Distance Sampling References

An extensive but non exhaustive list of distance sampling related references

To search within these references, simply type the name of an author or subject into the "QuickSearch" box, and references containing that string will immediately be displayed. Please contact Tiago Marques (tiago.marques@st-andrews.ac.uk) for adding, removing, or correcting entries. Also very welcome are links to existing or to new references.

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AuthorYearTitleJournal/ProceedingsDOI
Aars, J., Andersen, M., Belikov, S., Boltunov, A., Buckland, S.T., Marques, T.A. and Wiig, Ø. 2005 Line transect estimate of the subpopulation size of polar bears in the Barents Sea (Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group)Polar Bears:173-175   
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Aars2005,
  author = {Aars, J. and Andersen, M. and Belikov, S. and Boltunov, A. and Buckland, S. T. and Marques, T. A. and Wiig, Ø.},
  title = {Line transect estimate of the subpopulation size of polar bears in the Barents Sea},
  booktitle = {Polar Bears},
  year = {2005},
  number = {Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group},
  pages = {173--175}
}
Aars, J., Marques, T.A., Buckland, S.T., Andersen, M., Belikov, S., Boltunov, A. and Wiig, Ø. 2009 Estimating the Barents Sea polar bear subpopulation size Marine Mammal Science 25:35-52  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Aars2008,
  author = {Aars, J. and Marques, T. A. and Buckland, S. T. and Andersen, M. and Belikov, S. and Boltunov, A. and Wiig, Ø.},
  title = {Estimating the Barents Sea polar bear subpopulation size},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {35--52},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2008.00228.x}
}
Aars, J., Marques, T., Lone, K., Andersen, M., Wiig, Ø., Fløystad, I.M.B., Hagen, S.B. and Buckland, S.T. 2017 The number and distribution of polar bears in the western Barents Sea area Polar Biology 36:1374125  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Aars2017,
  author = {Aars, Jon and Marques, Tiago and Lone, Karen and Andersen, Magnus and Wiig, Øystein and Fløystad, Ida Marie Bardalen and Hagen, Snorre B. and Buckland, Stephen T.},
  title = {The number and distribution of polar bears in the western Barents Sea area},
  journal = {Polar Biology},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {1374125},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/17518369.2017.1374125}
}
Acevedo, P., Ruiz-Fons, F., Vicente, J., Reyes-García, A.R., Alzaga, V. and Gortázar, C. 2008 Estimating red deer abundance in a wide range of management situations in Mediterranean habitats Journal Of Zoology 276:37-47  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Acevedo2008,
  author = {Acevedo, P. and Ruiz-Fons, F. and Vicente, J. and Reyes-García, A. R. and Alzaga, V. and Gortázar, C.},
  title = {Estimating red deer abundance in a wide range of management situations in Mediterranean habitats},
  journal = {Journal Of Zoology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {276},
  pages = {37--47},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00464.x}
}
Acevedo, P., Ferreres, J., Jaroso, R., Durán, M., Escudero, M.A., Marco, J. and Gortázar, C. 2010 Estimating roe deer abundance from pellet group counts in Spain: an assessment of methods suitable for Mediterranean woodlands Ecological Indicators 10:1226-1230  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Acevedo2010,
  author = {Acevedo, P. and Ferreres, J. and Jaroso, R. and Durán, M. and Escudero, M. A. and Marco, J. and Gortázar, C.},
  title = {Estimating roe deer abundance from pellet group counts in Spain: an assessment of methods suitable for Mediterranean woodlands},
  journal = {Ecological Indicators},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {1226--1230},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2010.04.006}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R. and Pollock, K.H. 1996 A combination line transect and capture recapture sampling model for multiple observers in aerial surveys Environmental and Ecological Statistics 3:311-27  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{AJPol96,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara, R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {A combination line transect and capture recapture sampling model for multiple observers in aerial surveys},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {311--27},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00539369}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R. and Pollock, K.H. 1999 Combining line transect and capture-recapture for mark-resighting studies Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods:99-114   
BibTeX:
@incollection{AJPol99,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara, R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {Combining line transect and capture-recapture for mark-resighting studies},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {99--114}
}
Akin, J.A. 1998 Fourier series estimation of ground skink population density Copeia:519-522  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Aki98,
  author = {Akin, J. A.},
  title = {Fourier series estimation of ground skink population density},
  journal = {Copeia},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {519--522},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1447455}
}
