantaneous recording of this and other data. The Geometer offers several advantages over traditional clinometers used in aerial surveys, including easier target pinpointing and tracking, more consistent angle measurements, and integration with software data collection packages. In this note we provide technical specifications for the device and its associated software, and describe a new aerial survey data collection programme that takes full advantage of the features of the Geometer. We have tested this device extensively during aerial surveys and highlight the utility of the hardware as well as ways in which the technology could be improved.
BibTeX:
@article{hansen_geometer_2019,
  author = {Hansen, Rikke Guldborg and Pike, Daniel and Thorgilsson, Baldur and Gunnlaugsson, Thorvaldur and Lawson, Jack},
  title = {The Geometer: a new device for recording angles in visual surveys},
  journal = {NAMMCO Scientific Publications},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {11},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.5585}
}
Hansen, S.J.K., Frair, J.L., Underwood, H.B. and Gibbs, J.P. Pairing call-response surveys and distance sampling for a mammalian carnivore 2015 The Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 79, pp. 662-671 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hansen2015,
  author = {Hansen, Sara J. K. and Frair, Jacqueline L. and Underwood, H. Brian and Gibbs, James P.},
  title = {Pairing call-response surveys and distance sampling for a mammalian carnivore},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {79},
  pages = {662--671},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.865}
}
Harden R. H., R.J.M. and Milledge, D.R. An evaluation of the strip transect method for censusing bird communities in forests 1986 Australian Wildlife Research
Vol. 13, pp. 203-211 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Haretal86,
  author = {Harden, R. H., R. J. Muir and Milledge, D. R.},
  title = {An evaluation of the strip transect method for censusing bird communities in forests},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {203--211},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9860203}
}
Hardy, P.C. and Morrison, M.L. Nest site selection by elf owls in the Sonoran desert 2001 Wilson Bulletin
Vol. 113(1), pp. 23-32 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hardy2001,
  author = {Hardy, P. C. and Morrison, M. L.},
  title = {Nest site selection by elf owls in the Sonoran desert},
  journal = {Wilson Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {113},
  number = {1},
  pages = {23--32},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1676/0043-5643(2001)113%5B0023:NSSBEO%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Harihar, A., Pandav, B. and Goyal, S.P. Responses of tiger (Panthera tigris) and their prey to removal of anthropogenic influences in Rajaji National Park, India 2009 European Journal of Wildlife Research
Vol. 55, pp. 97-105 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Harihar2009,
  author = {Harihar, Abishek and Pandav, Bivash and Goyal, Surendra P.},
  title = {Responses of tiger (Panthera tigris) and their prey to removal of anthropogenic influences in Rajaji National Park, India},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {97--105},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-008-0219-2}
}
Hariharan, P. and Raman, T.R.S. Active restoration fosters better recovery of tropical rainforest birds than natural regeneration in degraded forest fragments 2021 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. n/a(n/a) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Ecological restoration has emerged as a key strategy for conserving tropical forests and habitat specialists, and monitoring faunal recovery using indicator taxa like birds can help assess restoration success. Few studies have examined, however, whether active restoration (AR) achieves better recovery of bird communities than natural regeneration, or how bird recovery relates to habitat affiliations of species in the community. In rainforests restored over the past two decades in a fragmented landscape (Western Ghats, India), we examined whether bird species richness and community composition recovery in 23 actively restored (AR) sites were significantly better than recovery in paired naturally regenerating (NR) sites, relative to 23 undisturbed benchmark (BM) rainforests. We measured eight habitat variables and tested whether bird recovery tracked habitat recovery, whether rainforest and open-country birds showed contrasting patterns, and assessed species-level responses to restoration. We recorded 92 bird species in 460 point-count surveys. Rainforest bird species richness was highest in BM, intermediate in AR and lowest in NR. Contrastingly, open-country bird species richness was least in BM, intermediate in AR and highest in NR. Bird community composition varied significantly across treatment types with composition in AR in transition from NR to BM. Bird community dissimilarity between sites was positively related to dissimilarity in habitat structure and floristics, and geographical distance between sites. Variance partitioning indicated that structural and floristic dissimilarity explained 90% of the variation in community composition. Indicator species analysis revealed significant associations of 34 species with one or more treatment types. Species associated with BM and AR treatment types were all rainforest species, while only 38% of species associated with AR and NR treatment types were rainforest species. Synthesis and applications. We show that active restoration (AR) of degraded fragments benefits rainforest birds and reduces the infiltration of open-country birds, and highlight the importance of considering rainforest and open-country species separately. In human-modified tropical rainforest landscapes, AR of degraded fragments fosters partial recovery and complements protection of mature forests for bird conservation.
BibTeX:
@article{Hariharan2021,
  author = {Priyanka Hariharan and T. R. Shankar Raman},
  title = {Active restoration fosters better recovery of tropical rainforest birds than natural regeneration in degraded forest fragments},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2021},
  volume = {n/a},
  number = {n/a},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.14052}
}
Harmata, A.R., Podruzny, K.M., Zelenak, J.R. and Morrison, M.L. Passage rates and timing of bird migration in Montana 2000 American Midland Naturalist
Vol. 143, pp. 30-40 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Haretal00,
  author = {Harmata, A. R. and Podruzny, K. M. and Zelenak, J. R. and Morrison, M. L.},
  title = {Passage rates and timing of bird migration in Montana},
  journal = {American Midland Naturalist},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {143},
  pages = {30--40},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1674/0003-0031(2000)143%5B0030:PRATOB%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Harmata, A.R., Podruzny, K.M., Zelenak, J.R. and Morrison, M.L. Using marine surveillance radar to study bird movements and impact assessment 1999 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 27, pp. 44-52 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{HAR99,
  author = {Harmata, A. R. and Podruzny, K. M. and Zelenak, J. R. and Morrison, M. L.},
  title = {Using marine surveillance radar to study bird movements and impact assessment},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {44--52},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3783939}
}
Harris, D., Matias, L., Thomas, L., Harwood, J. and Geissler, W.H. Applying distance sampling to fin whale calls recorded by single seismic instruments in the northeast Atlantic 2013 The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Vol. 134(5), pp. 3522-3535 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Harris2013a,
  author = {Harris, Danielle and Matias, Luis and Thomas, Len and Harwood, John and Geissler, Wolfram H.},
  title = {Applying distance sampling to fin whale calls recorded by single seismic instruments in the northeast Atlantic},
  journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {134},
  number = {5},
  pages = {3522--3535},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4821207}
}
Harris, G.M., Butler, M.J., Stewart, D.R., Rominger, E.M. and Ruhl, C.Q. Accurate population estimation of Caprinae using camera traps and distance sampling 2020 Scientific Reports
Vol. 10(1), pp. 17729 
article DOI  
Abstract: With most of the world's Caprinae taxa threatened with extinction, the IUCN appeals to the development of simple and affordable sampling methods that will produce credible abundance and distribution data for helping conserve these species inhabiting remote areas. Traditional sampling approaches, like aerial sampling or mark-capture-recapture, can generate bias by failing to meet sampling assumptions, or by incurring too much cost and logistical burden for most projects to address them. Therefore, we met the IUCN's challenge by testing a sampling technique that leverages imagery from camera traps with conventional distance sampling, validating its operability in mountainous topography by comparing results to known abundances. Our project occurred within a captive facility housing a wild population of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the Chihuahuan desert of New Mexico, which is censused yearly. True abundance was always within our 90% confidence bounds, and the mean abundance estimates were within 4.9 individuals (average) of the census values. By demonstrating the veracity of this straightforward and inexpensive sampling method, we provide confidence in its operability, urging its use to fill conservation voids for Caprinae and other data-deficient species inhabiting rugged or heavily vegetated terrain.
BibTeX:
@article{harris_accurate_2020,
  author = {Harris, Grant M. and Butler, Matthew J. and Stewart, David R. and Rominger, Eric M. and Ruhl, Caitlin Q.},
  title = {Accurate population estimation of Caprinae using camera traps and distance sampling},
  journal = {Scientific Reports},
  publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1},
  pages = {17729},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73893-5}
}
Harris, R.B. Reliability of trend lines obtained from variable counts 1986 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 50, pp. 165-171 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Har86,
  author = {Harris, R. B.},
  title = {Reliability of trend lines obtained from variable counts},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {165--171},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801508}
}
Harris, R.B. and Burnham, K.P. On estimating wildlife densities from line transect data 2002 Acta Zoological Sinica
Vol. 48, pp. 812-818 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Harris2002,
  author = {Harris, R. B. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {On estimating wildlife densities from line transect data},
  journal = {Acta Zoological Sinica},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {812--818}
}
Harwood, L.A., Innes, S., Norton, P. and Kingsley, M.C.S. Distribution and abundance of beluga whales in the Mackenzie estuary, southeast Beaufort Sea, and west Amundsen Gulf during late july 1992 1998 Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Vol. 53, pp. 2262-2273 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Harwood1998,
  author = {Harwood, Lois A. and Innes, Stuart and Norton, Pamela and Kingsley, Michael C. S.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of beluga whales in the Mackenzie estuary, southeast Beaufort Sea, and west Amundsen Gulf during late july 1992},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {2262--2273},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/f96-180}
}
Hashimoto, C. Population census of the chimpanzees in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda — comparison between methods with nest counts 1995 Primates
Vol. 36, pp. 477-488 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Has95,
  author = {Hashimoto, C.},
  title = {Population census of the chimpanzees in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda — comparison between methods with nest counts},
  journal = {Primates},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {477--488},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02382870}
}
Hastie, G.D., Swift, R.J., Gordon, J.C.D., Slesser, G. and Turrell, W.R. Sperm whale distribution and seasonal density in the Faroe Shetland Channel 2003 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 5, pp. 247-252 
article  
Abstract: Results from previous surveys suggest that an area of the northeast Atlantic, the Faroe Shetland Channel, is important for cetaceans. This study utilised passive acoustic survey techniques to evaluate the density of sperm whales in the Channel. Two-week surveys were carried out during oceanographic cruises in May and October 2001, and May 2002. A two hydrophone array was towed behind the vessel throughout the majority of the survey routes and was monitored by a two-person team and by software designed to automatically detect and measure bearings to whales. Distances of individual sperm whales from the trackline were determined using target motion analysis. Standard line transect techniques were applied to calculate the density of whales during surveys. The effects of sea conditions and survey vessel on the ability to detect whales were tested; the encounter rate and effective stripwidth (esw) were estimated independently for each sea state and for each of the vessels. A total of 79 individual whales were detected, and their distances from the trackline were calculated. As a probable result of insufficient sample size and a small effects size, neither the esw nor the encounter rates varied significantly with sea state or between the two survey vessels. The density of sperm whales during each of the surveys was estimated to be 2.05, 0.52 and 1.75 whales per 1,000km2 for the May 2001, October 2001 and May 2002 surveys respectively. Sperm whales were distributed across the majority of the Faroe Shetland Channel. This study has provided the basis for meaningful hypothesis generation in future studies and to gain a better understanding of the factors underlying the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of sperm whales in this area; data on oceanographic, biological and anthropogenic determinants should now be examined.
BibTeX:
@article{Hastie2003,
  author = {Hastie, Gordon D. and Swift, René J. and Gordon, Jonathan C. D. and Slesser, George and Turrell, William R.},
  title = {Sperm whale distribution and seasonal density in the Faroe Shetland Channel},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {247--252}
}
Haukioja, E. Reliability of the line survey method in bird census with reference to reed bunting and sedge warbler 1968 Ornis Fennica
Vol. 45, pp. 105-113 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Hau68,
  author = {Haukioja, E.},
  title = {Reliability of the line survey method in bird census with reference to reed bunting and sedge warbler},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {105--113}
}
Hausser, Y., Tagand, R., Vimercati, E., Mermod, S. and Fischer, C. Comparing survey methods to assess the conservation value of a community-managed protected area in western Tanzania 2016 African Journal of Ecology
Vol. 55(1), pp. 1-11 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hausser2016,
  author = {Hausser, Yves and Tagand, Romain and Vimercati, Eric and Mermod, Sandy and Fischer, Claude},
  title = {Comparing survey methods to assess the conservation value of a community-managed protected area in western Tanzania},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {55},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--11},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12301}
}
Hayes, R.J. A critical review of line transect methods 1977 School: University of Edinburgh  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Hay77,
  author = {Hayes, R. J.},
  title = {A critical review of line transect methods},
  school = {University of Edinburgh},
  year = {1977}
}
Hayes, R.J. and Buckland, S.T. Radial-distance models for the line-transect method 1983 Biometrics
Vol. 39, pp. 29-42 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HayBuc83,
  author = {Hayes, R. J. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Radial-distance models for the line-transect method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {29--42},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530804}
}
Hayne, D.W. An examination of the strip census method for estimating animal populations 1949 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 13, pp. 145-157 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hay49,
  author = {Hayne, D. W.},
  title = {An examination of the strip census method for estimating animal populations},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1949},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {145--157},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3796084}
}
Healy, W.M. and Welsh, C.J.E. Evaluating line transects to monitor gray squirrel populations 1992 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 20, pp. 83-90 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{HeaWel92,
  author = {Healy, W. M. and Welsh, C. J. E.},
  title = {Evaluating line transects to monitor gray squirrel populations},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {83--90},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782764}
}
Heath-Acre, K.M., Conway, W.C., Boal, C.W., Collins, D.P., Hensley, G., Johnson, W.P. and Schmidt, P.M. Detectability and Abundance of Snowy Plovers at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma 2020 Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management
Vol. 12(1), pp. 50-60 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the past two decades, Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge has been increasingly recognized as important habitat for both breeding and migratory shorebirds. North American snowy plovers Charadrius nivosus in particular rely on the nearly 5,000-ha salt flat at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, which thousands use as breeding and stopover habitat. Elsewhere on the Southern Great Plains, decadal declines up to 75% within snowy plover subpopulations have been documented and attributed to vegetation encroachment, increased rates of nest predation, and decreased availability of fresh surface water. Despite many attempts to estimate this species' abundance across the continent, to date, no known attempt at distance sampling of snowy plovers has occurred. To address this paucity of data, we assessed feasibility of distance sampling methods to accurately estimate snowy plover abundance and detectability. Distance sampling surveys (2017– 2018) indicated high detection probability (P = 0.80) and the population abundance estimate across the salt flat extrapolated to 3,307 individuals. The distance-sampling population abundance estimate is lower than population abundance estimates determined by two previous studies within the past decade but far greater than 2,105 estimated for a study in 2006. Overall, distance sampling snowy plovers at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge proved to be an effective addition to pre-established survey protocols but further investigation is needed to compare accuracy and precision of methods used in this study, annual surveys conducted by Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, and other potential snowy plover surveys.
BibTeX:
@article{HeathAcre2020,
  author = {Heath-Acre, Kristen M. and Conway, Warren C. and Boal, Clint W. and Collins, Daniel P. and Hensley, Glen and Johnson, William P. and Schmidt, Paige M.},
  title = {Detectability and Abundance of Snowy Plovers at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma},
  journal = {Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {12},
  number = {1},
  pages = {50--60},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3996/JFWM-20-041}
}
Heckman, N. and Rice, J. Line transects of two-dimensional random fields: estimation and design 1997 Canadian Journal of Statistics
Vol. 25, pp. 481-501 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HecRic97,
  author = {Heckman, N. and Rice, J.},
  title = {Line transects of two-dimensional random fields: estimation and design},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Statistics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {481--501},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3315343}
}
Hedges, S., Tyson, M.J., Sitompul, A.F., Kinnaird, M.F., Gunaryadi, D. and Aslan Distribution, status, and conservation needs of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Lampung province, Sumatra, Indonesia 2005 Biological Conservation
Vol. 124(1), pp. 35-48 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hedges2005,
  author = {Hedges, S. and Tyson, M. J. and Sitompul, A. F. and Kinnaird, M. F. and Gunaryadi, D. and Aslan},
  title = {Distribution, status, and conservation needs of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Lampung province, Sumatra, Indonesia},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {124},
  number = {1},
  pages = {35--48},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.01.004}
}
Hedley, S., Reilly, S., Borberg, J., Holland, R., Hewitt, R., Watkins, J., Naganobu, M. and Sushin, V. Modelling whale distribution: a preliminary analysis of data collected on the CCAML-IWC krill synoptic survey, 2000 (SC/53/E9)  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hedley,
  author = {Hedley, S. and Reilly, S. and Borberg, J. and Holland, R. and Hewitt, R. and Watkins, J. and Naganobu, M. and Sushin, V.},
  title = {Modelling whale distribution: a preliminary analysis of data collected on the CCAML-IWC krill synoptic survey, 2000},
  number = {SC/53/E9}
}
Hedley, S.L. Modelling heterogeneity in cetacean surveys 2000 School: University of St Andrews  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{HED00,
  author = {Hedley, S. L.},
  title = {Modelling heterogeneity in cetacean surveys},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2000}
}
Hedley, S.L. and Buckland, S.T. Spatial models for line transect sampling 2004 Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics
Vol. 9(2), pp. 181-199 
article DOI  
Abstract: This article develops methods for fitting spatial models to line transect data. These allow animal density to be related to topographical, environmental, habitat, and other spatial variables, helping wildlife managers to identify the factors that affect abundance. They also enable estimation of abundance for any subarea of interest within the surveyed region, and potentially yield estimates of abundance from sightings surveys for which the survey design could not be randomized, such as surveys conducted from platforms of opportunity. The methods are illustrated through analyses of data from a shipboard sightings survey of minke whales in the Antarctic. textcopyright 2004 American Statistical Association and the International Biometric Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Hedley2004,
  author = {Hedley, S. L. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Spatial models for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {9},
  number = {2},
  pages = {181--199},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1198/1085711043578}
}
Hedley, S.L., Buckland, S.T. and Borchers, D.L. Spatial modelling from line transect data 1999 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 1, pp. 255-264 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{HED99,
  author = {Hedley, S. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Spatial modelling from line transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {255--264}
}
van Heezik, Y., Smyth, A., Adams, A. and Gordon, J. Do domestic cats impose an unsustainable harvest on urban bird populations? 2010 Biological Conservation
Vol. 143(1), pp. 121-130 
article DOI  
Abstract: We assessed the impact of domestic cats on population persistence of native and exotic urban bird populations using a model adjusted for habitat-specific catch rates, cat ownership and hunting activity data. GPS-derived home ranges of 32 cats and resource selection indices demonstrated the degree of penetration and preference for native vegetation fragments. Owners reported on prey brought back by 144 domestic cats in Dunedin, New Zealand, during 12 months. One third of cats never brought back prey, and 21% returned more than one item/month. Cats brought back a mean of 13.4 prey items/year (median = 4), with cats aged ¡ 1 year returning more prey than older cats. Birds were the most common prey, followed by rodents. Although cats penetrated adjacent vegetation fragments they did not catch more birds and preferred garden habitat, suggesting that predation pressure may be reduced in fragments. Cat home range size appears to be constrained by cat density while the number of birds caught depends on the density of available prey. Estimates of city-wide catch for six bird species were either more than total urban population size estimates or close to lower confidence intervals. Modelling of three species indicated low likelihood of population persistence with cat predation. The observed persistence of these prey species suggests a meta-population structure with urban populations acting as sinks with source populations located on the city fringe.