Aldrin, M., Holden, M. and Schweder, T. 2003 Comment on Cowling's "spatial methods for line transect surveys" Biometrics 59:186-88  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Aldetal03,
  author = {Aldrin, M. and Holden, M. and Schweder, T.},
  title = {Comment on Cowling's "spatial methods for line transect surveys"},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {186--88},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-0420.00022}
}
Alldredge, M.W., Simons, T.R. and Pollock, K.H. 2007 A field evaluation of distance measurement error in auditory avian point count surveys Journal of Wildlife Management 71:2759-2766  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alldredge2007,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and Simons, T. R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {A field evaluation of distance measurement error in auditory avian point count surveys},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {2759--2766},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/2006-161}
}
Alldredge, M.W., Pacifici, K., Simons, T.R. and Pollock, K.H. 2008 A novel field evaluation of the effectiveness of distance and independent observer sampling to estimate aural avian detection probabilities Journal of Applied Ecology 45:1349-1356  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alldredge2008,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and Pacifici, Krishna and Simons, T. R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {A novel field evaluation of the effectiveness of distance and independent observer sampling to estimate aural avian detection probabilities},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {1349--1356},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01517.x}
}
Allen, S.J., Pollock, K.H., Bouchet, P.J., Kobryn, H.T., McElligott, D.B., Nicholson, K.E., Smith, J.N. and Loneragan, N.R. 2017 Preliminary estimates of the abundance and fidelity of dolphins associating with a demersal trawl fishery Scientific Reports 7(1):4995  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Allen2017,
  author = {Allen, Simon J. and Pollock, Kenneth H. and Bouchet, Phil J. and Kobryn, Halina T. and McElligott, Deirdre B. and Nicholson, Krista E. and Smith, Joshua N. and Loneragan, Neil R.},
  title = {Preliminary estimates of the abundance and fidelity of dolphins associating with a demersal trawl fishery},
  journal = {Scientific Reports},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {7},
  number = {1},
  pages = {4995},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05189-0}
}
Alldredge, M.W., Simons, T.R. and Pollock, K.H. 2007 Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds Ecological Applications 17:948-955  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alletal0000b,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and Simons, T. R. and Pollock, K. H.},
  title = {Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {948--955},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/06-0685}
}
Alldredge, M.W., Pollock, K.H., Simons, T.R. and Shriner, S.A. 2007 Multiple-species analysis of point count data: a more parsimonious modeling framework Journal of Applied Ecology 44:281-290  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alletal2007a,
  author = {Alldredge, M. W. and Pollock, K. H. and Simons, T. R. and Shriner, S. A.},
  title = {Multiple-species analysis of point count data: a more parsimonious modeling framework},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {281--290},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01271.x}
}
Alldredge, J.R. and Gates, C.E. 1985 Line transect estimators for left-truncated distributions Biometrics 41:273-280  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{AllGat85,
  author = {Alldredge, J. R. and Gates, C. E.},
  title = {Line transect estimators for left-truncated distributions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {273--280},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530663}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R. 1997 Assessing assumption violation in line transect sampling School: North Carolina State University   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{ALP97,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara, R.},
  title = {Assessing assumption violation in line transect sampling},
  school = {North Carolina State University},
  year = {1997}
}
Alpizar-Jara, R., Pollock, K.H. and Haines, D.E. 2005 Mark-recapture estimators for dual frame population size of prominent nesting structures: the effect of uncertain detection probability Environmental and Ecological Statistics 12:155-168  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alpizar-Jara2005,
  author = {Alpizar-Jara, Russell and Pollock, Kenneth H. and Haines, Dawn E.},
  title = {Mark-recapture estimators for dual frame population size of prominent nesting structures: the effect of uncertain detection probability},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {155--168},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10651-005-1039-0}
}
Alves, J., da Silva, A.A., Soares, A.M.V.M. and Fonseca, C. 2013 Pellet group count methods to estimate red deer densities: precision, potential accuracy and efficiency Mammalian Biology — Zeitschrift für Saügetierkunde 78:134-141  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Alves2013a,
  author = {Alves, Joana and da Silva, António Alves and Soares, Amadeu M. V. M. and Fonseca, Carlos},
  title = {Pellet group count methods to estimate red deer densities: precision, potential accuracy and efficiency},
  journal = {Mammalian Biology — Zeitschrift für Saügetierkunde},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {78},
  pages = {134--141},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2012.08.003}
}
Ancrenaz, M., Goossens, B., Gimenez, O., Sawang, A. and Lackman-Ancrenaz, I. 2004 Determination of ape distribution and population size using ground and aerial surveys: a case study with orang-utans in lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia Animal Conservation 7:375-385  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ancrenaz2004,
  author = {Ancrenaz, Marc and Goossens, Benoit and Gimenez, Olivier and Sawang, Azri and Lackman-Ancrenaz, Isabelle},
  title = {Determination of ape distribution and population size using ground and aerial surveys: a case study with orang-utans in lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia},
  journal = {Animal Conservation},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {375--385},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S136794300400157X}
}
Ancrenaz, M., Gimenez, O., Ambu, L., Ancrenaz, K., Andau, P., Goossens, B., Payne, J., Sawang, A., Tuuga, A. and Lackman-Ancrenaz, I. 2005 Aerial surveys give new estimates for orangutans in Sabah, Malaysia PLoS biology 3(1):1-8  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ancrenaz2005,
  author = {Ancrenaz, M. and Gimenez, O. and Ambu, L. and Ancrenaz, K. and Andau, P. and Goossens, B. and Payne, J. and Sawang, A. and Tuuga, A. and Lackman-Ancrenaz, I.},
  title = {Aerial surveys give new estimates for orangutans in Sabah, Malaysia},
  journal = {PLoS biology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--8},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0030003}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Lubow, B.C., Thomas, L., Corn, P.S., Medica, P.A. and Marlow, R.W. 2001 Field trials of line transect methods applied to estimation of desert tortoise abundance Journal of Wildlife Management 65:583-597  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{AND01,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Lubow, B. C. and Thomas, L. and Corn, P. S. and Medica, P. A. and Marlow, R. W.},
  title = {Field trials of line transect methods applied to estimation of desert tortoise abundance},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {583--597},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3803111}
}
Anderson, D.R. 2003 Response to Engeman: index values rarely constitute reliable information Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:288-291  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{And03,
  author = {Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Response to Engeman: index values rarely constitute reliable information},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {288--291},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784387}
}
Anderson, D.R. 2001 The need to get the basics right in wildlife field studies Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:1294-1297  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{AND2001,
  author = {Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {The need to get the basics right in wildlife field studies},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {1294--1297},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784156}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Lubow, B.C., Thomas, L., Corn, P.S., Medica, P.A. and Marlow, R.W. 2001 Field trials of line transect methods applied to estimation of desert tortoise abundance The Journal of Wildlife Management 65(3):583-597  DOI  
Abstract: We examine the degree to which field observers can meet the assumptions underlying line transect sampling to monitor populations of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). We present the results of 2 field trials using artificial tortoise models in 3 size classes. The trials were conducted on 2 occasions on an area south of Las Vegas, Nevada, where the density of the test population was known. In the first trials, conducted largely by experienced biologists who had been involved in tortoise surveys for many years, the density of adult tortoise models was well estimated (-3.9% bias), while the bias was higher (-20%) for subadult tortoise models. The bias for combined data was -12.0%. The bias was largely attributed to the failure to detect all tortoise models on or near the transect centerline. The second trials were conducted with a group of largely inexperienced student volunteers and used somewhat different searching methods, and the results were similar to the first trials. Estimated combined density of subadult and adult tortoise models had a negative bias (-7.3%), again attributable to failure to detect some models on or near the centerline. Experience in desert tortoise biology, either comparing the first and second trials or in the second trial with 2 experienced biologists versus 16 novices, did not have an apparent effect on the quality of the data or the accuracy of the estimates. Observer training, specific to line transect sampling, and field testing are important components of a reliable survey. Line transect sampling represents a viable method for largescale monitoring of populations of desert tortoise; however, field protocol must be improved to assure the key assumptions are met.