BibTeX:
@article{Heezik2010,
  author = {van Heezik, Yolanda and Smyth, Amber and Adams, Amy and Gordon, Joanna},
  title = {Do domestic cats impose an unsustainable harvest on urban bird populations?},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {143},
  number = {1},
  pages = {121--130},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.09.013}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. and Acquarone, M. Size and trends of the bowhead whale, beluga and narwhal stocks wintering off West Greenland 2002 NAMMCO Sci. Publ.
Vol. 4, pp. 191-210 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HeiAcq02,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Acquarone, M.},
  title = {Size and trends of the bowhead whale, beluga and narwhal stocks wintering off West Greenland},
  journal = {NAMMCO Sci. Publ.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {191--210},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.2844}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Borchers, D.L., Witting, L., Simon, M.J., Laidre, K.L., Rosing-Asvid, A. and Pike, D. Estimates of large whale abundance in west Greenland waters from an aerial survey in 2005 2008 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 10, pp. 119-129 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen2008a,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Borchers, D. L. and Witting, L. and Simon, M. J. and Laidre, K. L. and Rosing-Asvid, A. and Pike, D.},
  title = {Estimates of large whale abundance in west Greenland waters from an aerial survey in 2005},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {119--129}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laidre, K., Borchers, D., Samarra, F. and Stern, H. Increasing abundance of bowhead whales in west Greenland 2007 Biology Letters
Vol. 3, pp. 277-280 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen2007,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter and Laidre, Kristin and Borchers, David and Samarra, Filipa and Stern, Harry},
  title = {Increasing abundance of bowhead whales in west Greenland},
  journal = {Biology Letters},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {277--280},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2007.0310}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laidre, K.L., Borchers, D., Marques, T.A., Stern, H. and Simon, M. The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland 2010 Polar Research
Vol. 29, pp. 198-208 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen2010,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Laidre, K. L. and Borchers, D. and Marques, T. A. and Stern, H. and Simon, M.},
  title = {The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland},
  journal = {Polar Research},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {198--208},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-8369.2009.00142.x}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laidre, K.L., Burt, M.L., Borchers, D.L., Marques, T.A., Hansen, R.G., Rasmussen, M. and Fossette, S. Abundance of narwhals (Monodon Monoceros) on the hunting grounds in Greenland 2010 Journal of Mammalogy
Vol. 91, pp. 1135-1151 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensena,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Laidre, K. L. and Burt, M. L. and Borchers, D. L. and Marques, T. A. and Hansen, R. G. and Rasmussen, M. and Fossette, S.},
  title = {Abundance of narwhals (Monodon Monoceros) on the hunting grounds in Greenland},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {91},
  pages = {1135--1151},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1644/09-MAMM-A-198.1}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Lassen, H., Teilmann, J. and Davis, R.A. An index of the relative abundance of wintering belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, and narwhals, Monodon monoceros, off West Greenland 1993 Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Vol. 50, pp. 2323-2335 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen1993,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Lassen, H. and Teilmann, J. and Davis, R. A.},
  title = {An index of the relative abundance of wintering belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, and narwhals, Monodon monoceros, off West Greenland},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {2323--2335},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/f93-257}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Mosbech, A., Teilmann, J., Benke, H. and Schultz, W. Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) densities obtained from aerial surveys north of Fyn and in the Bay of Kiel 1992 Ophelia
Vol. 35, pp. 133-146 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heietal92,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Mosbech, A. and Teilmann, J. and Benke, H. and Schultz, W.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) densities obtained from aerial surveys north of Fyn and in the Bay of Kiel},
  journal = {Ophelia},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {133--146},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/00785326.1992.10429975}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. and Reeves, R.R. Evidence of a decline in beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, abundance off west Greenland 1996 ICES Journal of Marine Science
Vol. 53, pp. 61-7220 
article DOI  
Abstract: ¡ P¿ Aerial surveys of belugas, or white whales, Delphinapterus leucas , were conducted off West Greenland in March 1993 and 1994. These surveys were designed to permit comparisons with similar surveys in 1981, 1982, and 1991. Differences in methods between the surveys in the early 1980s and those in the 1990s should mean that the 1990s surveys were, if anything, more efficient than the 1980s surveys. Weighted linear regressions of strip-census estimates of the relative abundance of belugas showed a significant decline from 1981 to 1994. While annual variability in ice conditions and other unknown factors may have had some local or small-scale effects on the movements and distribution of belugas off West Greenland, it is unlikely that these effects would account for the apparent decline in relative abundance. The most reasonable conclusion is that the stock size has declined considerably during the past 13 years, perhaps by as much as 62%./P¿
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Jorgensen1996,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Reeves, R. R.},
  title = {Evidence of a decline in beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, abundance off west Greenland},
  journal = {ICES Journal of Marine Science},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {61--7220},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1996.0006}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Simon, M.J. and Laidre, K.L. Estimates of large whale abundance in greenland in September 2005 2007 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 9, pp. 95-104 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Simon, M. J. and Laidre, K. L.},
  title = {Estimates of large whale abundance in greenland in September 2005},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {95--104}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Sinding, M.-H.S., Nielsen, N.H., Rosing-Asvid, A. and Hansen, R.G. Large numbers of marine mammals winter in the north water polynya 2016 Polar Biology
Vol. 39(9), pp. 1605-1614 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Jorgensen2016,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Sinding, M.-H. S. and Nielsen, N. H. and Rosing-Asvid, A. and Hansen, R. G.},
  title = {Large numbers of marine mammals winter in the north water polynya},
  journal = {Polar Biology},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {39},
  number = {9},
  pages = {1605--1614},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-015-1885-7}
}
Heinänen, S., Žydelis, R., Dorsch, M., Nehls, G. and Skov, H. High-resolution sea duck distribution modeling: relating aerial and ship survey data to food resources, anthropogenic pressures, and topographic variables 2017 The Condor
Vol. 119, pp. 175-190 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heinaenen2017,
  author = {Heinänen, Stefan and Žydelis, Ram?nas and Dorsch, Monika and Nehls, Georg and Skov, Henrik},
  title = {High-resolution sea duck distribution modeling: relating aerial and ship survey data to food resources, anthropogenic pressures, and topographic variables},
  journal = {The Condor},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {175--190},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1650/CONDOR-16-57.1}
}
Hemingway, P. Field trials of the line transect method of sampling large populations of herbivores 1971 The Scientific Management of Animal and Plant Communities for Conservation, pp. 405-411  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Hem71,
  author = {Hemingway, P.},
  title = {Field trials of the line transect method of sampling large populations of herbivores},
  booktitle = {The Scientific Management of Animal and Plant Communities for Conservation},
  publisher = {Blackwell Scientific Publications},
  year = {1971},
  pages = {405--411}
}
Henrys, P. Spatial distance sampling modeling of cetaceans observed from platforms of opportunity 2005 School: St Andrews University  mastersthesis  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Henrys2005,
  author = {Henrys, P.},
  title = {Spatial distance sampling modeling of cetaceans observed from platforms of opportunity},
  school = {St Andrews University},
  year = {2005}
}
van Hensbergen, H.J., Berry, M.P.S. and Juritz, J. Helicopter-based line transect estimates of some Southern African game populations 1996 South African Journal of Wildlife Research
Vol. 26, pp. 81-87 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{vanetal96,
  author = {van Hensbergen, H. J. and Berry, M. P. S. and Juritz, J.},
  title = {Helicopter-based line transect estimates of some Southern African game populations},
  journal = {South African Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {81--87}
}
Herr, H., Fock, H.O. and Siebert, U. Spatio-temporal associations between harbour porpoise phocoena phocoena and specific fisheries in the German bight 2009 Biological Conservation
Vol. 142(12), pp. 2962-2972 
article DOI  
Abstract: Interactions between cetaceans and fisheries are a major concern of cetacean conservation and fisheries management, as by-catch and resource competition occur as a result. To assess potential interaction between porpoises and fisheries in the German Bight, high-resolution spatial and temporal data were analysed in order to reveal association patterns between cetaceans and fisheries in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea. To facilitate interpretation of resulting patterns, additionally, relationships of fish assemblages were analysed. Vessel monitoring system (VMS) data from 2006 and fisheries surveillance data from 2002 to 2006 were acquired to calculate fishing effort, aerial survey data from 2002 to 2006 to evaluate porpoise distribution, and trawl survey data from 2000 to 2007 to assess fish assemblage. Relationships were analysed in terms of seasonal association and overlap. Results showed that porpoise distribution was positively associated with sandeel fisheries in all seasons and with gillnet fisheries in summer. Overlaps for sandeel and gillnet fisheries were high in summer, while negligible in spring and autumn. In spring, high overlap was found for large beam trawlers targeting sole and plaice. In parallel, porpoise distribution was positively linked to fish assemblage components representing sandeel and poor cod in summer and flatfish in spring. Our results suggest that, especially in summer, resource competition between porpoises and industrial sandeel fisheries is likely and the risk of by-catch in gillnets is increased. In spring, interference with sole and plaice fisheries is to be expected.
BibTeX:
@article{Herr2009a,
  author = {Herr, Helena and Fock, Heino O. and Siebert, Ursula},
  title = {Spatio-temporal associations between harbour porpoise phocoena phocoena and specific fisheries in the German bight},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {142},
  number = {12},
  pages = {2962--2972},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.07.025}
}
Herr, H., Kelly, N., Dorschel, B., Huntemann, M., Kock, K.-H., Lehnert, L.S., Siebert, U., Viquerat, S., Williams, R. and Scheidat, M. Aerial surveys for Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) reveal sea ice dependent distribution patterns 2019 Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 9(10), pp. 5664-5682 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Herr2019,
  author = {Herr, Helena and Kelly, Natalie and Dorschel, Boris and Huntemann, Marcus and Kock, Karl-Hermann and Lehnert, Linn Sophia and Siebert, Ursula and Viquerat, Sacha and Williams, Rob and Scheidat, Meike},
  title = {Aerial surveys for Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) reveal sea ice dependent distribution patterns},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {9},
  number = {10},
  pages = {5664--5682},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5149}
}
Herr, H., Scheidat, M., Lehnert, K. and Siebert, U. Seals at sea: modelling seal distribution in the German bight based on aerial survey data 2009 Marine Biology
Vol. 156, pp. 811-820 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Herr2009,
  author = {Herr, Helena and Scheidat, M. and Lehnert, K. and Siebert, U.},
  title = {Seals at sea: modelling seal distribution in the German bight based on aerial survey data},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {156},
  pages = {811--820},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-008-1105-x}
}
Herr, H., Viquerat, S., Devas, F., Lees, A., Wells, L., Gregory, B., Giffords, T., Beecham, D. and Meyer, B. Return of Large Fin Whale Feeding Aggregations to Historical Whaling Grounds in the Southern Ocean 2022 Scientific Reports
Vol. 12(1), pp. 9458 
article DOI  
Abstract: Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus quoyi) of the Southern Hemisphere were brought to near extinction by twentieth century industrial whaling. For decades, they had all but disappeared from previously highly frequented feeding grounds in Antarctic waters. Our dedicated surveys now confirm their return to ancestral feeding grounds, gathering at the Antarctic Peninsula in large aggregations to feed. We report on the results of an abundance survey and present the first scientific documentation of large fin whale feeding aggregations at Elephant Island, Antarctica, including the first ever video documentation. We interpret high densities, re-establishment of historical behaviours and the return to ancestral feeding grounds as signs for a recovering population. Recovery of a large whale population has the potential to augment primary productivity at their feeding grounds through the effects of nutrient recycling, known as 'the whale pump'. The recovery of fin whales in that area could thus restore ecosystem functions crucial for atmospheric carbon regulation in the world's most important ocean region for the uptake of anthropogenic CO2.
BibTeX:
@article{Herr2022,
  author = {Herr, Helena and Viquerat, Sacha and Devas, Fredi and Lees, Abigail and Wells, Lucy and Gregory, Bertie and Giffords, Ted and Beecham, Dan and Meyer, Bettina},
  title = {Return of Large Fin Whale Feeding Aggregations to Historical Whaling Grounds in the Southern Ocean},
  journal = {Scientific Reports},
  publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
  year = {2022},
  volume = {12},
  number = {1},
  pages = {9458},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13798-7}
}
Herrero, J., Fernández, O., Prada, C. and García-Serrano, A. Size and density of a feral goat Capra hircus population in a protected area in the Pyrenees 2013 Wildlife Biology in Practice
Vol. 9(3) 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Herrero2013,
  author = {Herrero, J. and Fernández, O. and Prada, C. and García-Serrano, A.},
  title = {Size and density of a feral goat Capra hircus population in a protected area in the Pyrenees},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology in Practice},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {9},
  number = {3},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2461/wbp.2013.ibeun.1}
}
Herrero, J., García-serrano, A., Prada, C. and Fernández-Arberas, O. Using block counts and distance sampling to estimate populations of chamois 2011 Pirineos. Revista de Ecología de Montaña
Vol. 166, pp. 123-133 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Herrero2011,
  author = {Herrero, J. and García-serrano, A. and Prada, C. and Fernández-Arberas, O.},
  title = {Using block counts and distance sampling to estimate populations of chamois},
  journal = {Pirineos. Revista de Ecología de Montaña},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {166},
  pages = {123--133},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3989/Pirineos.2011.166006}
}
Heydon, M.J. and Bulloh, P. Mousedeer densities in a tropical rainforest: the impact of selective logging 1997 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 34, pp. 484-496 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HeyBul97,
  author = {Heydon, M. J. and Bulloh, P.},
  title = {Mousedeer densities in a tropical rainforest: the impact of selective logging},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {484--496},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2404892}
}
Heydon, M.J., Reynolds, J.C. and Short, M.J. Variation in abundance of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) between three regions of rural Britain, in relation to landscape and other variables 2000 Journal of Zoology
Vol. 251(2), pp. 253-264 
article DOI  
Abstract: Spotlight transect surveys with distance sampling were used to estimate spring (pre-breeding) and autumn (post-production) fox Vulpes vulpes densities in three contrasting rural areas of Britain during 1995-97. This was the first attempt in Britain to measure and compare fox densities over large geographical areas (630-1460 km2). Mean post-production fox abundance was estimated to be 0.90/km2, 2.62/km2, and 0.59/km2 in mid-Wales, the east Midlands and East Anglia, falling to pre-breeding levels of 0.41/km2, 1.17/km2, and 0.16/km2 in spring. As relative measures of regional density, these estimates are strongly supported by independent indices of fox abundance, and by the simultaneous survey of two sympatric species, the badger Meles meles and brown hare Lepus europaeus, which demonstrate the absence of any terrain-related bias. Absolute abundance is less easy to verify, but estimates of spring density based on breeding earth censuses support the transect surveys. For two of the three regions, fox density was close to levels predicted by extrapolation on the basis of landscape, but in the third region (East Anglia), fox density was substantially below prediction. Thus, results failed to support a hypothesis that fox abundance can be predicted solely on the basis of landscape and its close correlates. Rather, they favoured a competing hypothesis that an independent factor determines fox abundance in some regions. A likely factor is culling by man.
BibTeX:
@article{Heydon2000,
  author = {Heydon, M. J. and Reynolds, J. C. and Short, M. J.},
  title = {Variation in abundance of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) between three regions of rural Britain, in relation to landscape and other variables},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {251},
  number = {2},
  pages = {253--264},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00608.x}
}
Hiby, A.R. Results of a hazard rate model relevant to experiments on the 1984/85 IDCR minke whale assessment cruise 1986 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 36, pp. 497-498 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Hib86,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {Results of a hazard rate model relevant to experiments on the 1984/85 IDCR minke whale assessment cruise},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {497--498}
}
Hiby, A.R. An approach to estimating population densities of great whales from sighting surveys 1985 IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine and Biology
Vol. 2, pp. 201-220 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hib85,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {An approach to estimating population densities of great whales from sighting surveys},
  journal = {IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine and Biology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {201--220},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/imammb/2.3.201}
}
Hiby, A.R. Using average number of whales in view to estimate population density 1982 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 32, pp. 562-565 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Hib82,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {Using average number of whales in view to estimate population density},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {562--565}
}
Hiby, A.R. The effect of random whale movement on density estimates obtained from whale sighting surveys 1982 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 32, pp. 791-793 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Hiby1982,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {The effect of random whale movement on density estimates obtained from whale sighting surveys},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {791--793}
}
Hiby, A.R. and Hammond, P.S. Survey techniques for estimating abundance of cetaceans 1989 The Comprehensive Assessment of Whale Stocks: The Early Years, pp. 47-80  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{HibHam89,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {Survey techniques for estimating abundance of cetaceans},
  booktitle = {The Comprehensive Assessment of Whale Stocks: The Early Years},
  publisher = {International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1989},
  pages = {47--80}
}
Hiby, A.R., Martin, A.R. and Fairfield, F. IDCR cruise/aerial survey in the north Atlantic 1982: aerial survey 1984 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 34, pp. 633-644 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Hibetal84,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Martin, A. R. and Fairfield, F.},
  title = {IDCR cruise/aerial survey in the north Atlantic 1982: aerial survey},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {633--644}
}
Hiby, A.R. and Ward, A.J. Simulation trials of a cue-counting technique for censusing whale populations 1986 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 36, pp. 471-472 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{HibWar86,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Ward, A. J.},
  title = {Simulation trials of a cue-counting technique for censusing whale populations},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {471--472}
}
Hiby, A.R. and Ward, A.J. Analysis of cue-counting and blow rate estimation experiments carried out during the 1984/85 IDCR minke whale assessment cruise 1986 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 36, pp. 473-476 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{HiWar86b,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Ward, A. J.},
  title = {Analysis of cue-counting and blow rate estimation experiments carried out during the 1984/85 IDCR minke whale assessment cruise},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {473--476}
}
Hiby, L. The objective identification of duplicate sightings in aerial survey for porpoise 1999 Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods, pp. 179-189  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Hib99,
  author = {Hiby, L.},
  title = {The objective identification of duplicate sightings in aerial survey for porpoise},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {179--189}
}
Hiby, L. and Krishna, M.B. Line transect sampling from a curving path 2001 Biometrics
Vol. 57(3), pp. 727-731 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cutting straight line transects through dense forest is time consuming and expensive when large areas need to be surveyed for rare or highly clustered species. We argue that existing paths or game trails may be suitable as transects for line transect sampling even though they will not, in general, run straight. Formulas and software currently used to estimate local density using perpendicular distance data can be used with closest approach distances measured from curving transects. Suitable paths or trails are those for which the minimum radius of curvature is rarely less than the width of the shoulder in the detection probability function. The use of existing paths carries the risk of bias resulting from unrepresentative sampling of available habitats, and this must be weighed against the increase in coverage available.