BibTeX:
@article{anderson_field_2001,
  author = {Anderson, David R. and Burnham, Kenneth P. and Lubow, Bruce C. and Thomas, Len and Corn, Paul Stephen and Medica, Philip A. and Marlow, Ronald W.},
  title = {Field trials of line transect methods applied to estimation of desert tortoise abundance},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  publisher = {[Wiley, Wildlife Society]},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {65},
  number = {3},
  pages = {583--597},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3803111}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., White, G.C. and Otis, D.L. 1983 Density estimation of small-mammal populations using a trapping web and distance sampling methods. Ecology 64(4):674-680  DOI  
Abstract: Distance sampling methodology is adapted to enable animal density (number per unit of area) to be estimated from capture-recapture and removal data. A trapping web design provides the link between capture data and distance sampling theory. Several alternative sampling and analysis methods are possible within the general framework of distance sampling theory; a few alternatives are discussed and an example is given.
BibTeX:
@article{Anderson1983,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and White, G. C. and Otis, D. L.},
  title = {Density estimation of small-mammal populations using a trapping web and distance sampling methods.},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {64},
  number = {4},
  pages = {674--680},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1937188}
}
Anderson, A.S., Marques, T.A., Shoo, L.P. and Williams, S.E. 2015 Detectability in audio-visual surveys of tropical rainforest birds: the influence of species, weather and habitat characteristics PLoS ONE 10(6):e0128464  DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ Indices of relative abundance do not control for variation in detectability, which can bias density estimates such that ecological processes are difficult to infer. Distance sampling methods can be used to correct for detectability, but in rainforest, where dense vegetation and diverse assemblages complicate sampling, information is lacking about factors affecting their application. Rare species present an additional challenge, as data may be too sparse to fit detection functions. We present analyses of distance sampling data collected for a diverse tropical rainforest bird assemblage across broad elevational and latitudinal gradients in North Queensland, Australia. Using audio and visual detections, we assessed the influence of various factors on Effective Strip Width (ESW), an intuitively useful parameter, since it can be used to calculate an estimate of density from count data. Body size and species exerted the most important influence on ESW, with larger species detectable over greater distances than smaller species. Secondarily, wet weather and high shrub density decreased ESW for most species. ESW for several species also differed between summer and winter, possibly due to seasonal differences in calling behavior. Distance sampling proved logistically intensive in these environments, but large differences in ESW between species confirmed the need to correct for detection probability to obtain accurate density estimates. Our results suggest an evidence-based approach to controlling for factors influencing detectability, and avenues for further work including modeling detectability as a function of species characteristics such as body size and call characteristics. Such models may be useful in developing a calibration for non-distance sampling data and for estimating detectability of rare species./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Anderson2015,
  author = {Anderson, Alexander S. and Marques, Tiago A. and Shoo, Luke P. and Williams, Stephen E.},
  title = {Detectability in audio-visual surveys of tropical rainforest birds: the influence of species, weather and habitat characteristics},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {10},
  number = {6},
  pages = {e0128464},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128464}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Crain, B.R. 1978 A log-linear model approach to estimation of population size using the line-transect sampling method Ecology 59:190-193  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal78,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {A log-linear model approach to estimation of population size using the line-transect sampling method},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {190--193},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1936648}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Crain, B.R. 1979 Line transect estimation of population size: the exponential case with grouped data Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods A8:487-507  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal79a,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of population size: the exponential case with grouped data},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {A8},
  pages = {487--507},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/03610927908827776}
}