BibTeX:
@article{Hiby2001,
  author = {Hiby, L. and Krishna, M. B.},
  title = {Line transect sampling from a curving path},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {57},
  number = {3},
  pages = {727--731},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2001.00727.x}
}
Hiby, L. and Lovell, P. Using aircraft in tandem formation to estimate abundance of harbour porpoise 1998 Biometrics
Vol. 54, pp. 1280-1289 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HibLov98,
  author = {Hiby, L. and Lovell, P.},
  title = {Using aircraft in tandem formation to estimate abundance of harbour porpoise},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {1280--1289},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533658}
}
Hiby, L., Ward, A. and Lovell, P. Analysis of the North Atlantic sightings survey 1987: aerial survey results 1989 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 39, pp. 447-455 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{HIB89,
  author = {Hiby, L. and Ward, A. and Lovell, P.},
  title = {Analysis of the North Atlantic sightings survey 1987: aerial survey results},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {447--455}
}
Hidinger, L.A. Measuring the impacts of ecotourism on animal populations: a case study of Tikal National Park, Guatemala 1996 Yale F&ES Bulletin
Vol. 99, pp. 49-59 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Hidinger1996,
  author = {Hidinger, L. A.},
  title = {Measuring the impacts of ecotourism on animal populations: a case study of Tikal National Park, Guatemala},
  journal = {Yale F&ES Bulletin},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {99},
  pages = {49--59}
}
Hilário, R.R., Rodrigues, F.H.G., Chiarello, A.G. and Mourthé, Í. Can roads be used as transects for primate population surveys? 2012 Folia Primatologica
Vol. 83, pp. 47-55 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hilario2012,
  author = {Hilário, R. R. and Rodrigues, F. H. G. and Chiarello, A. G. and Mourthé, Ítalo},
  title = {Can roads be used as transects for primate population surveys?},
  journal = {Folia Primatologica},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {83},
  pages = {47--55},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1159/000339805}
}
Hilden, O. and Järvinen, A. Efficiency of the line-transect method in mountain birch forest 1989 Annales Zoologici Fennici
Vol. 26, pp. 185-190 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{HilJAr89,
  author = {Hilden, O. and Järvinen, A.},
  title = {Efficiency of the line-transect method in mountain birch forest},
  journal = {Annales Zoologici Fennici},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {185--190}
}
Hill, K., Padwe, J., Bejyvagi, C., Bepurangi, A., Jakugi, F., Tykuarangi, R. and Tykuarangi, T. Impact of hunting on large vertebrates in the Mbaracayu reserve, Paraguay 1997 Conservation Biology
Vol. 11, pp. 1339-1353 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hiletal97,
  author = {Hill, K. and Padwe, J. and Bejyvagi, C. and Bepurangi, A. and Jakugi, F. and Tykuarangi, R. and Tykuarangi, T.},
  title = {Impact of hunting on large vertebrates in the Mbaracayu reserve, Paraguay},
  journal = {Conservation Biology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {1339--1353},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96048.x}
}
Hines, E., Strindberg, S., Junchompoo, C., Ponnampalam, L.S., Ilangakoon, A.D., Jackson-Ricketts, J. and Mananunsap, S. Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf coast of Thailand. 2015 Frontiers in Marine Science
Vol. 2(63) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Effective conservation of coastal marine mammals is largely dependent on reliable knowledge of their abundance, as well as the ecological and human factors driving their distribution. In developing countries, lack of resources and capacity frequently impedes research needed to estimate abundance and to determine the ecological requirements of coastal marine mammals and the impact of threats related to coastal development and fisheries. Over the course of 5 years, we developed practical research methods and trained local scientists in Thailand to use accepted line transect distance sampling methods for abundance assessment. The study focused on a little-known coastal and freshwater species found throughout Southeast Asia, namely the Irrawaddy dolphin, which has been sighted regularly along the coast of the eastern Gulf of Thailand. During 5 years of line transect boat surveys in Trat Province, the eastern-most province in Thailand, we found an average of 423 dolphins distributed within 12 km of the coast. Compared to other abundance estimates of coastal Irrawaddy dolphins in Southeast Asia, this is a relatively large number. This population could extend into the northern coast of Cambodia, where surveys are currently being planned. The Thai government has begun talks with Cambodia about a transboundary marine protected area that would include areas in both countries where coastal Irrawaddy dolphins are found. Collaboration between scientists in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam is further needed to determine dolphin movement and habitat use across borders.
BibTeX:
@article{Hines2015,
  author = {Hines, Ellen and Strindberg, Samantha and Junchompoo, Chalatip and Ponnampalam, Lousa Shobhini and Ilangakoon, Anoukchika D. and Jackson-Ricketts, Justine and Mananunsap, Somchai},
  title = {Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf coast of Thailand.},
  journal = {Frontiers in Marine Science},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {2},
  number = {63},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2015.00063}
}
Hines, E.M., Adulyanukosol, K. and Duffus, D.A. Dugong (Dugong dugon) abundance along the andaman coast of thailand 2005 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 21, pp. 536-549 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hines2005,
  author = {Hines, Ellen M. and Adulyanukosol, Kanjana and Duffus, David A.},
  title = {Dugong (Dugong dugon) abundance along the andaman coast of thailand},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {536--549},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2005.tb01247.x}
}
Hinton, J.W., Wheat, R.E., Schuette, P., Hurst, J.E., Kramer, D.W., Stickles, J.H. and Frair, J.L. Challenges and opportunities for estimating abundance of a low-density moose population 2022 The Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 86(4), pp. e22213 
article DOI  
Abstract: Monitoring large herbivores across their core range has been readily accomplished using aerial surveys and traditional distance sampling. But for peripheral populations, where individuals may occur in patchy, low-density populations, precise estimation of population size and trend remains logistically and statistically challenging. For moose (Alces alces) along their southern range margin in northern New York, USA, we sought robust estimates of moose distribution, abundance, and population trend (2016– 2019) using a combination of aerial surveys (line transect distance-sampling), repeated surveys in areas where moose were known to occur to boost the number of detections, and density surface modeling (DSM) with spatial covariates. We achieved a precise estimate of density (95% CI = 0.00– 0.29 moose/km2) for this small population (656 moose, 95% CI = 501– 859), which was patchily distributed across a large and heavily forested region (the 24,280-km2 Adirondack Park). Local moose abundance was positively related to active timber management, elevation, and snow cover, and negatively related to large bodies of water. As expected, moose abundance in this peripheral population was low relative to its core range in other northern forest states. Yet, in areas where abundance was greatest, moose densities in New York approached those where epizootics of winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) have been reported, underscoring the need for effective and efficient monitoring. By incorporating autocorrelation in observations and landscape covariates, DSM provided spatially explicit estimates of moose density with greater precision and no additional field effort over traditional distance sampling. Combined with repeated surveys of areas with known moose occurrence to achieve viable sample sizes, DSM is a useful tool for effectively monitoring low density and patchy populations.
BibTeX:
@article{Hinton2022,
  author = {Hinton, Joseph W. and Wheat, Rachel E. and Schuette, Paul and Hurst, Jeremy E. and Kramer, David W. and Stickles, James H. and Frair, Jacqueline L.},
  title = {Challenges and opportunities for estimating abundance of a low-density moose population},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2022},
  volume = {86},
  number = {4},
  pages = {e22213},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.22213}
}
Hobson, K.A., Rempel, R.S., Greenwood, H., Turnbull, B. and Van Wilgenburg, S.L. Acoustic surveys of birds using electronic recordings: new potential from an omnidirectional microphone system 2002 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 30, pp. 709-720 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Hobetal02,
  author = {Hobson, K. A. and Rempel, R. S. and Greenwood, H. and Turnbull, B. and Van Wilgenburg, S. L.},
  title = {Acoustic surveys of birds using electronic recordings: new potential from an omnidirectional microphone system},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {709--720},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784223}
}
Högmander, H. Methods of spatial statistics in monitoring wildlife populations 1995 School: University of Jyväskylä  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Hog95,
  author = {Högmander, H.},
  title = {Methods of spatial statistics in monitoring wildlife populations},
  school = {University of Jyväskylä},
  year = {1995}
}
Högmander, H. A random field approach to transect counts of wildlife populations 1991 Biometrical Journal
Vol. 33, pp. 1013-1023 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hog91,
  author = {Högmander, H.},
  title = {A random field approach to transect counts of wildlife populations},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {1013--1023},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.4710330813}
}
Holmes, A.L. and Geupel, G.R. Effects of trail width on the densities of four species of breeding birds in Chaparral 2005 (Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191)School: USDA Forest Service  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Holmes2005,
  author = {Holmes, Aaron L. and Geupel, Geoffrey R.},
  title = {Effects of trail width on the densities of four species of breeding birds in Chaparral},
  school = {USDA Forest Service},
  year = {2005},
  number = {Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191}
}
Holt, R.S. and Cologne, J. Factors affecting line transect estimates of dolphin school density 1987 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 51, pp. 836-843 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HolCol87,
  author = {Holt, R. S. and Cologne, J.},
  title = {Factors affecting line transect estimates of dolphin school density},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {836--843},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801749}
}
Holt, R.S. and Powers, J.E. Abundance estimation of dolphin stocks involved in the eastern tropical pacific yellowfin tuna fishery determined from aerial and ship surveys to 1979 1982 School: United States Department of Commerce  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{HolPow82,
  author = {Holt, R. S. and Powers, J. E.},
  title = {Abundance estimation of dolphin stocks involved in the eastern tropical pacific yellowfin tuna fishery determined from aerial and ship surveys to 1979},
  school = {United States Department of Commerce},
  year = {1982}
}
Hone, J. A test of the accuracy of line and strip transect estimators in aerial survey 1988 Australian Wildlife Research
Vol. 15, pp. 493-497 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hon88,
  author = {Hone, J.},
  title = {A test of the accuracy of line and strip transect estimators in aerial survey},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {493--497},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9880493}
}
Hone, J. Accuracy of the multiple regression method for estimating density in transect counts 1986 Australian Wildlife Research
Vol. 13, pp. 121-126 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hon86,
  author = {Hone, J.},
  title = {Accuracy of the multiple regression method for estimating density in transect counts},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {121--126},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9860121}
}
Hosein, A., Narang, D.S., Rostant, L. and Hailey, A. The abundance of red-bellied macaws (Orthopsittaca manilata) and orange-winged parrots (Amazona amazonica) in relation to fruiting moriche palms (Mauritia flexuosa) at the aripo savannas, Trinidad 2017 Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia
Vol. 25, pp. 40-46 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hosein2017,
  author = {Hosein, Aliya and Narang, Darshanjit Singh and Rostant, Luke and Hailey, Adrian},
  title = {The abundance of red-bellied macaws (Orthopsittaca manilata) and orange-winged parrots (Amazona amazonica) in relation to fruiting moriche palms (Mauritia flexuosa) at the aripo savannas, Trinidad},
  journal = {Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {40--46},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03544375}
}
Hounsome, T.D., Young, R.P., Davison, J., Yarnell, R.W., Trewby, I.D., Garnett, B.T., Delahay, R.J. and Wilson, G.J. An evaluation of distance sampling to estimate badger (Meles meles) abundance 2005 Journal of Zoology
Vol. 266(1), pp. 81-87 
article DOI  
Abstract: Distance sampling is a common and increasingly used method of estimating animal abundance in conservation and management programmes. The precision of a distance sampling survey can be estimated from the field data, but accuracy can only be evaluated by comparison with the true population size. For wild mammal populations, such opportunities are rare. The high-density badger Meles meles population at Woodchester Park in Gloucestershire, U.K. has been routinely and intensively live-trapped for the past 30 years. The estimates of abundance based on mark-recapture analyses of the live-trapping data provided a reliable baseline against which to evaluate distance sampling for a badger population. A distance sampling survey was carried out in autumn 2002 by using spotlighting along line transects. Owing to the impractical nature of spotlighting in closed habitats, such as woodland, surveys were conducted in open habitat only. A radio-tracking study provided behavioural data that were used to estimate the proportion of the population available for sampling in open habitats. This was incorporated as a multiplier into the DISTANCE analysis. The estimate of abundance from distance sampling was 76 badgers (% CV = 42.2), using a multiplier based on radio-tracking data from autumn only. When the multiplier was derived from radio-tracking data from across the whole year, based on a larger sample of tracked badgers, the distance sampling abundance estimate was 77 badgers (% CV = 25.9). These compared favourably to the mark-recapture estimate of 68 badgers (% CV = 7.4). The lack of precision in the distance sampling density estimate was largely owing to the inclusion of the multiplier. Distance sampling combined with data on habitat use can produce reliable estimates of badger abundance in areas of medium to high density, particularly in landscapes of primarily open habitat. textcopyright 2005 The Zoological Society of London.
BibTeX:
@article{Hounsome2005,
  author = {Hounsome, T. D. and Young, R. P. and Davison, J. and Yarnell, R. W. and Trewby, I. D. and Garnett, B. T. and Delahay, R. J. and Wilson, G. J.},
  title = {An evaluation of distance sampling to estimate badger (Meles meles)  abundance},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {266},
  number = {1},
  pages = {81--87},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836905006606}
}
Howe, E.J., Buckland, S.T., Després-Einspenner, M.-L. and Kühl, H.S. Model selection with overdispersed distance sampling data 2018 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 10(1), pp. 38-47 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Howe2018,
  author = {Howe, Eric J. and Buckland, Stephen T. and Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne and Kühl, Hjalmar S.},
  title = {Model selection with overdispersed distance sampling data},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1},
  pages = {38--47},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.13082}
}
Howe, E.J., Buckland, S.T., Després-Einspenner, M.-L. and Kühl, H.S. Distance sampling with camera traps 2017 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 8(11), pp. 1558-1565 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Howe2017,
  author = {Howe, Eric J. and Buckland, Stephen T. and Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne and Kühl, Hjalmar S.},
  title = {Distance sampling with camera traps},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {8},
  number = {11},
  pages = {1558--1565},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12790}
}
Hudgins, R., Norment, C. and Schlesinger, M. Assessing detectability for monitoring of rare species: a case study of the cobblestone tiger beetle (Cicindela marginipennis dejean) 2012 Journal of Insect Conservation
Vol. 16(3), pp. 447-455 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hudgins2012,
  author = {Hudgins, Rhonda and Norment, Christopher and Schlesinger, Matthew},
  title = {Assessing detectability for monitoring of rare species: a case study of the cobblestone tiger beetle (Cicindela marginipennis dejean)},
  journal = {Journal of Insect Conservation},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {16},
  number = {3},
  pages = {447--455},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-011-9432-5}
}
Hüttmann, F. The first international distance sampling conference at the University of St. Andrews, scotland, july 30 to August 3, 2001 2002 Zeitschrift fur Jagdwissenschaft
Vol. 48(1), pp. 66-67 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Huttmann2002,
  author = {Hüttmann, F.},
  title = {The first international distance sampling conference at the University of St. Andrews, scotland, july 30 to August 3, 2001},
  journal = {Zeitschrift fur Jagdwissenschaft},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {48},
  number = {1},
  pages = {66--67}
}
Hutto, R.L. Should scientists be required to use a model-based solution to adjust for possible distance-based detectability bias? 2016 Ecological Applications
Vol. 26(5), pp. 1287-1294 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hutto2016,
  author = {Hutto, Richard L.},
  title = {Should scientists be required to use a model-based solution to adjust for possible distance-based detectability bias?},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {26},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1287--1294},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.1385}
}
Hutto, R.L., Pletschet, S.M. and Hendricks, P. A fixed radius point count method for nonbreeding and breeding season use 1986 The Auk
Vol. 103, pp. 593-602 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hutetal86,
  author = {Hutto, R. L. and Pletschet, S. M. and Hendricks, P.},
  title = {A fixed radius point count method for nonbreeding and breeding season use},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {103},
  pages = {593--602},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/103.3.593}
}
Hutto, R.L. and Young, J.S. On the design of monitoring programs and the use of population indices: a reply to Ellingson and Lukacs 2003 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 31, pp. 903-910 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Hutto2003,
  author = {Hutto, R. L. and Young, J. S.},
  title = {On the design of monitoring programs and the use of population indices: a reply to Ellingson and Lukacs},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {903--910},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784617}
}
Hutto, R.L. and Young, J.S. Regional landbird monitoring: perspectives from the Northern Rocky Mountains 2002 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 30, pp. 738-750 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{HutYou02,
  author = {Hutto, R. L. and Young, J. S.},
  title = {Regional landbird monitoring: perspectives from the Northern Rocky Mountains},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {738--750},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784226}
}
Hyrenbach, K.D., Baduini, C.L. and Hunt Jr., G.L. Line transect estimates of short-tailed shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris mortality in the south-eastern Bering Sea, 1997-1999 2001 Marine Ornithology
Vol. 29(1), pp. 11-18 
article  
Abstract: During 1997, hundreds of thousands of Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris starved to death in the Bering Sea. We surveyed the distribution and abundance of floating carcasses during a cruise between 27 August-12 September, and estimated that over 95 000 carcasses were afloat within three survey grids covering approximately 52 400 km2. We repeatedly surveyed the same areas during two subsequent cruises in 1998 and 1999, and used standard population sampling techniques to evaluate the background levels of shearwater mortality during additional years when a die-off did not occur. The mortality event we observed in 1997 was unusual due to its extent and magnitude. During the die-off, dead shearwaters were sighted within all three survey grids. Conversely, we only encountered carcasses at one of these sites in 1998. Moreover, carcass densities in 1997 were at least one order of magnitude higher than those recorded during the following year. Surveys of seabird mortality at sea can account for floating carcasses before they are lost through advection and scavenging. Therefore, vessel-based surveys are likely to improve the accuracy of seabird mortality estimates based solely on counts of beach-cast carcasses. Here we describe the use of line transects to estimate seabird mortality at sea, and offer suggestions to standardize future surveys. Standardized surveys will improve our ability to compare the frequency, extent, and magnitude of seabird die-offs over time.
BibTeX:
@article{Hyrenbach2001,
  author = {Hyrenbach, K. D. and Baduini, C. L. and Hunt Jr., G. L.},
  title = {Line transect estimates of short-tailed shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris mortality in the south-eastern Bering Sea, 1997-1999},
  journal = {Marine Ornithology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  number = {1},
  pages = {11--18}
}
Hyrenbach, K.D., Henry, M.F., Morgan, K.H., Welch, D.W. and Sydeman, W.J. Optimizing the width of strip transects for seabird surveys from vessels of opportunity 2007 Marine Ornithology
Vol. 35, pp. 29-37 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Hyrenbach2007,
  author = {Hyrenbach, K. David and Henry, Mike F. and Morgan, Ken H. and Welch, David W. and Sydeman, William J.},
  title = {Optimizing the width of strip transects for seabird surveys from vessels of opportunity},
  journal = {Marine Ornithology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {29--37}
}
Ickes, K. Hyper-abundance of native wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in a lowland dipterocarp rain forest of peninsular Malaysia 2001 Biotropica
Vol. 33(4), pp. 682-690 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study reports extraordinarily high density estimates for the wild pig (Sus scrofa) from an aseasonal tropical forest site within the species' native range. At Pasoh Forest Reserve, a 2500 ha area of lowland dipterocarp rain forest in Peninsular Malaysia, line transects were used to estimate pig density from May to October in 1996 and 1998. In 1996, 44 sightings of S. scrofa consisting of 166 individuals were recorded along 81 km of transects. In 1998, 39 sightings documented 129 individuals along 79.9 km of transects. Estimated population density was $47.0 pigs/kmtextasciicircum 2$ in 1996 and $27.0 pigs/kmtextasciicircum 2$ in 1998. Sus scrofa biomass in this forest was estimated at $1837 kg/kmtextasciicircum 2$ and $1346 kg/kmtextasciicircum 2$ in 1996 and 1998, respectively. Differences between years were attributed to changes in the density of young pigs, coincident with a mast-seeding year of dipterocarp trees in 1996. Pig densities at Pasoh Forest Reserve were much higher than at other forest locations within the species' native range in Europe and Asia. Because Pasoh Forest Reserve is a forest fragment, two factors likely account for the extremely high pig densities: (1) local extinction of natural predators (mainly tigers and leopards) and (2) an abundant year-round food supply of African oil palm fruits from extensive plantations bordering the reserve.
BibTeX:
@article{IckesBiotropica2001,
  author = {Ickes, Kalan},
  title = {Hyper-abundance of native wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in a lowland dipterocarp rain forest of peninsular Malaysia},
  journal = {Biotropica},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {33},
  number = {4},
  pages = {682--690},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1646/0006-3606(2001)033%5B0682:HAONWP%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Ingberman, B., Fusco-Costa, R. and de Araujo Monteiro-Filho, E. Population survey and demographic features of a coastal island population of Alouatta clamitans in Atlantic forest, southeastern Brazil 2009 International Journal of Primatology
Vol. 30(1), pp. 1-14 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{springerlink:10.1007/s10764-008-9324-z,
  author = {Ingberman, Bianca and Fusco-Costa, Roberto and de Araujo Monteiro-Filho, Emygdio},
  title = {Population survey and demographic features of a coastal island population of Alouatta clamitans in Atlantic forest, southeastern Brazil},
  journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--14},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-008-9324-z}
}
Inman, R.D., Nussear, K.E. and Tracy, C.R. Detecting trends in desert tortoise population growth: elusive behavior inflates variance in estimates of population density 2010 Endangered Species Research
Vol. 10, pp. 294-304 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Inman2010,
  author = {Inman, Richard D. and Nussear, Kenneth E. and Tracy, C. Richard},
  title = {Detecting trends in desert tortoise population growth: elusive behavior inflates variance in estimates of population density},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {294--304},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00214}
}
Innes, S., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laake, J.L., Laidre, K.L., Cleator, H.J., Richard, P. and Stewart, R.E.A. Surveys of belugas and narwhals in the Canadian High Arctic in 1996 2002 NAMMCO Sci. Publ.
Vol. 4, pp. 169-190 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Innetal02,
  author = {Innes, S. and Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Laake, J. L. and Laidre, K. L. and Cleator, H. J. and Richard, P. and Stewart, R. E. A.},
  title = {Surveys of belugas and narwhals in the Canadian High Arctic in 1996},
  journal = {NAMMCO Sci. Publ.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {169--190},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.2843}
}
Isaac, N.J.B., Cruickshanks, K.L., Weddle, A.M., Rowcliffe, J.M., Brereton, T.M., Dennis, R.L.H., Shuker, D.M. and Thomas, C.D. Distance sampling and the challenge of monitoring butterfly populations 2011 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 2, pp. 585-594 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{MEE3:MEE3109,
  author = {Isaac, Nick J. B. and Cruickshanks, Katie L. and Weddle, Ann M. and Rowcliffe, J. M. and Brereton, Tom M. and Dennis, Roger L. H. and Shuker, David M. and Thomas, Chris D.},
  title = {Distance sampling and the challenge of monitoring butterfly populations},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {585--594},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00109.x}
}
Jachmann, H. Comparison of aerial counts with ground counts for large African herbivores 2002 Journal of Applied Ecology
Vol. 39(5), pp. 841-852 
article DOI  
Abstract: 1. Over the past 50 years, aerial counts have been widely used in African wildlife management; however, the accuracy of the resulting estimates has rarely been questioned. The reliability of aerial counts of large African herbivores was examined by comparing the results of a series of systematic aerial sample counts with those from a series of line transect foot counts conducted in the Lupande Game Management Area in Zambia. 2. For most large herbivore species, the estimates from the aerial counts were considerably lower than those from the ground counts. The data pointed to undercounting as a major problem of aerial surveys. During the aerial counts, significant numbers of animals were missed on the transects, first due to the low probability of spotting single animals, small groups of animals and less conspicuous ones (sighting probability bias), and secondly because part of the population was concealed by obstructions and therefore not visible to the observers (visibility bias). 3. The main factors that influence visibility of large herbivores from the air are the animals' reactions to an over-flying aircraft, dispersion, body size and colour. Animals that move in response to an aircraft are more likely to be seen than static ones; dark-coloured animals are easier to spot than light-coloured ones against a light background; large herds are easier to detect than small ones; and large animals are more easily seen than small ones. Body size is important while trying to spot grazers and mixed feeders from the air, while colour is important for spotting browsers. This is mainly due to the differences in habitat use, with browsers being confined to the thicker habitat. 4. To minimize undercounting bias, both conventional aerial counts and aerial line transect counts should be restricted to large conspicuous grazers and mixed feeders in medium to large group sizes, such as elephant Loxodonta africana africana, buffalo Sincerus caffer, zebra Equus burchell, wildebeest Connochaetes and lechwe Kobus leche. Operational factors, such as height, speed and strip width, should be kept within reasonable limits for conventional aerial counts. Only one species should be counted at a time, always applying the double-count technique. For aerial line transect counts, the use of a helicopter is a prerequisite to obtaining accurate estimates. Other important considerations are observer experience and flight duration.
BibTeX:
@article{JachmannJAE2002,
  author = {Jachmann, H.},
  title = {Comparison of aerial counts with ground counts for large African herbivores},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {39},
  number = {5},
  pages = {841--852},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00752.x}
}
Jaramillo-Legorreta, A.M., Rojas-Bracho, L. and Gerrodette, T. A new abundance estimate for vaquitas: first step for recovery 1999 Marine Mammal Science
Vol. 15, pp. 957-973 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jaretal99,
  author = {Jaramillo-Legorreta, A. M. and Rojas-Bracho, L. and Gerrodette, T.},
  title = {A new abundance estimate for vaquitas: first step for recovery},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {957--973},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1999.tb00872.x}
}
Järvinen, O. Species-specific efficiency in line transects 1978 Ornis Scandinavica
Vol. 9, pp. 164-167 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jar78b,
  author = {Järvinen, O.},
  title = {Species-specific efficiency in line transects},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {164--167},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3675877}
}
Järvinen, O. Estimating relative densities of land birds by point counts 1978 Annales Zoologici Fennici
Vol. 15, pp. 290-293 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Jar78,
  author = {Järvinen, O.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of land birds by point counts},
  journal = {Annales Zoologici Fennici},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {290--293}
}
Järvinen, O. Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. II. comparison between two methods 1976 Ornis Scandinavica
Vol. 7, pp. 43-48 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jar76,
  author = {Järvinen, O.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. II. comparison between two methods},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {43--48},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3676173}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. Correction coefficients for line transect censuses of breeding birds 1983 Ornis Fennica
Vol. 60, pp. 97-104 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai83b,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Correction coefficients for line transect censuses of breeding birds},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {97--104}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. Confidence limits for estimates of population density in line transects 1983 Ornis Scandinavica
Vol. 14, pp. 129-134 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai83a,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Confidence limits for estimates of population density in line transects},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {129--134},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3676016}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. Finnish line transect censuses 1976 Ornis Fennica
Vol. 53, pp. 115-118 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai76c,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Finnish line transect censuses},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {115--118}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. IV. geographical constancy of the proportion of main belt observations 1976 Ornis Fennica
Vol. 53, pp. 87-90 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai76b,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. IV. geographical constancy of the proportion of main belt observations},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {87--90}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. Between-year component of diversity in communities of breeding land birds 1976 Oikos
Vol. 27, pp. 34-39 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai76,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Between-year component of diversity in communities of breeding land birds},
  journal = {Oikos},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {34--39},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3543428}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method 1975 Oikos
Vol. 26, pp. 316-322 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai75,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method},
  journal = {Oikos},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {316--322},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3543502}
}
Järvinen, O., Väisänen, R.A. and Haila, Y. Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. III. temporal constancy of the proportion of main belt observations 1976 Ornis Fennica
Vol. 53, pp. 40-45 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Jaretal76,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A. and Haila, Y.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. III. temporal constancy of the proportion of main belt observations},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {40--45}
}
Jarvis, A.M. and Robertson, A. Predicting population sizes and priority conservation areas for 10 endemic Namibian bird species 1999 Biological Conservation
Vol. 88, pp. 121-131 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JarRob99,
  author = {Jarvis, A. M. and Robertson, A.},
  title = {Predicting population sizes and priority conservation areas for 10 endemic Namibian bird species},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {121--131},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00060-3}
}
Jathanna, D., Karanth, K.U. and Johnsingh, A.J.T. Estimation of large herbivore densities in the tropical forests of southern India using distance sampling 2003 Journal of Zoology
Vol. 261(3), pp. 285-290 
article DOI  
Abstract: Ecological densities of large herbivores were estimated using the line transect method in the tropical moist forests of Bhadra Tiger Reserve, southern India, during November 2000. The species of interest were chital Axis axis, sambar Cervus unicolor, muntjac Muntiacus muntjak, gaur Bos gaurus and Hanuman langur Presbytes entellus. Six permanent transects, ranging from 2.6 to 3.6 km (totalling 18.2 km) were each walked 26 times. A total of 473 km was walked during the surveys. Numbers of detections were generally low (51, 25, 68, 17 and 302 for chital, sambar, muntjac, gaur and langur, respectively). Mean estimated densities of different species were [D (± SE)]: 4.51 (± 1.05) chital km-2, 0.89 (± 0.23) sambar km -2, 3.64 (± 0.63) muntjac km-2, 1.48 (± 0.63) gaur km-2 and 22.62 (± 2.64) langur km-2. Possible shortcomings of our estimates are considered and suggestions made for improving future surveys. A comparison with densities estimated for these species in other well-protected parks showed that the chital, gaur and sambar densities in Bhadra were extremely low. The main causal factors for these low densities seem to be poaching and livestock grazing.
BibTeX:
@article{Jathanna2003,
  author = {Jathanna, D. and Karanth, K. U. and Johnsingh, A. J. T.},
  title = {Estimation of large herbivore densities in the tropical forests of southern India using distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {261},
  number = {3},
  pages = {285--290},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836903004278}
}
Jathanna, D., Karanth, K.U., Kumar, N.S., Goswami, V.R., Vasudev, D. and Karanth, K. Reliable monitoring of elephant populations in the forests of India: analytical and practical considerations 2015 Biological Conservation
Vol. 187, pp. 212-220 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jathanna15,
  author = {Jathanna, D. and Karanth, K. U. and Kumar, N. S. and Goswami, V. R. and Vasudev, D. and Karanth, K.},
  title = {Reliable monitoring of elephant populations in the forests of India: analytical and practical considerations},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {187},
  pages = {212--220},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.04.030}
}
Jathanna, D., Kumar, N.S. and Karanth, K.U. Measuring Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) abundance in southern India using distance sampling 2008 Current Science
Vol. 95, pp. 885-888 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Jathanna2008,
  author = {Jathanna, Devcharan and Kumar, N. Samba and Karanth, K. Ullas},
  title = {Measuring Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) abundance in southern India using distance sampling},
  journal = {Current Science},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {95},
  pages = {885--888}
}
Jefferson, T.A. Population biology of the Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin in Hong Kong waters 2000 Wildlife Monographs(144), pp. 1-65  article  
Abstract: The Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin (Sousa chinensis Osbeck, 1765) is found throughout the western Pacific and Indian oceans, from southern China and northern Australia in the east to South Africa in the west. Throughout most of its range it has not been well studied, and in southern China very little is known of its biology. The goal of the present study was to provide scientific information needed for the longterm conservation and management of the population that occurs in Hong Kong waters. From September 1995 to November 1998, 38,105 km of systematic line transect surveys were conducted throughout marine waters of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and adjacent waters to provide data on distribution and abundance. Photo-identification of individual dolphins allowed for examination of movement patterns, home ranges, and social organization. Collection of stranded dolphin carcasses and detailed necropsies provided information on causes of death as well as samples for life history studies, such as feeding habits, growth and reproduction, ecotoxicology, and stock structure. The dolphin population appears to be centered around the Pearl River Estuary, and Hong Kong waters represent the eastern portion of the range, which extends far into mainland Chinese waters (Lingding Bay) and covers at least 1,800 km^2. Within Hong Kong, dolphins only occur in western waters around Lantau Island. The area north of Lantau Island is heavily used throughout the year and represents by far the most important habitat in Hong Kong. Line transect analyses indicate that between 88 (spring) and 145 (summer) dolphins occur in Hong Kong. Based on 27,600 photographs taken, 213 individual dolphins were identified. The total size of the Pearl River breeding population is unknown, but is estimated to consist of at least 1,028 dolphins, based on line transect analysis. An apparent decline in the number of dolphins in the North Lantau area over the period from 1996-1998 was not statistically significant. Individual dolphins have overlapping home ranges of about 30-400 km^2 in different sections of the population's overall range. Groups of dolphins in Hong Kong number up to 23 animals, with an average group size of 3.8 +- s.d. 3.63 animals. There is no significant seasonal variation in group size, but groups feeding behind pair trawl fishing vessels (mean = 9.6 +- s.d. 5.37) are significantly larger than other groups, and groups in Lingding Bay, in Chinese waters west of Hong Kong (mean = 8.3 +- s.d. 7.84) are significantly larger than those in Hong Kong. Groups are very fluid and change composition frequently, with association indices ranging from 0-0.333. Behavioral patterns are similar to those of other coastal dolphins, but Hong Kong hump-backed dolphins only rarely ride bow waves. Following pair trawlers represents an important feeding strategy for some individuals. Construction work on an airport fuel facility in the dolphins' main habitat appears to have caused some disturbance (indicated by increased swimming speeds) and possibly temporary evacuation of the surrounding area. There is a great deal of developmental variation in the color pattern of southern Chinese hump-backed dolphins, with a general lightening from newborn to adult stages. Males appear to retain more spots in adulthood than females. Length at birth appears to be about 100 cm, and postnatal development is characterized by rapid growth in the first year and a levelling-off of the growth curve after reaching adulthood. Asymptotic length is reached at around 243 cm. Length and weight are related exponentially, with the maximum weight about 250 kg. Calving occurs throughout the year, but most young are born from January through August, with a peak in spring/summer. Scant evidence suggests that sexual maturity in females is reached at about 9-10 years of age. Dolphins feed mainly on several demersal and pelagic fish species that are often associated with estuaries. There is a lack of evidence for long-distance movements (on the order of hundreds of linear kilometers), and this presumably results in isolation of groups around major Chinese river mouths. Thus it appears that there may be at least 8 separate populations of hump-backed dolphins along the coast of southern China. The Pearl River Estuary, including Hong Kong, is apparently inhabited by one of these populations, although preliminary genetic work has shown only equivocal evidence of population separation from dolphins in the Xiamen area. Human-related causes of mortality include entanglement in fishing nets and vessel collisions. Some environmental contaminants (especially the heavy metal mercury and the pesticide DDT) were found in high levels in some dolphins, and preliminary evidence suggests that these may be affecting the health of the animals. A series of recommendations for management and for further research have been made to aid in the conservation of these animals. Principles for the conservation of wild living resources should be followed, and information from both the natural and social sciences are needed for proper management. Research and longterm monitoring of the population must continue for management strategies to be evaluated and refined. Overall, the population of hump-backed dolphins that occurs in Hong Kong waters appears to be viable and should be able to survive with appropriate conservation efforts.