Anderson, D.R., Laake, J.L., Crain, B.R. and Burnham, K.P. 1979 Guidelines for line transect sampling of biological populations Journal of Wildlife Management 43:70-78  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal79b,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L. and Crain, B. R. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {Guidelines for line transect sampling of biological populations},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {70--78},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800636}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Crain, B.R. 1980 Some comments on Anderson and Pospahala's correction of bias in line transect sampling Biometrical Journal 22:513-524  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal80,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Some comments on Anderson and Pospahala's correction of bias in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {513--524},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.4710220607}
}
Andersen, D.E., Rongstad, O.J. and Mytton, W.R. 1985 Line transect analysis of raptor abundance along roads Wildlife Society Bulletin 13:533-539  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal85,
  author = {Andersen, D. E. and Rongstad, O. J. and Mytton, W. R.},
  title = {Line transect analysis of raptor abundance along roads},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {533--539},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782684}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Crain, B.R. 1985 Estimating population size and density using line transect sampling Biometrical Journal 27:723-731  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal85a,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Estimating population size and density using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {723--731},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.4710270702}
}
Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Crain, B.R. 1985 Some mathematical models for line transect sampling Biometrical Journal 27:741-752  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andetal85b,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Some mathematical models for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {741--752},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.4710270705}
}
Anderson, B.W. and Ohmart, R.D. 1981 Comparisons of avian census results using variable distance transect and variable circular plot techniques (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds:186-192   
BibTeX:
@incollection{AndOhm81,
  author = {Anderson, B. W. and Ohmart, R. D.},
  title = {Comparisons of avian census results using variable distance transect and variable circular plot techniques},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {186--192}
}
Andriolo, A., Piovezan, U., da Costa, M.J.R.P. and Duarte, J.M.B. 2001 Line-transect sampling method used to evaluate the impact of a flooding dam on marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) population in the Paraná river, Brazil. Deer Specialist Group News 16:1-2   
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2001,
  author = {Andriolo, Artur and Piovezan, Ubiratan and da Costa, Mateus J. R. Paranhos and Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti},
  title = {Line-transect sampling method used to evaluate the impact of a flooding dam on marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) population in the Paraná river, Brazil.},
  journal = {Deer Specialist Group News},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {1--2}
}
Andriolo, A., Piovezan, U., Costa, M.J.R.P., Laake, J. and Duarte, J.M.B. 2005 Aerial line transect survey to estimate abundance of marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) (Illiger, 1815) Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 48:807-814  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2005,
  author = {Andriolo, A. and Piovezan, U. and Costa, M. J. R. P. and Laake, J. and Duarte, J. M. B.},
  title = {Aerial line transect survey to estimate abundance of marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) (Illiger, 1815)},
  journal = {Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {807--814},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132005000600017}
}
Andriolo, A., Martins, C.C.A., Engel, M.H., Pizzorno, J.L., Mas-Rosa, S., Freitas, A.C., Morete, M.E. and Kinas, P.G. 2006 The first aerial survey to estimate abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the breeding ground off Brazil (Breeding Stock A) Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8:307-311   
Abstract: In the Southern Hemisphere, humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were heavily exploited from both coastal stations and in pelagic waters in all major ocean basins. About 200,000 whales were taken after 1900, causing declines of populations to small percentages of their pre-exploitation levels. The study presented here aimed to investigate humpback whale abundance in the Brazilian coastal breeding ground, in order to provide information to support further analysis of the population recovery. Between 25 August and 2 September 2001, a fixed wing, flat window, aircraft was used to survey transect lines along the northern limit of Bahia State (12textdegree 10'S), to the southern limit of Espírito Santo State (20textdegree 42'S). All on-effort sightings were recorded and abundance was estimated according to standard distance sampling methodology (Burnham et al., 1980; Buckland et al., 1993). Group sizes of humpback whales ranged between 1-5 and the mean group size was 1.52 (±0.06). The model that best fitted the perpendicular distance data, based on the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, was the hazard rate model. The population size estimated using uncorrected data was 1,493 (CV=0.21) whales. Surface time was used to correct the estimates for gtextasciicircum (0), resulting in a correction factor of 0.67 (±0.15). The corrected analysis for each block and combined result, increased the population size estimate to 2,229 (CV=0.31) individuals. The data from this study could be used to identify new areas appropriate for whalewatching, to monitor the status and dynamics of the humpback whale population off the Brazilian coast and to provide information for the establishment of new protected areas