BibTeX:
@article{Jefferson2000,
  author = {Jefferson, Thomas A.},
  title = {Population biology of the Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin in Hong Kong waters},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {2000},
  number = {144},
  pages = {1--65}
}
Jefferson, T.A. Estimates of abundance of cetaceans in offshore waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 1992– 1993 1996 Southwest Naturalist
Vol. 41, pp. 279-287 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Jef96,
  author = {Jefferson, T. A.},
  title = {Estimates of abundance of cetaceans in offshore waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 1992– 1993},
  journal = {Southwest Naturalist},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {279--287}
}
Jefferson, T.A., Smultea, M.A., Ward, E.J. and Berejikian, B. Estimating the Stock Size of Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina Richardii) in the Inland Waters of Washington State Using Line-Transect Methods 2021 PLOS ONE
Vol. 16(6), pp. e0241254 
article DOI  
Abstract: Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) in the inland waters of Washington were reduced by predator control programs in the twentieth century, but stocks have rebounded since being protected in the 1970s. Three management stocks are recognized, but there is little information on their current abundance. We conducted 38,431 km of aerial line-transect surveys throughout the range of these stocks in 2013– 2016, sighting a total of 4,678 groups of harbor seals. Line-transect analysis with Beaufort sea state as a covariate provided estimates of the number of seals in the water. We then incorporated tagging data from 15 instrumented seals to develop correction factors, both for seals missed in the water while diving, and those that were on shore. Tagging data were modeled with generalized linear mixed models to provide estimates of the proportions diving and hauled out. After applying these correction factors, we estimated that the Hood Canal stock contained 1,368 seals (CV = 16.8%), the Southern Puget Sound stock contained 1,976 seals (CV = 20.5%), and the Washington Northern Inland Waters stock contained 7,513 seals (CV = 11.5%). This study presents a non-traditional approach to estimating the size of Washington inland waters harbor seal stocks, which may also be applicable to other species for which survey and tagging data are available.
BibTeX:
@article{Jefferson2021,
  author = {Jefferson, Thomas A. and Smultea, Mari A. and Ward, Eric J. and Berejikian, Barry},
  title = {Estimating the Stock Size of Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina Richardii) in the Inland Waters of Washington State Using Line-Transect Methods},
  journal = {PLOS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2021},
  volume = {16},
  number = {6},
  pages = {e0241254},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241254}
}
Jenkins, R.K.B., Brady, L.D., Huston, K., Kauffmann, J.L.D., Rabearivony, J., Raveloson, G. and Rowcliffe, J.M. The population status of chameleons within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, and recommendations for future monitoring 1999 Oryx
Vol. 33, pp. 38-46 
article DOI  
Abstract: Malagasy chameleons are threatened by the relentless pace of habitat destruction. Their great popularity amongst herpetoculturalists has also resulted in collection for international animal markets. Most previous fieldwork has focused on the compilation of much needed species inventories, but little attention has been given to estimating chameleon population densities. This lack of information prevents a reliable assessment of the effects of habitat loss and direct exploitation on wild populations. A simple and repeatable methodology for the monitoring of chameleon populations is therefore urgently required. The present study developed survey techniques based on distance sampling within an area of relatively undisturbed rain forest at Ranomafana National Park. In total 394 individuals from six species were recorded and population densities (±SE) of 27.2 ± 5.4/ha Brookesia spp. and 21.4±4.0/ha Calumma spp. were estimated using the computer program DISTANCE. The authors propose that monitoring of chameleons in areas subject to different threats should begin immediately using the methods outlined in this paper.
BibTeX:
@article{Jenkins1999,
  author = {Jenkins, R. K. B. and Brady, L. D. and Huston, K. and Kauffmann, J. L. D. and Rabearivony, J. and Raveloson, G. and Rowcliffe, J. M.},
  title = {The population status of chameleons within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, and recommendations for future monitoring},
  journal = {Oryx},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {38--46},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3008.1999.00034.x}
}
Jensen, A. and Meilby, H. Assessing the population status of a tree species using distance sampling: Aquilaria crassna (thymelaeaceae) in northern Laos 2012 International Journal of Forestry Research
Vol. 2012 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jensen2012,
  author = {Jensen, Anders and Meilby, Henrik},
  title = {Assessing the population status of a tree species using distance sampling: Aquilaria crassna (thymelaeaceae) in northern Laos},
  journal = {International Journal of Forestry Research},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {2012},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/265831}
}
Jensen, A.L. Subsampling with line transects for estimation of animal abundance 1996 Environmetrics
Vol. 7, pp. 283-289 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jen96,
  author = {Jensen, A. L.},
  title = {Subsampling with line transects for estimation of animal abundance},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {283--289},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-095X(199605)7:3%3C283::AID-ENV212%3E3.0.CO;2-C}
}
Jepson, P., Brickle, N. and Chayadin, Y. The conservation status of tanimbar corella and blue-streaked lory on the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia: results of a rapid contextual survey 2001 Oryx
Vol. 35(3), pp. 224-233 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jepson2001,
  author = {Paul Jepson and Nick Brickle and Yusup Chayadin},
  title = {The conservation status of tanimbar corella and blue-streaked lory on the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia: results of a rapid contextual survey},
  journal = {Oryx},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {35},
  number = {3},
  pages = {224--233},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3008.2001.00179.x}
}
Jessop, T.S., Forsyth, D.M., Purwandana, D., Imansyah, J., Opat, D.S. and McDonald-Madden, E. Monitoring the ungulate prey of komodo dragons Varanus komodoensis using faecal counts 0   unpublished  
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Jessop,
  author = {Jessop, T. S. and Forsyth, D. M. and Purwandana, D. and Imansyah, J. and Opat, D. S. and McDonald-Madden, E.},
  title = {Monitoring the ungulate prey of komodo dragons Varanus komodoensis using faecal counts},
  year = {0}
}
Jett, D.A. and Nichols, J.D. A field comparison of nested grid and trapping web density estimators 1987 Journal of Mammalogy
Vol. 68, pp. 888-892 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JetNic87,
  author = {Jett, D. A. and Nichols, J. D.},
  title = {A field comparison of nested grid and trapping web density estimators},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {68},
  pages = {888--892},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1381576}
}
Jewell, R., Thomas, L., Harris, C.M., Kaschner, K., Wiff, R., Hammond, P.S. and Quick., N.J. Global analysis of cetacean line-transect surveys: detecting trends in cetacean density 2012 Marine Ecology Progress Series.
Vol. 453, pp. 227-240 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jewell2012,
  author = {Jewell, R. and Thomas, L. and Harris, C. M. and Kaschner, K. and Wiff, R. and Hammond, P. S. and Quick., N. J.},
  title = {Global analysis of cetacean line-transect surveys: detecting trends in cetacean density},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {453},
  pages = {227--240},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09636}
}
Jimenez, I., Londono, G.A. and Cadena, C.D. Efficiency, bias, and consistency of visual and aural surveys of curassows (Cracidae) in tropical forests 2003 Journal of Field Ornithology
Vol. 74, pp. 210-216 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JIM03,
  author = {Jimenez, I. and Londono, G. A. and Cadena, C. D.},
  title = {Efficiency, bias, and consistency of visual and aural surveys of curassows (Cracidae) in tropical forests},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {74},
  pages = {210--216},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1648/0273-8570-74.3.210}
}
Jocqué, R., Samu, F. and Bird, T. Density of spiders (araneae: ctenidae) in Ivory Coast rainforests 2005 Journal of Zoology
Vol. 266, pp. 105-110 
article DOI  
Abstract: To monitor the biodiversity quality of rainforest fragments in the eastern region of the Ivory Coast, the density of at least one important invertebrate group needs to be determined. This has been possible for nocturnal hunting spiders from the family Ctenidae using a novel combination of sampling and census techniques. The reflective characteristics of the eyes of these spiders meant that individuals were readily located using headlamps. Collections were made along transects (total length 5.5 km), adopting a distance sampling protocol. Density was estimated using distance sampling models. More than 2600 ctenids (15 species) were captured and identified. Seven of these species were present in sufficient numbers for density assessment. The combined density of these seven most common species in degraded forest fragments (0.124 m -2) was only half that in less disturbed forest (0.240 m -2). Ctenidae are a promising candidate for future monitoring of invertebrate groups in the rainforest. textcopyright 2005 The Zoological Society of London.
BibTeX:
@article{Jocque2005,
  author = {Jocqué, R. and Samu, F. and Bird, T.},
  title = {Density of spiders (araneae: ctenidae) in Ivory Coast rainforests},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {266},
  pages = {105--110},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836905006746}
}
Johnsingh, A.J.T. and Joshua, J. Avifauna in 3 vegetation types on Mundanthurai Plateau, south India 1994 Journal of Tropical Ecology
Vol. 10, pp. 323-335 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JohJos94,
  author = {Johnsingh, A. J. T. and Joshua, J.},
  title = {Avifauna in 3 vegetation types on Mundanthurai Plateau, south India},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {323--335},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400007999}
}
Johnson, A.E., Knott, C.D., Pamungkas, B., Pasaribu, M. and Marshall, A.J. A survey of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) population in and around Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia based on nest counts 2005 Biological Conservation
Vol. 121(4), pp. 495-507 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Johnson2005,
  author = {Johnson, A. E. and Knott, C. D. and Pamungkas, B. and Pasaribu, M. and Marshall, A. J.},
  title = {A survey of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) population in and around Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia based on nest counts},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {121},
  number = {4},
  pages = {495--507},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.06.002}
}
Johnson, B.K., Lindzey, F.G. and Guenzel, R.J. Use of aerial line transect surveys to estimate pronghorn populations in Wyoming 1991 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 19, pp. 315-321 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Johetal91,
  author = {Johnson, B. K. and Lindzey, F. G. and Guenzel, R. J.},
  title = {Use of aerial line transect surveys to estimate pronghorn populations in Wyoming},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {315--321},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782522}
}
Johnson, D., Laake, J.L. and Ver Hoef, J.M. Package DSpat 2009   techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Johnson2009a,
  author = {Johnson, Devin and Laake, Jeff L. and Ver Hoef, Jay M.},
  title = {Package DSpat},
  year = {2009}
}
Johnson, D.H. In defense of indices: the case of bird surveys 2008 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 72(4), pp. 857-868 
article DOI  
Abstract: Indices to population size have come under increasing criticism in recent years, on the grounds that indices might not faithfully represent the entire population. Most criticisms involve surveys of birds, particularly those based on point counts, which is my focus here. A variety of quantitative methods have been developed to reduce the bias of point counts, such as distance sampling, multiple-observer surveys, and time-of-detection methods. I argue that these developments are valuable, in that they enhance understanding of the detection process, but that their practical application may well be limited, likely to intensive studies focusing on a small number of species. These quantitative methods are not generally applicable to extensive, multiple-species surveys. Although criticism of the thoughtless use of indices is welcome, their wholesale rejection is not.
BibTeX:
@article{Johnson2008,
  author = {Douglas H. Johnson},
  title = {In defense of indices: the case of bird surveys},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {72},
  number = {4},
  pages = {857--868},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/2007-294}
}
Johnson, D.S., Laake, J.L. and Ver Hoef, J.M. A model-based approach for making ecological inference from distance sampling data 2010 Biometrics
Vol. 66, pp. 310-318 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Johnson2010a,
  author = {Johnson, Devin S. and Laake, Jeffrey L. and Ver Hoef, Jay M.},
  title = {A model-based approach for making ecological inference from distance sampling data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {310--318},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2009.01265.x}
}
Johnson, E.G. and Routledge, R.D. The line transect method: a nonparametric estimator based on shape restrictions 1985 Biometrics
Vol. 41, pp. 669-679 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JohRou85,
  author = {Johnson, E. G. and Routledge, R. D.},
  title = {The line transect method: a nonparametric estimator based on shape restrictions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {669--679},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2531287}
}
Johnson, F.A., Pollock, K.H. and Montalbano, F. Visibility bias in aerial surveys of mottled ducks 1989 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 17, pp. 222-227 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Johetal89,
  author = {Johnson, F. A. and Pollock, K. H. and Montalbano, F.},
  title = {Visibility bias in aerial surveys of mottled ducks},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {222--227},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782373}
}
Jones, A.R., Hosegood, P., Wynna, R.B., Boer, M.N.D., Butler-Cowdry, S. and Embling, C.B. Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot 2014 Progress in Oceanography
Vol. 128, pp. 30-48 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jones2014,
  author = {Jones, A. R. and Hosegood, P. and Wynna, R. B. and Boer, M. N. De and Butler-Cowdry, S. and Embling, C. B.},
  title = {Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot},
  journal = {Progress in Oceanography},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {128},
  pages = {30--48},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2014.08.002}
}
Jones, J., McLeish, W.J. and Robertson, R.J. Density influences census technique accuracy for Cerulean Warblers in eastern Ontario 2000 Journal of Field Ornithology
Vol. 71, pp. 46-56 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jonetal00,
  author = {Jones, J. and McLeish, W. J. and Robertson, R. J.},
  title = {Density influences census technique accuracy for Cerulean Warblers in eastern Ontario},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {46--56},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1648/0273-8570-71.1.46}
}
Jones, M.J., Sullivan, M.S., Marsden, S.J. and Linsley, M.D. Correlates of extinction risk of birds from two Indonesian islands 2001 Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
Vol. 73, pp. 65-79 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jones2001,
  author = {Jones, M. J. and Sullivan, M. S. and Marsden, S. J. and Linsley, M. D.},
  title = {Correlates of extinction risk of birds from two Indonesian islands},
  journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {65--79},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2001.tb01347.x}
}
Kadry, M., Arcilla, N., Goded, S. and Soultan, A. Estimating Bird Densities in Montane Deserts: A Methodological Comparison in South Sinai, Egypt 2021 Journal of Arid Environments
Vol. 189, pp. 104477 
article DOI  
Abstract: Montane desert birds are particularly vulnerable to population declines driven by global climate change that is accelerated at higher elevations. Providing reliable and accurate information about their populations is essential for effective conservation management plans. However, few studies have compared the effectiveness of different survey methods for birds in high altitude arid environments, particularly in the Middle East. Here, we compare the reliability and precision of two sampling methods to estimate densities for two resident bird species in Egypt's Sinai mountains, the white-crowned wheatear (Oenanthe leucopyga) and desert lark (Ammomanes deserti). We conducted surveys for both species in vegetated and unvegetated desert using fixed-width strip transects and line transects using the distance sampling approach, and employed several statistical approaches to compare density estimates. While both methods provided reliable density estimates given sufficient detections of target species, strip transects exhibited more flexibility overall for estimating cryptic and rare species, which comprise a large proportion of this and other montane desert bird communities. Strip transects also entail lower effort and costs, an important consideration given research funding constraints. We therefore recommend strip transects over distance sampling for estimating bird densities in this and other arid montane regions.
BibTeX:
@article{Kadry2021,
  author = {Kadry, Mohamed and Arcilla, Nico and Goded, Sandra and Soultan, Alaaeldin},
  title = {Estimating Bird Densities in Montane Deserts: A Methodological Comparison in South Sinai, Egypt},
  journal = {Journal of Arid Environments},
  year = {2021},
  volume = {189},
  pages = {104477},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2021.104477}
}
Kaiser, L. Unbiased estimation in line-intercept sampling 1983 Biometrics
Vol. 39, pp. 965-976 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kai83,
  author = {Kaiser, L.},
  title = {Unbiased estimation in line-intercept sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {965--976},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2531331}
}
Kanaji, Y., Okazaki, M. and Miyashita, T. Spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and species diversity of small Odontocetes estimated using density surface modeling with line transect sampling 2017 Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography
Vol. 140, pp. 151-162 
article DOI  
Abstract: Spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and species diversity of small odontocetes including species in the Delphinidae and Phocoenidae families were investigated using long-term dedicated sighting survey data collected between 1983 and 2006 in the North Pacific. Species diversity indices were calculated from abundance estimated using density surface modeling of line-transect data. The estimated abundance ranged from 19,521 individuals in killer whale to 1,886,022 in pantropical spotted dolphin. The predicted density maps showed that the habitats of small odontocetes corresponded well with distinct oceanic domains. Species richness was estimated to be highest between 30 and 40textdegree N where warm- and cold-water currents converge. Simpson׳s Diversity Index showed latitudinal diversity gradients of decreasing species numbers toward the poles. Higher diversity was also estimated in the coastal areas and the zonal areas around 35– 42textdegree N. Coastal– offshore gradients and latitudinal gradients are known for many taxa. The zonal areas around 35textdegree N and 40textdegree N coincide with the Kuroshio Current and its extension and the subarctic boundary, respectively. These results suggest that the species diversity of small odontocetes primarily follows general patterns of latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, while the confluence of faunas originating in distinct water masses increases species diversify in frontal waters around 30– 40textdegree N. Population densities tended to be higher for the species inhabiting higher latitudes, but were highest for intermediate latitudes at approximately 35– 40textdegree N. According to latitudinal gradients in water temperature and biological productivity, the costs for thermoregulation will decrease in warmer low latitudes, while feeding efficiency will increase in colder high latitudes. These trade-offs could optimize population density in intermediate latitudes.
BibTeX:
@article{kanaji_spatial_2017,
  author = {Kanaji, Yu and Okazaki, Makoto and Miyashita, Tomio},
  title = {Spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and species diversity of small Odontocetes estimated using density surface modeling with line transect sampling},
  journal = {Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {140},
  pages = {151--162},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2016.05.014}
}
Kanamori, T., Kuze, N., Bernard, H., Malim, T.P. and Kohshima, S. Fluctuations of population density in Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) related to fruit availability in the Danum valley, Sabah, Malaysia: a 10-year record including two mast fruitings and three other peak fruitings 2016 Primates
Vol. 58(1), pp. 225-235 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kanamori2016,
  author = {Kanamori, Tomoko and Kuze, Noko and Bernard, Henry and Malim, Titol Peter and Kohshima, Shiro},
  title = {Fluctuations of population density in Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) related to fruit availability in the Danum valley, Sabah, Malaysia: a 10-year record including two mast fruitings and three other peak fruitings},
  journal = {Primates},
  publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {58},
  number = {1},
  pages = {225--235},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-016-0584-5}
}
Karanth, K.U. and Nichols, J.D. Monitoring tigers and their prey - a manual for researchers, managers and conservationists in tropical asia 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Karanth2002,
  author = {Karanth, K. U. and Nichols, J. D.},
  title = {Monitoring tigers and their prey - a manual for researchers, managers and conservationists in tropical asia},
  publisher = {Centre for Wildlife Studies},
  year = {2002}
}
Karanth, K.U. and Sunquist, M.E. Prey selection by tiger, leopard and dhole in tropical forests 1995 Journal of Animal Ecology
Vol. 64, pp. 439-450 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KarSun95,
  author = {Karanth, K. U. and Sunquist, M. E.},
  title = {Prey selection by tiger, leopard and dhole in tropical forests},
  journal = {Journal of Animal Ecology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {64},
  pages = {439--450},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/5647}
}
Karanth, K.U. and Sunquist, M.E. Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in the tropical forests of Nagarahole, India 1992 Journal of Tropical Ecology
Vol. 8, pp. 21-35 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KarSun92,
  author = {Karanth, K. U. and Sunquist, M. E.},
  title = {Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in the tropical forests of Nagarahole, India},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {21--35},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400006040}
}
Karunamuni, R.J. and Quinn, T.J. Bayesian estimation of animal abundance for the line transects sampling 1995 Biometrics
Vol. 51, pp. 1325-37 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KarQui95,
  author = {Karunamuni, R. J. and Quinn, T. J.},
  title = {Bayesian estimation of animal abundance for the line transects sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {1325--37},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533263}
}
Kasamatsu, F. and Joyce, G.G. Current status of odontocetes in the Antarctic 1995 Antarctic Science
Vol. 7, pp. 365-379 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KasJoy95,
  author = {Kasamatsu, F. and Joyce, G. G.},
  title = {Current status of odontocetes in the Antarctic},
  journal = {Antarctic Science},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {365--379},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102095000514}
}
Kaschner, K., Quick, N.J., Jewell, R., Williams, R. and Harris, C.M. Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges 2012 PLoS ONE
Vol. 7, pp. e44075 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kaschner2012,
  author = {Kaschner, Kristin and Quick, Nicola J. and Jewell, Rebecca and Williams, Rob and Harris, Catriona M.},
  title = {Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {e44075},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044075}
}
Kastdalen, L., Pedersen, H.C. and Fjone G.and Andreassen, H.P. Combining resource selection functions and distance sampling: an example with willow ptarmigan Proceedings of the First International Conference on Resource Selection  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kastdalen,
  author = {Kastdalen, L. and Pedersen, H. C. and Fjone, G.and Andreassen, H. P.},
  title = {Combining resource selection functions and distance sampling: an example with willow ptarmigan},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Resource Selection}
}
Katsanevakis, S. Density surface modelling with line transect sampling as a tool for abundance estimation of marine benthic species: the Pinna nobilis example in a marine lake 2007 Marine Biology
Vol. 152, pp. 77-85 
article DOI  
Abstract: Density estimation of marine benthic fauna is most often conducted with fishery surveys using dredges or trawls. These estimates are often unreliable due to low and variable efficiency and are inappropriate when dealing with rare or endangered species. In the marine Lake Vouliagmeni, a density surface modelling (DSM) approach using survey data from line transects, integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS), was used to estimate the population density of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis. This is the first time that such an approach has been applied for a marine benthic species. DSM was beneficial in relation to traditional distance sampling. Apart from providing a more precise total abundance estimate, it related the density of the species to spatial covariates of interest, gave a depiction of the species dispersion in the study area, and provided abundance estimates in any subregion of the study area. In Lake Vouliagmeni, a marked zonation of P. nobilis distribution was revealed, with the species being restricted in the shallow peripheral zone at depths ¡ 22 m. Two density peaks were observed, a major peak at depths between 12 and 13 m and a secondary peak at 4 m. A main hotspot of high density was also observed in the northeastern part of the lake. Total abundance of the species was estimated to be 6,770 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 5,460– 8,393 individuals.
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2007,
  author = {Katsanevakis, Stelios},
  title = {Density surface modelling with line transect sampling as a tool for abundance estimation of marine benthic species: the Pinna nobilis example in a marine lake},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {152},
  pages = {77--85},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-007-0659-3}
}
Katsanevakis, S. Population ecology of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis in a marine lake 2005 Endangered Species Research
Vol. 1, pp. 1-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: A substantial population of the endangered Mediterranean bivalve Pinna nobilis exists in the marine Lake Vouliagmeni (Korinthiakos Gulf, Greece). The population density of P. nobilis was estimated in the lake with line transect sampling. Individuals of the youngest age class (small) had peak densities in the 1 to 3 m bathymetric zone and their densities were higher in poorly sorted sediments. Older (large) individuals (belonging to all age classes except the first one, 9 to 11 mo) had peak densities in the 11 to 13 m bathymetric zone. No P. nobilis was found deeper than 22 m. The absence of large individuals in shallow waters may partly be explained by illegal fishing. There are several hypotheses proposed to explain the lack of small individuals in deeper areas, but no definitive explanation is offered. In Lake Vouliagmeni, P. nobilis densities were high, although marine seagrass was completely absent. Thus, P. nobilis does not actually require seagrass meadows, as stated by many authors, and it may exist in large numbers in bare soft-sediment areas as well. P. nobilis grew fast, mostly during the first 3 yr of life, and may live beyond 15 yr. By recording the exact location of each P. nobilis individual within 800 m2 transects, as a pair of coordinates, the exact spatial distribution was defined and aggregation indices were calculated. P. nobilis had an aggregated dispersion, but no evidence for preferential settlement near adults or previously-settled individuals was found. The aggregated dispersion of P. nobilis probably relates to the patchiness of the local environment. The size of P. nobilis population in Lake Vouliagmeni was estimated to be 8501 ± 4395 (mean ± 1 SD) individuals, of which 4355 ± 3460 belonged to the first age class and 4146 ± 1405 belonged to all other age classes.
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2005,
  author = {Katsanevakis, S.},
  title = {Population ecology of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis in a marine lake},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {1--9},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/ESR001051}
}
Katsanevakis, S. Abundance and spatial distribution of the Mediterranean scallop, Pecten jacobaeus, in a marine lake 2005 Fisheries Research
Vol. 76(3), pp. 417-429 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kat05,
  author = {Katsanevakis, Stelios},
  title = {Abundance and spatial distribution of the Mediterranean scallop, Pecten jacobaeus, in a marine lake},
  journal = {Fisheries Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {76},
  number = {3},
  pages = {417--429},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2005.07.004}
}
Katsanevakis, S. and Thessalou-Legaki, M. Spatial distribution, abundance and habitat use of the protected fan mussel Pinna nobilis in Souda Bay, Crete 2009 Aquatic Biology
Vol. 8, pp. 45-54 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2009,
  author = {Katsanevakis, Stelios and Thessalou-Legaki, Maria},
  title = {Spatial distribution, abundance and habitat use of the protected fan mussel Pinna nobilis in Souda Bay, Crete},
  journal = {Aquatic Biology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {45--54},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/ab00204}
}
Katsanevakis, S. and Thessalou-Legaki, M. First record of Alicia mirabilis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Aegean Sea and density assessment with distance sampling in a site of high abundance 2007 Marine Biology Research
Vol. 3, pp. 468-472 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2007a,
  author = {Katsanevakis, S. and Thessalou-Legaki, M.},
  title = {First record of Alicia mirabilis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Aegean Sea and density assessment with distance sampling in a site of high abundance},
  journal = {Marine Biology Research},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {468--472},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/17451000701695379}
}
Katsanevakis, S., Weber, A., Pipitone, C., Leopold, M., Cronin, M., Scheidat, M., Doyle, T.K., Buhl-Mortensen, L., Buhl-Mortensen, P., D'Anna, G., de Boois, I., Dalpadado, P., Damalas, D., Fiorentino, F., Garofalo, G., Giacalone, V.M., Hawley, K.L., Issaris, Y., Jansen, J., Knight, C.M., Knittweis, L., Kröncke, I., Mirto, S., Muxika, I., Reiss, H., Skjoldal, H.R. and Vöge, S. Monitoring marine populations and communities: methods dealing with imperfect detectability 2012 Aquatic Biology
Vol. 16, pp. 31-52 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KatsanevakisS2012,
  author = {Katsanevakis, S. and Weber, A. and Pipitone, C. and Leopold, M. and Cronin, M. and Scheidat, M. and Doyle, T. K. and Buhl-Mortensen, L. and Buhl-Mortensen, P. and D'Anna, G. and de Boois, I. and Dalpadado, P. and Damalas, D. and Fiorentino, F. and Garofalo, G. and Giacalone, V. M. and Hawley, K. L. and Issaris, Y. and Jansen, J. and Knight, C. M. and Knittweis, L. and Kröncke, I. and Mirto, S. and Muxika, I. and Reiss, H. and Skjoldal, H. R. and Vöge, S.},
  title = {Monitoring marine populations and communities: methods dealing with imperfect detectability},
  journal = {Aquatic Biology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {31--52},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/ab00426}
}
Keeping, D., Burger, J.H., Keitsile, A.O., Gielen, M.-C., Mudongo, E., Wallgren, M., Skarpe, C. and Foote, A.L. Can trackers count free-ranging wildlife as effectively and efficiently as conventional aerial survey and distance sampling? Implications for citizen science in the Kalahari, Botswana 2018 Biological Conservation
Vol. 223, pp. 156-169 
article DOI  
Abstract: Estimating wildlife abundance is central to conservation. We compared two widely practiced standards for counting animals - aerial strip surveys and ground line transects - with interpreted counts of animal tracks. At equal sampling intensity in semiarid savanna with good visibility all three methods produced similar population estimates and precision for six large herbivores. This comparison adds empirical support for the use of track count data to estimate population density rather than being restricted to ambiguous indices of relative abundance. Although expected to capture more species than aerial surveys, we found line transects limiting because encounter rates by direct sightings were relatively low; a minimum threshold 40 observations was achieved for only 1/3 of antelope species in 648.4 km of transect. By contrast, animal track counts returned exceedingly high encounter rates that allowed estimation of abundance for the entire large predator-prey community and mapping density-distributions more completely. Unlike aerial surveys conducted by Botswana's wildlife authority, the track survey provided opportunity to involve local people in the research process. The track survey cost 40% less than the aerial survey, and could be reduced a further 3-fold if trackers collected data autonomously without motor vehicles. Counting animals by their tracks is ultimately constrained to regions with appropriate substrates. However, in suitable environments like the Kalahari, we suggest that a citizen science driven by expert local trackers could ultimately replace conventional wildlife counts, generating knock-on benefits to conservation beyond improved data.
BibTeX:
@article{keeping_can_2018,
  author = {Keeping, Derek and Burger, Julia H. and Keitsile, Amo O. and Gielen, Marie-Charlotte and Mudongo, Edwin and Wallgren, Martha and Skarpe, Christina and Foote, A. Lee},
  title = {Can trackers count free-ranging wildlife as effectively and efficiently as conventional aerial survey and distance sampling? Implications for citizen science in the Kalahari, Botswana},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {223},
  pages = {156--169},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.04.027}
}
Keeping, D. and Pelletier, R. Animal density and track counts: understanding the nature of observations based on animal movements 2014 PLoS ONE
Vol. 9, pp. e96598 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Keeping2014,
  author = {Keeping, D. and Pelletier, R.},
  title = {Animal density and track counts: understanding the nature of observations based on animal movements},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {e96598},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096598}
}
Kelker, G.H. Measurement and interpretation of forces that determine populations of managed deer 1945 School: University of Michigan  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kel45,
  author = {Kelker, G. H.},
  title = {Measurement and interpretation of forces that determine populations of managed deer},
  school = {University of Michigan},
  year = {1945}
}
Kelley, J.R. Line transect sampling for estimating breeding wood duck density in forested wetlands 1996 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 24, pp. 32-36 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Kel96,
  author = {Kelley, J. R.},
  title = {Line transect sampling for estimating breeding wood duck density in forested wetlands},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {32--36},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782829}
}
Kellner, K.F. and Swihart, R.K. Accounting for imperfect detection in ecology: a quantitative review 2014 PLoS ONE
Vol. 9(10), pp. e111436 
article DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ Detection in studies of species abundance and distribution is often imperfect. Assuming perfect detection introduces bias into estimation that can weaken inference upon which understanding and policy are based. Despite availability of numerous methods designed to address this assumption, many refereed papers in ecology fail to account for non-detection error. We conducted a quantitative literature review of 537 ecological articles to measure the degree to which studies of different taxa, at various scales, and over time have accounted for imperfect detection. Overall, just 23% of articles accounted for imperfect detection. The probability that an article incorporated imperfect detection increased with time and varied among taxa studied; studies of vertebrates were more likely to incorporate imperfect detection. Among articles that reported detection probability, 70% contained per-survey estimates of detection that were less than 0.5. For articles in which constancy of detection was tested, 86% reported significant variation. We hope that our findings prompt more ecologists to consider carefully the detection process when designing studies and analyzing results, especially for sub-disciplines where incorporation of imperfect detection in study design and analysis so far has been lacking./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Kellner2014,
  author = {Kellner, Kenneth F. and Swihart, Robert K.},
  title = {Accounting for imperfect detection in ecology: a quantitative review},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {9},
  number = {10},
  pages = {e111436},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111436}
}
Kelt, D.A., Cofré, H., Cornelius, C., Engilis, A., Gutiérrez, J.R., Marquet, P.A., Medel, R., Meserve, P.L., Quirici, V., Samaniego, H. and Vásquez, R.A. The avifauna of Bosque Fray Jorge National Park and Chiles Norte Chico 2016 Journal of Arid Environments
Vol. 126, pp. 23-36 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kelt2016,
  author = {Kelt, Douglas A. and Cofré, Hernán and Cornelius, Cintia and Engilis, Andrew and Gutiérrez, Julio R. and Marquet, Pablo A. and Medel, Rodrigo and Meserve, Peter L. and Quirici, Verónica and Samaniego, Horacio and Vásquez, Rodrigo A.},
  title = {The avifauna of Bosque Fray Jorge National Park and Chiles Norte Chico},
  journal = {Journal of Arid Environments},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {126},
  pages = {23--36},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.06.018}
}
Kenneth, B.H. Temporal variation in fall bird density at high elevation habitats in southern British Columbia: an analisys using distance sampling 2001 School: Forest Resources Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kenneth2001,
  author = {Kenneth, B. H.},
  title = {Temporal variation in fall bird density at high elevation habitats in southern British Columbia: an analisys using distance sampling},
  school = {Forest Resources Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia},
  year = {2001}
}
Kéry, M., Royle, J.A. and Schmid, H. Modeling avian abundance from replicated counts using binomial mixture models 2005 Ecological Applications
Vol. 15(4), pp. 1450-1461 
article DOI  
Abstract: Abundance estimation in ecology is usually accomplished by capture-recapture, removal, or distance sampling methods. These may be hard to implement at large spatial scales. In contrast, binomial mixture models enable abundance estimation without individual identification, based simply on temporally and spatially replicated counts. Here, we evaluate mixture models using data from the national breeding bird monitoring program in Switzerland, where some 250 1-km2 quadrats are surveyed using the territory mapping method three times during each breeding season. We chose eight species with contrasting distribution (wide-narrow), abundance (high-low), and detectability (easy-difficult). Abundance was modeled as a random effect with a Poisson or negative binomial distribution, with mean affected by forest cover, elevation, and route length. Detectability was a logit-linear function of survey date, survey date-by-elevation, and sampling effort (time per transect unit). Resulting covariate effects and parameter estimates were consistent with expectations. Detectability per territory (for three surveys) ranged from 0.66 to 0.94 (mean 0.84) for easy species, and from 0.16 to 0.83 (mean 0.53) for difficult species, depended on survey effort for two easy and all four difficult species, and changed seasonally for three easy and three difficult species. Abundance was positively related to route length in three high-abundance and one low-abundance (one easy and three difficult) species, and increased with forest cover in five forest species, decreased for two nonforest species, and was unaffected for a generalist species. Abundance estimates under the most parsimonious mixture models were between 1.1 and 8.9 (median 1.8) times greater than estimates based on territory mapping; hence, three surveys were insufficient to detect all territories for each species. We conclude that binomial mixture models are an important new approach for estimating abundance corrected for detectability when only repeated-count data are available. Future developments envisioned include estimation of trend, occupancy, and total regional abundance. textcopyright 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.
BibTeX:
@article{Kery2005,
  author = {Kéry, M. and Royle, J. A. and Schmid, H.},
  title = {Modeling avian abundance from replicated counts using binomial mixture models},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {15},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1450--1461},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/04-1120}
}
Khan, J.A. Conservation and management of Gir Lion Sanctuary and National Park, Gujarat, India 1995 Biological Conservation
Vol. 73, pp. 183-188 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kha95,
  author = {Khan, J. A.},
  title = {Conservation and management of Gir Lion Sanctuary and National Park, Gujarat, India},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {183--188},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(94)00107-2}
}
Kidney, D. Line transect sampling using triangulation: investigating the effect of bearing error on density estimation 2009 School: University of St Andrews  mastersthesis  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Kidney2009,
  author = {Kidney, Darren},
  title = {Line transect sampling using triangulation: investigating the effect of bearing error on density estimation},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2009}
}
Kie, J.G. and Boroski, B.B. Using spotlight counts to estimate mule deer population size and trends 1995 California Fish and Game
Vol. 81, pp. 55-70 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{KieBor95,
  author = {Kie, J. G. and Boroski, B. B.},
  title = {Using spotlight counts to estimate mule deer population size and trends},
  journal = {California Fish and Game},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {81},
  pages = {55--70}
}
Kiffner, C., Meyer, B., Muhlenberg, M. and Waltert, M. Plenty of prey, few predators: what limits lions Panthera leo in Katavi National Park, western Tanzania? 2009 Oryx
Vol. 43, pp. 52-59 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kiffner2009,
  author = {Kiffner, Christian and Meyer, Britta and Muhlenberg, Michael and Waltert, Matthias},
  title = {Plenty of prey, few predators: what limits lions Panthera leo in Katavi National Park, western Tanzania?},
  journal = {Oryx},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {52--59},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605307002335}
}
Kiffner, C., Paciência, F.M.D., Henrich, G., Kaitila, R., Chuma, I.S., Mbaryo, P., Knauf, S., Kioko, J. and Zinner, D. Road-Based Line Distance Surveys Overestimate Densities of Olive Baboons 2022 PLOS ONE
Vol. 17(2), pp. e0263314 
article DOI  
Abstract: Estimating population density and population dynamics is essential for understanding primate ecology and relies on robust methods. While distance sampling theory provides a robust framework for estimating animal abundance, implementing a constrained, non-systematic transect design could bias density estimates. Here, we assessed potential bias associated with line distance sampling surveys along roads based on a case study with olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Lake Manyara National Park (Tanzania). This was achieved by comparing density estimates of olive baboons derived from road transect surveys with density estimates derived from estimating the maximum number of social groups (via sleeping site counts) and multiplying this metric with the estimated average size of social groups. From 2011 to 2019, we counted olive baboons along road transects, estimated survey-specific densities in a distance sampling framework, and assessed temporal population trends. Based on the fitted half-normal detection function, the mean density was 132.5 baboons km-2 (95% CI: 110.4– 159.2), however, detection models did not fit well due to heaping of sightings on and near the transects. Density estimates were associated with relatively wide confidence intervals that were mostly caused by encounter rate variance. Based on a generalized additive model, baboon densities were greater during the rainy seasons compared to the dry seasons but did not show marked annual trends. Compared to estimates derived from the alternative method (sleeping site survey), distance sampling along road transects overestimated the abundance of baboons more than threefold. Possibly, this overestimation was caused by the preferred use of roads by baboons. While being a frequently used technique (due to its relative ease of implementation compared to spatially randomized survey techniques), inferring population density of baboons (and possibly other species) based on road transects should be treated with caution. Beyond these methodological concerns and considering only the most conservative estimates, baboon densities in LMNP are among the highest across their geographic distribution range.
BibTeX:
@article{Kiffner2022,
  author = {Kiffner, Christian and Paciência, Filipa M. D. and Henrich, Grace and Kaitila, Rehema and Chuma, Idrissa S. and Mbaryo, Pay and Knauf, Sascha and Kioko, John and Zinner, Dietmar},
  title = {Road-Based Line Distance Surveys Overestimate Densities of Olive Baboons},
  journal = {PLOS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2022},
  volume = {17},
  number = {2},
  pages = {e0263314},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263314}
}
King, D.I., Chandler, R.B., Schlossberg, S. and Chandler, C.C. Habitat use and nest success of scrub-shrub birds in wildlife and silvicultural openings in western Massachusetts, USA 2009 Forest Ecology and Management
Vol. 257(2), pp. 421-426 
article DOI  
Abstract: Many conservationists are concerned about reports of declining populations of scrub-shrub birds. Wildlife opening management, involving repeatedly burning or mechanically treating early-successional stands, is one strategy for creating habitat for these species, but this practice is costly. Some silvicultural treatments also create scrub-shrub habitat and have the advantage of potentially generating revenue, but the relative effectiveness of wildlife opening management and silviculture for creating bird habitat is not known. During 2004 and 2005, we compared scrub-shrub bird abundance, nest success, and habitat characteristics between wildlife and silvicultural openings in western Massachusetts to determine whether the habitats created by these practices are equivalent for birds. We recorded 1927 detections of 31 scrub-shrub bird species during the course of the study and monitored 368 nests. We found that although most species were present in both treatments, many differed in abundance between wildlife and silvicultural openings, including several species of high conservation concern. These differences were attributable to differences in habitat characteristics between treatments. The overall probability of a nest surviving to fledging was 0.43, and did not differ between wildlife and silvicultural openings. Our results indicate that the habitat quality of wildlife and silvicultural openings is not equivalent for scrub-shrub birds, but the two management approaches serve as complementary strategies for maintaining these declining species.
BibTeX:
@article{King2009a,
  author = {King, David I. and Chandler, Richard B. and Schlossberg, Scott and Chandler, Carlin C.},
  title = {Habitat use and nest success of scrub-shrub birds in wildlife and silvicultural openings in western Massachusetts, USA},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {257},
  number = {2},
  pages = {421--426},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.09.014}
}
Kingsley, M.C.S. and Reeves, R.R. Aerial surveys of cetaceans in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1995 and 1996 1998 Canadian Journal of Zoology
Vol. 76, pp. 1529-1550 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KinRee98,
  author = {Kingsley, M. C. S. and Reeves, R. R.},
  title = {Aerial surveys of cetaceans in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1995 and 1996},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Zoology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {76},
  pages = {1529--1550},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/z98-054}
}
Kint, V., Robert, D.W. and Noël, L. Evaluation of sampling methods for the estimation of structural indices in forest stands 2004 Ecological Modelling
Vol. 180(4), pp. 461-476 
article DOI  
Abstract: The paper is about the accurate (i.e. unbiased and precise) and efficient estimation of structural indices in forest stands. We present SIAFOR, a computer programme for the calculation of four nearest-neighbour indices, which describe the spatial arrangement of tree positions, the distribution pattern of species, and the size differentiation between trees. The study uses SIAFOR as a sampling simulator in eight completely stem-mapped forest stands of varying area and structural complexity. We statistically evaluate two sample types (distance and plot sampling), comparing sampling error, bias and minimum sample size for index estimation. We introduce the concepts of measurement expansion factor (MEF) and design expansion factor (DEF) for the technical evaluation of sample type efficiency (optimal sample type). Results indicate that sampling error can reach high levels and that minimum sample sizes for index estimation often amply exceed the limit of 20% of tree density or 20 trees per species per hectare, that we set as the highest feasible sample size in normal situations. We found clear feasibility limits (in terms of minimal tree densities and reachable accuracy levels) for the estimation of all investigated indices. Generally, equal or higher sample sizes are needed for plot sampling than for distance sampling to reach equal accuracy levels. Nevertheless, plot sampling resulted more efficient for the estimation of tree size differentiation at low to medium accuracy levels. For all other investigated indices distance sampling resulted more efficient than plot sampling. Minimum sample size increases with accuracy and is negatively correlated with tree density. At a given accuracy level minimum sample size is highest for the estimation of relative mingling and lowest for tree size differentiation; furthermore it is generally lower in large stands than in small ones. Because of the consistency of our conclusions in all of the investigated stands, we think they apply in most stands of similar area (between 1 and 10 ha) and species diversity (not more than four species). textcopyright 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Kint2004,
  author = {Kint, V. and Robert, D. W. and Noël, L.},
  title = {Evaluation of sampling methods for the estimation of structural indices in forest stands},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {180},
  number = {4},
  pages = {461--476},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2004.04.032}
}
Kinzey, D. and Gerrodette, T. Distance measurements using binoculars from ships at sea: accuracy, precision and effects of refraction 2003 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management
Vol. 5, pp. 159-171 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Kinzey2003,
  author = {Kinzey, Douglas and Gerrodette, Tim},
  title = {Distance measurements using binoculars from ships at sea: accuracy, precision and effects of refraction},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {159--171}
}
Kinzey, D., Gerrodette, T. and Fink, D. Accuracy and precision of perpendicular distance measurements in shipboard line-transect sighting surveys 2002 (LJ-02-09)School: Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kinetal2002,
  author = {Kinzey, Douglas and Gerrodette, Tim and Fink, Daniel},
  title = {Accuracy and precision of perpendicular distance measurements in shipboard line-transect sighting surveys},
  school = {Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA},
  year = {2002},
  number = {LJ-02-09}
}
Kinzey, D., Olson, P. and Gerrodette, T. Marine mammal data collection procedures on research ship line-transect surveys School: Southwest Fisheries Science Center  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kinzey,
  author = {Kinzey, Douglas and Olson, Paula and Gerrodette, Tim},
  title = {Marine mammal data collection procedures on research ship line-transect surveys},
  school = {Southwest Fisheries Science Center}
}
Kishino, H., Kasamatsu, F. and Toda, T. On the double line transect method 1988 Report of the International Whaling Commission
Vol. 38, pp. 273-279 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Kisetal88,
  author = {Kishino, H. and Kasamatsu, F. and Toda, T.},
  title = {On the double line transect method},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {273--279}
}
Kishino, H., Kato, H., Kasamatsu, F. and Fujise, Y. Detection of heterogeneity and estimation of population characteristics from the field survey data: 1987/88 Japanese feasibility study of the Southern Hemisphere minke whales 1991 Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics
Vol. 43, pp. 435-453 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kisetal91,
  author = {Kishino, H. and Kato, H. and Kasamatsu, F. and Fujise, Y.},
  title = {Detection of heterogeneity and estimation of population characteristics from the field survey data: 1987/88 Japanese feasibility study of the Southern Hemisphere minke whales},
  journal = {Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {435--453},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00053365}
}
Kissa, D.O. and Sheil, D. Visual detection based distance sampling offers efficient density estimation for distinctive low abundance tropical forest tree species in complex terrain 2012 Forest Ecology and Management
Vol. 263, pp. 114-121 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kissa2012,
  author = {Kissa, D. O. and Sheil, D.},
  title = {Visual detection based distance sampling offers efficient density estimation for distinctive low abundance tropical forest tree species in complex terrain},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {263},
  pages = {114--121},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.09.020}
}
Kissling, M.L. and Garton, E.O. Estimating detection probability and density from point-count surveys: a combination of distance and double-observer sampling 2006 Auk, The
Vol. 123(3), pp. 735-752 
article DOI  
Abstract: Point counts are the method most commonly used to estimate abundance of birds, but they often fail to account properly for incomplete and variable detection probabilities. We developed a technique that combines distance and double-observer sampling to estimate detection probabilities and effective area surveyed. We applied this paired-observer, variable circular-plot (POVCP) technique to point-count surveys (n = 753) conducted in closed-canopy forests of southeast Alaska. Distance data were analyzed for each species to model a detection probability for each observer and calculate an estimate of density. We then multiplied each observer's density estimates by a correction factor to adjust for detection probabilities ¡ 1 at plot center. We compared analytical results from four survey methods: single-observer fixed-radius (50-m) plot; single-observer, variable circular-plot (SOVCP); double-observer fixed-radius (50-m) plot; and POVCP. We examined differences in detection probabilities at plot center, effective area surveyed, and densities for five bird species: Pacific-slope Flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis), Winter Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes), Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa), Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus), and Townsend's Warbler (Dendroica townsendi). Average detection probabilities for paired observers increased ?8% (SE = 2.9) for all species once estimates were corrected for birds missed at plot center. Density estimators of fixed-radius survey methods were likely negatively biased, because the key assumption of perfect detection was not met. Density estimates generated using SOVCP and POVCP were similar, but standard errors were much lower for the POVCP survey method. We recommend using POVCP when study objectives require precise estimates of density. Failure to account for differences in detection probabilities and effective area surveyed results in biased population estimators and, therefore, faulty inferences about the population in question. textcopyright The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006.
BibTeX:
@article{Kissling2006,
  author = {Kissling, M. L. and Garton, E. O.},
  title = {Estimating detection probability and density from point-count surveys: a combination of distance and double-observer sampling},
  journal = {Auk, The},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {123},
  number = {3},
  pages = {735--752},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/123.3.735}
}
Kissling, M.L., Reid, M., Lukacs, P.M., Gende, S.M. and Lewis, S.B. Understanding abundance patterns of a declining seabird: implications for monitoring 2007 Ecological Applications
Vol. 17, pp. 2164-2174 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kissling2007,
  author = {Kissling, Michelle L. and Reid, Mason and Lukacs, Paul M. and Gende, Scott M. and Lewis, Stephen B.},
  title = {Understanding abundance patterns of a declining seabird: implications for monitoring},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {2164--2174},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/06-1990.1}
}
Kitahara, M. and Fujii, K. Biodiversity and community structure of temperate butterfly species within a gradient of human disturbance — an analysis based on the concept of generalist vs specialist strategies 1994 Researches on Population Ecology
Vol. 36, pp. 187-199 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KitFuj94,
  author = {Kitahara, M. and Fujii, K.},
  title = {Biodiversity and community structure of temperate butterfly species within a gradient of human disturbance — an analysis based on the concept of generalist vs specialist strategies},
  journal = {Researches on Population Ecology},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {187--199},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02514935}
}
Klavitter, J.L. Survey methodology, abundance and demography of the endangered Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted? 2000 School: University of Washington  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kla00,
  author = {Klavitter, J. L.},
  title = {Survey methodology, abundance and demography of the endangered Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted?},
  school = {University of Washington},
  year = {2000}
}
Klavitter, J.L., Marzluff, J.M. and Vekasy, M.S. Abundance and demography of the Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted? 2003 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 67, pp. 165-176 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Klaetal03,
  author = {Klavitter, J. L. and Marzluff, J. M. and Vekasy, M. S.},
  title = {Abundance and demography of the Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted?},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {67},
  pages = {165--176},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3803072}
}
Knights, K., McCarthy, M.A., Camac, J. and Guillera-Arroita, G. Efficient effort allocation in line-transect distance sampling of high-density species: When to walk further, measure less-often and gain precision 2021 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Vol. 12(6), pp. 962-970 
article DOI  
Abstract: Line-transect distance sampling is widely used to estimate population densities using distances of observed targets from transect lines to model detectability. When the target taxa are high density, the frequent measuring of distances may make the method seem impractical. We present a method that improves the efficiency of distance sampling when the target species occurs at high density. Only a proportion of targets are measured to model the detection function, and the time saved on the survey is then used to cover a longer total length of transect and accrue a larger `count only' sample. This approach can improve the precision of the population density estimate when the cost of measuring the distance to a detected target is more than half the cost of walking to the next target. We find the optimal proportion of distances to measure that minimises the variance of the density estimate for a fixed survey budget. We quantify how much this optimised strategy increases the precision of the density estimate compared with conventional line-transect distance sampling. We then use simulated distance sampling data to test our expressions, and illustrate circumstances under which the optimised approach would be beneficial using distance sampling data on high-density plants. The simulations indicate that the optimised method delivers benefits in precision, but the magnitude of the benefit is lower than predicted from our expressions, which are based on an asymptotic approximation of the variance. We apply an adjustment to the predicted benefit equation to account for this difference, and show that, in all three plant case studies, the optimised approach could improve the precision gained from a distance sampling survey between 20% and 50%. This new approach could broaden the ecological contexts in which distance sampling is applied, to include estimation of densities of abundant taxa where plots are conventionally used. The method may have interesting applications for other survey types, including multispecies surveys or those using cues or signs that occur at high density.
BibTeX:
@article{Knights2021,
  author = {Kathryn Knights and Michael A. McCarthy and James Camac and Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita},
  title = {Efficient effort allocation in line-transect distance sampling of high-density species: When to walk further, measure less-often and gain precision},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2021},
  volume = {12},
  number = {6},
  pages = {962--970},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.13589}
}
Knopf, F.L. Changing landscapes and the cosmopolitism of the eastern Colorado avifauna 1986 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 14, pp. 132-142 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Kno86,
  author = {Knopf, F. L.},
  title = {Changing landscapes and the cosmopolitism of the eastern Colorado avifauna},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {132--142},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782060}
}
Knopf, F.L., Sedgwick, J.A. and Cannon, R.W. Guild structure of a riparian avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing 1988 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 52, pp. 280-290 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Knoetal88,
  author = {Knopf, F. L. and Sedgwick, J. A. and Cannon, R. W.},
  title = {Guild structure of a riparian avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {280--290},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801235}
}
Koenen, K.K.G., DeStefano, S. and Krausman, P.R. Using distance sampling to estimate seasonal densities of desert mule deer in a semidesert grassland 2002 Wildlife Society Bulletin
Vol. 30(1), pp. 53-63 
article URL 
Abstract: Wildlife managers need to be able to assess density, distribution, and status of wildlife populations with reliable techniques. We used distance sampling from 971 point transects to estimate density and examine herd composition of desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) on the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Arizona during 4 seasons in 1996. We first conducted a pilot study to refine survey design and train observers. We also evaluated our ability to meet 4 major assumptions of distance sampling (random placement of points, objects on points always detected, objects detected at initial location, distances measured accurately). Densities varied from 0.9 (SE=0.3) deer/km2 in summer to 2.5 (1.3) in winter. Herd size varied from 1.5 (0.1) deer/group in summer to 9.7 (2.0) in winter. Density of females was greater than males (0.9 [0.3] and 0.03 [0.04], respectively) for all seasons combined. We found that placement of points, detecting deer at points, and not forcing deer to move from their initial location were interrelated and a function of mule deer behavior and how we approached points. Our ability to measure distances accurately was improved greatly by using distance test courses and calibration points throughout the refuge. Important considerations in using distance sampling include: 1) careful evaluation of study design; 2) establishment of permanent survey points to be used throughout time, which aids in field operations and analysis; 3) development and use of a distance test course and calibration points to train observers, practice measuring distances, and calibrate equipment; 4) development of standardized protocol to maintain consistent data collection among observers and over time; and 5) incorporation of a thorough understanding of the target species' behavior and ecology into the survey design.
BibTeX:
@article{Koenen2002,
  author = {Koenen, K. K. G. and DeStefano, S. and Krausman, P. R.},
  title = {Using distance sampling to estimate seasonal densities of desert mule deer in a semidesert grassland},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  number = {1},
  pages = {53--63},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784635}
}
Kolowski, J.M., Oley, J. and McShea, W.J. High-Density Camera Trap Grid Reveals Lack of Consistency in Detection and Capture Rates across Space and Time 2021 Ecosphere
Vol. 12(2), pp. e03350 
article DOI  
Abstract: Counts of independent photo events from camera traps are commonly used to make inference about species occupancy, the density of unmarked populations, and the relative abundance of species across time and space. These applications rest on the untested assumption that data collected from individual cameras are representative of the landscape location in which they are placed, and that nearby cameras would record similar data when any additional micro-site differences are accounted for. We established a high-density camera trapping grid (100 texttimes 100 m; 27 cameras) in Virginia, USA, to explicitly test these assumptions, investigating variation in capture rates and detection probabilities for a range of terrestrial mammals during four 2-month seasonal surveys. Despite controlling for numerous habitat and placement factors, we documented, across all 5 focal species, large ranges and coefficients of variation in both capture rate and detection probabilities, which were similar to those seen across 2 sets of independent forest sampling sites from a larger, more typical camera trap sampling design. We also documented a lack of spatial autocorrelation in capture rate at any distance. Measured local covariates relevant to the camera viewshed (stem density, camera height, log presence, effective detection distance [EDD], total dbh of oak trees) rarely explained any significant portion of observed variation in capture rates or detection probabilities across the grid. The influence of EDD, measured here for the first time for individual camera stations, was inconsistently important and varied in direction of effect depending on species and season. Our study indicates single-camera stations may fail to sample animal presence and frequency of use in a robust and repeatable way, primarily resulting from the influence of both idiosyncrasies in animal movement and measured and unknown micro-site characteristics. We recommend spatial replication within sites (e.g., small-scale shifting of cameras or use of multiple stations) should be considered to minimize impacts of relevant micro-site characteristics, some of which may be difficult to identify.
BibTeX:
@article{Kolowski2021,
  author = {Kolowski, Joseph M. and Oley, Josephine and McShea, William J.},
  title = {High-Density Camera Trap Grid Reveals Lack of Consistency in Detection and Capture Rates across Space and Time},
  journal = {Ecosphere},
  year = {2021},
  volume = {12},
  number = {2},
  pages = {e03350},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.3350}
}
Koopman, B.O. The theory of search II. Target detection 1956 Operations Research
Vol. 4, pp. 503-531 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Koo56,
  author = {Koopman, B. O.},
  title = {The theory of search II. Target detection},
  journal = {Operations Research},
  year = {1956},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {503--531},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1287/opre.4.5.503}
}
Koster, S.H. An evaluation of line transect census methods in West African wooded savanna 1985 School: Michigan State University  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kos85,
  author = {Koster, S. H.},
  title = {An evaluation of line transect census methods in West African wooded savanna},
  school = {Michigan State University},
  year = {1985}
}
Kouakou, C.Y., Boesch, C. and Kuehl, H. Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: validating methods in Tai National Park 2009 American Journal of Primatology
Vol. 71, pp. 447-457 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kouakou2009,
  author = {Kouakou, Celestin Yao and Boesch, Christophe and Kuehl, Hjalmar},
  title = {Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: validating methods in Tai National Park},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {447--457},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20673}
}
Kovner, J.L. and Patil, S.A. Properties of estimators of wildlife population density for the line transect method 1974 Biometrics
Vol. 30(2), pp. 225-230 
article DOI  
Abstract: The variance of several estimators of the population density based on the line transect method of distance sampling are studied under exponential sighting probability. The estimator suggested by Gates [1969] is shown to be minimum variance unbiased estimator. Efficiency of other estimators is obtained with respect to this estimator.
BibTeX:
@article{Kovner1974,
  author = {Kovner, J. L. and Patil, S. A.},
  title = {Properties of estimators of wildlife population density for the line transect method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {30},
  number = {2},
  pages = {225--230},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2529644}
}
Kraus, J. Counting furtive beasts by computer 1997 Communications of the ACM
Vol. 40(6), pp. 20-23 
article DOI  
Abstract: Counting Furtive Beasts by Computer. Where have all the rhinos gone?
BibTeX:
@article{Kraus1997,
  author = {Kraus, J.},
  title = {Counting furtive beasts by computer},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {40},
  number = {6},
  pages = {20--23},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1145/255656.255675}
}
Kruger, J.M., Reilly, B.K. and Whyte, I.J. Application of distance sampling to estimate population densities of large herbivores in Kruger National Park 2008 Wildlife Research
Vol. 35, pp. 371-376 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kruger2008,
  author = {Kruger, J. M. and Reilly, B. K. and Whyte, I. J.},
  title = {Application of distance sampling to estimate population densities of large herbivores in Kruger National Park},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {371--376},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR07084}
}
Krzysik, J.A., Woodman, A.P. and Hagan, M. A field evaluation of four methods for estimating desert tortoise densities 1995 Proceedings of the Desert Tortoise Council
Vol. 1995, pp. 92 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Krzetal95,
  author = {Krzysik, J. A. and Woodman, A. P. and Hagan, M.},
  title = {A field evaluation of four methods for estimating desert tortoise densities},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Desert Tortoise Council},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {1995},
  pages = {92}
}
Kuehl, H.S., Nzeingui, C., Yeno, S.L.D., Huijbregts, B., Boesch, C. and Walsh, P.D. Discriminating between village and commercial hunting of apes 2009 Biological Conservation
Vol. 142(7), pp. 1500-1506 
article DOI  
Abstract: Hunting is the major driver of large mammal decline in Central African forests. In slowly reproducing species even low hunting pressure leaves spatial gradients with wildlife density increasing with distance from transport routes and human settlements. Park management can use this pattern formation to identify sources of threats, but also to discriminate between different threat scenarios, such as the impact of subsistence vs. commercial hunting. We conducted an ape survey in the mountainous Moukalaba Doudou National Park, Gabon, to evaluate whether potential population gradients would emanate from the three human population centers in the region or the villages surrounding the park. Using generalized linear modeling we found hill slope as a good predictor of ape nest occurrence probability and the distance to human population centers a better predictor of ape nest density and ape nest group size than distance to villages. In fact ape nest density was three times lower at the park borders close to the human population centers than in the park's interior. The results indicate that Moukalaba's ape population is more impacted by commercial than subsistence hunting and suggest that park management should focus conservation efforts on the human population centers. We conclude that in particular for slowly reproducing species geographic information on wildlife population gradients are of additional value for guiding protected area management. The hunting impact on those species might be easily underestimated, if derived only from market surveys or transport route controls, where they are only rarely found.
BibTeX:
@article{Kuehl2009,
  author = {Kuehl, Hjalmar S. and Nzeingui, Christian and Yeno, Stephane Le Duc and Huijbregts, Bas and Boesch, Christophe and Walsh, Peter D.},
  title = {Discriminating between village and commercial hunting of apes},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {142},
  number = {7},
  pages = {1500--1506},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.02.032}
}
Kühl, H., Maisels, F., Ancrenaz, M. and Williamson, E.A. Best practice guidelines for surveys and monitoring of great ape populations 2008 School: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kuehl2008,
  author = {Kühl, H. and Maisels, F. and Ancrenaz, M. and Williamson, E. A.},
  title = {Best practice guidelines for surveys and monitoring of great ape populations},
  school = {IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland},
  year = {2008}
}
Kuitunen, M., Rossi, E. and Stenroos, A. Do highways influence density of land birds? 1998 Environmental Management
Vol. 22, pp. 297-302 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kuietal98,
  author = {Kuitunen, M. and Rossi, E. and Stenroos, A.},
  title = {Do highways influence density of land birds?},
  journal = {Environmental Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {297--302},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s002679900105}
}
Kulbicki, M., Cornuet, N., Vigliola, L., Wantiez, L., Moutham, G. and Chabanet, P. Counting coral reef fishes: interaction between fish life-history traits and transect design 2010 Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Vol. 387(1-2), pp. 15-23 
article DOI  
Abstract: Underwater visual censuses are the most commonly used methods to estimate the density of reef fish populations and assemblages. One basic assumption is that the observer will always detect fish in the same way from one sampling unit to the next, implying that, on average, the spatial distribution pattern of fish abundance or occurrence remains the same from one transect to the next (H0). The present work tested H0 using data from 730 transects covering two regions (New Caledonia and French Polynesia), 604 species and 504Â 000 fish. Within transect variations in reef fish abundance and occurrence were studied according to site factors (region, reef type), life-history traits (adult size, home range, schooling behaviour, color, pattern, swimming speed, level in the water column, inquisitiveness, crypticity), and observations characteristics (distance of observation, size of the observed fishes, number of fishes within an observation, observer identity). Two general trends were detected: 1 – at the start of transects, both fish occurrence and abundance were higher than the values expected under H0; 2 – a similar trend was also observed at the end of transects, but at a much lower magnitude. These effects were observed with varying degrees of magnitude for all regions, reef types and observers, varied significantly according to three life-history traits (size, home range, and behaviour), but were not influenced by species richness or abundance. These results indicate that datasets gathered from transects of various lengths cannot be pooled without correction. They also shed light on some of the known differences between transects and point counts.
BibTeX:
@article{Kulbicki2010,
  author = {Kulbicki, Michel and Cornuet, Nathaniel and Vigliola, Laurent and Wantiez, Laurent and Moutham, Gerard and Chabanet, Pascale},
  title = {Counting coral reef fishes: interaction between fish life-history traits and transect design},
  journal = {Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {387},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {15--23},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2010.03.003}
}
Kulbicki, M. and Sarramégna, S. Comparison of density estimates derived from strip transect and distance sampling for underwater visual censuses: a case study of Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthidae 1999 Aquatic Living Resources
Vol. 12, pp. 315-325 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KulSar99,
  author = {Kulbicki, M. and Sarramégna, S.},
  title = {Comparison of density estimates derived from strip transect and distance sampling for underwater visual censuses: a case study of Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthidae},
  journal = {Aquatic Living Resources},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {315--325},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0990-7440(99)00116-3}
}
Kumar, N.S. Ungulate density and biomass in the tropical semi-arid forest of ranthambore, india 2000 School: Salim Ali School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Pondicherry University  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kumar2000,
  author = {Kumar, N. S.},
  title = {Ungulate density and biomass in the tropical semi-arid forest of ranthambore, india},
  school = {Salim Ali School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Pondicherry University},
  year = {2000}
}
Kun-Rodrigues, C., Salmona, J., Besolo, A., Rasolondraibe, E., Rabarivola, C., Marques, T.A. and Chikhi, L. New density estimates of a threatened sifaka species (Propithecus coquereli) in Ankarafantsika National Park 2014 American Journal of Primatology
Vol. 76, pp. 515-528 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kun-Rodrigues2013,
  author = {Kun-Rodrigues, Célia and Salmona, Jordi and Besolo, Aubin and Rasolondraibe, Emmanuel and Rabarivola, Clément and Marques, Tiago A. and Chikhi, Lounès},
  title = {New density estimates of a threatened sifaka species (Propithecus coquereli) in Ankarafantsika National Park},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {76},
  pages = {515--528},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22243}
}
Kyhn, L. Passive acoustic monitoring of toothed whales, with implications for mitigation, management and biology 2010 School: Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kyhn2010,
  author = {Kyhn, Line},
  title = {Passive acoustic monitoring of toothed whales, with implications for mitigation, management and biology},
  school = {Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark},
  year = {2010}
}
Kyhn, L.A., Tougaard, J., Thomas, L., Duve, L.R., Steinback, J., Amundin, M., Desportes, G. and Teilmann, J. From echolocation clicks to animal density — acoustic sampling of harbour porpoises with static dataloggers 2012 The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Vol. 131, pp. 550-560 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{L.A.2012,
  author = {Kyhn, L. A. and Tougaard, J. and Thomas, L. and Duve, L. R. and Steinback, J. and Amundin, M. and Desportes, G. and Teilmann, J.},
  title = {From echolocation clicks to animal density — acoustic sampling of harbour porpoises with static dataloggers},
  journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {131},
  pages = {550--560},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3662070}
}
La Morgia, V., Calmanti, R., Calabrese, A. and Focardi, S. Cost-effective nocturnal distance sampling for landscape monitoring of ungulate populations 2015 European Journal of Wildlife Research
Vol. 61(2), pp. 285-298 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{LaMorgia2015,
  author = {La Morgia, Valentina and Calmanti, Roberta and Calabrese, Alessandro and Focardi, Stefano},
  title = {Cost-effective nocturnal distance sampling for landscape monitoring of ungulate populations},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {61},
  number = {2},
  pages = {285--298},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-014-0898-9}
}
Laake, J. A biologist's nightmare fairy tale of mark-recapture distance sampling 2006   unpublished  
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Laake2006,
  author = {Laake, Jeff},
  title = {A biologist's nightmare fairy tale of mark-recapture distance sampling},
  year = {2006}
}
Laake, J., Dawson, M.J. and Hone, J. Visibility bias in aerial survey: mark-recapture, line-transect or both? 2008 Wildlife Research
Vol. 35, pp. 299-309 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Laake2008,
  author = {Laake, J. and Dawson, M. J. and Hone, J.},
  title = {Visibility bias in aerial survey: mark-recapture, line-transect or both?},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {299--309},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR07034}
}
Laake, J., Guenzel, R.J., Bengtson, J.L., Boveng, P., Cameron, M. and Hanson, M.B. Coping with variation in aerial survey protocol for line-transect sampling 2008 Wildlife Research
Vol. 35, pp. 289-299 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Laake2008a,
  author = {Laake, J. and Guenzel, R. J. and Bengtson, J. L. and Boveng, P. and Cameron, M. and Hanson, M. B.},
  title = {Coping with variation in aerial survey protocol for line-transect sampling},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {289--299},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR07065}
}
Laake, J.L. Distance sampling with independent observers: reducing bias from heterogeneity by weakening the conditional independence assumption 1999 Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods, pp. 137-148  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Laa99,
  author = {Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Distance sampling with independent observers: reducing bias from heterogeneity by weakening the conditional independence assumption},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {137--148}
}
Laake, J.L. Abundance estimation of dolphins in the eastern Pacific with line transect sampling — a comparison of the techniques and suggestions for future research 1981 Report of the Workshop on Tuna– Dolphin Interactions, pp. 56-95  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Laa81,
  author = {Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Abundance estimation of dolphins in the eastern Pacific with line transect sampling — a comparison of the techniques and suggestions for future research},
  booktitle = {Report of the Workshop on Tuna– Dolphin Interactions},
  publisher = {Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, Special Report Number 4},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {56--95}
}
Laake, J.L. Line transect sampling estimators robust to animal movement 1978 School: Utah State University  mastersthesis  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{LAA78,
  author = {Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Line transect sampling estimators robust to animal movement},
  school = {Utah State University},
  year = {1978}
}
Laake, J.L. and Borchers, D.L. Methods for incomplete detection at distance zero 2004 Advanced Distance Sampling, pp. 108-189  incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{LAABOR04,
  author = {Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Methods for incomplete detection at distance zero},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {108--189}
}
Laake, J.L., Calambokidis, J.C., Osmek, S.D. and Rugh, D.J. Probability of detecting harbor porpoise from aerial surveys: estimating g(0) 1997 Journal of Wildlife Management
Vol. 61, pp. 63-75 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Laa97,
  author = {Laake, J. L. and Calambokidis, J. C. and Osmek, S. D. and Rugh, D. J.},
  title = {Probability of detecting harbor porpoise from aerial surveys: estimating g(0)},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {61},
  pages = {63--75},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802415}
}
Laake, J.L., Collier, B.A., Morrison, M.L. and Wilkins, R.N. Point-based mark-recapture distance sampling 2011 Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics
Vol. 16, pp. 389-408 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Laake2011,
  author = {Laake, J. L. and Collier, B. A. and Morrison, M. L. and Wilkins, R. N.},
  title = {Point-based mark-recapture distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {389--408},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s13253-011-0059-5}
}
Labra-Hernández, M.Á.D. and Renton, K. Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica 2017 Avian Conservation and Ecology
Vol. 12(1) 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Labra-Hernandez2017,
  author = {Miguel Ángel De Labra-Hernández and Katherine Renton},
  title = {Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica},
  journal = {Avian Conservation and Ecology},
  publisher = {Resilience Alliance, Inc.},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {12},
  number = {1},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.5751/ace-00957-120105}
}
Labrosse, P., Kulbicki, M. and Ferraris, J. Underwater visual fish census surveys: proper use and implementation 2002 School: Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia  techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Labrosse2002,
  author = {Labrosse, Pierre and Kulbicki, Michel and Ferraris, Jocelyne},
  title = {Underwater visual fish census surveys: proper use and implementation},
  school = {Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia},
  year = {2002}
}
Labrosse, P., Kulbicki, M. and Ferraris, J. Comptage visuel de poissons en plongée 2001   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Labrosse2001,
  author = {Labrosse, P. and Kulbicki, M. and Ferraris, J.},
  title = {Comptage visuel de poissons en plongée},
  publisher = {Secrétariat Général de la Communauté du Pacifique},
  year = {2001}
}
Lacki, M.J., Hummer, J.W. and Fitzgerald, J.L. Application of line transects for estimating population density of the endangered copperbelly water snake in southern Indiana 1994 Journal of Herpetology
Vol. 28, pp. 241-245 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lacetal94,
  author = {Lacki, M. J. and Hummer, J. W. and Fitzgerald, J. L.},
  title = {Application of line transects for estimating population density of the endangered copperbelly water snake in southern Indiana},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {241--245},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1564627}
}
Laguardia, A., Gobush, K.S., Bourgeois, S., Strindberg, S., Abitsi, G., Ebouta, F., Fay, J.M., Gopalaswamy, A.M., Maisels, F., Ogden, R., White, L.J.T. and Stokes, E.J. Assessing the Feasibility of Density Estimation Methodologies for African Forest Elephant at Large Spatial Scales 2021 Global Ecology and Conservation, pp. e01550  article DOI  
Abstract: Effective wildlife management requires information on population status and distribution. Survey methods that provide estimates of these population parameters can vary greatly in effort required, area covered, precision of estimates, and cost. Trade-offs are required, because increasing precision and area coverage generally requires increasing field effort and incurs a higher cost. We compare DNA- and camera trap based-spatial capture-recapture approaches (DNA-SCR and CT-SCR) to the widely-used, dung-based line transect distance sampling (LTDS) method to assess their performance when applied to three relatively large populations of forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis (>500 individuals), in order to evaluate their feasibility for future use at national and regional scales. Six of the nine surveys had a coefficient of variation below 20%; area coverage via DNA-SCR and LTDS was comparable and greatly exceeded that of the CT-SCR as applied; overall cost was highest for the LTDS surveys compared to the other two methods. We designed a new metric with which to compare survey methods: an integrated feasibility index (IFI). This combines three typical survey components: total area covered, level of precision achieved, and cost. The IFI suggests that DNA-SCR and LTDS are equally acceptable in terms of the combination of the three survey components, and that either survey method is suitable for large (national or regional) spatial scales for forest elephant density estimation. CT-SCR provides more precise estimates, but has double the IFI, due to the high cost per km2. DNA-SCR in particular, given the improvements highlighted in this study, is now being used at a national scale in Gabon. In conclusion, we recommend that the use of these spatial capture-recapture (SCR) methods, and their development, continue. Future findings and improvements should be compiled across studies to ensure their robust evolution as an option for monitoring the African forest elephant across its range and inform strategies and action for its conservation.
BibTeX:
@article{Laguardia2021,
  author = {Laguardia, A. and Gobush, K. S. and Bourgeois, S. and Strindberg, S. and Abitsi, G. and Ebouta, F. and Fay, J. M. and Gopalaswamy, A. M. and Maisels, F. and Ogden, R. and White, L. J. T. and Stokes, E. J.},
  title = {Assessing the Feasibility of Density Estimation Methodologies for Af