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2006,
  author = {Andriolo, A. and Martins, C. C. A. and Engel, M. H. and Pizzorno, J. L. and Mas-Rosa, S. and Freitas, A. C. and Morete, M. E. and Kinas, P. G.},
  title = {The first aerial survey to estimate abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the breeding ground off Brazil (Breeding Stock A)},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {307--311}
}
Andriolo, A., Piovezan, U., da Costa, M.J.R.P., Torres, H.A., Vogliotti, A., Zerbini, A.N. and Duarte, J.M.B. 2013 Severe population decline of marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae), a threatened species, caused by flooding related to a hydroelectric power plant Zoologia (Curitiba) 30(6):630-638  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Andriolo2014,
  author = {Andriolo, Artur and Piovezan, Ubiratan and da Costa, Mateus J. R. Paranhos and Torres, Hermógenes A. and Vogliotti, Alexandre and Zerbini, Alexandre N. and Duarte, José M. B.},
  title = {Severe population decline of marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae), a threatened species, caused by flooding related to a hydroelectric power plant},
  journal = {Zoologia (Curitiba)},
  publisher = {FapUNIFESP (SciELO)},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {30},
  number = {6},
  pages = {630--638},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702013005000015}
}
Anderson, D.R. and Southwell, C. 1995 Estimates of macropod density from line transect surveys relative to analyst expertise Journal of Wildlife Management 59:852-857  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{AndSou95,
  author = {Anderson, D. R. and Southwell, C.},
  title = {Estimates of macropod density from line transect surveys relative to analyst expertise},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {852--857},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801966}
}
Anganuzzi, A.A., Catanach, K.L. and Buckland, S.T. 1992 Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical pacific in 1990 and trends since 1975, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data Report of the International Whaling Commission 42:541-547   
BibTeX:
@article{Anganuzzi1992,
  author = {Anganuzzi, A. A. and Catanach, K. L. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical pacific in 1990 and trends since 1975, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {541--547}
}
Anganuzzi, A.A. and Buckland, S.T. 1989 Reducing bias in estimated trends from dolphin abundance indices derived from tuna vessel data Report of the International Whaling Commission 39:323-334   
BibTeX:
@article{AngBuc89,
  author = {Anganuzzi, A. A. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Reducing bias in estimated trends from dolphin abundance indices derived from tuna vessel data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {323--334}
}
Anganuzzi, A.A., Buckland, S.T. and Cattanach, K.L. 1991 Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data for 1988 and 1989 Report of the International Whaling Commission 41:497-506   
BibTeX:
@article{Angetal91,
  author = {Anganuzzi, A. A. and Buckland, S. T. and Cattanach, K. L.},
  title = {Relative abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, estimated from tuna vessel sightings data for 1988 and 1989},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {497--506}
}
Anthony, R.M. and Stehn, R.A. 1994 Navigating aerial transects with a laptop computer map Wildlife Society Bulletin 22:674-676  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{AntSte94,
  author = {Anthony, R. M. and Stehn, R. A.},
  title = {Navigating aerial transects with a laptop computer map},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {674--676},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3783096}
}
Applegate, R.D., Jr, R.E.K., Moss, E.D., Warr, E.L. and Kennedy, M.L. 2011 Problems with avian point counts for estimating density of northern bobwhite— a case study Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 2:117-121  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Applegate2011,
  author = {Applegate, Roger D. and Jr, Robert E. Kissell and Moss, E. Daniel and Warr, Edward L. and Kennedy, Michael L.},
  title = {Problems with avian point counts for estimating density of northern bobwhite— a case study},
  journal = {Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {117--121},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3996/092010-JFWM-033}
}
Arandhara, S., Sathishkumar, S. and Baskaran, N. 2020 Modelling the effect of covariates on the detectability and density of native blackbucks and invasive feral-horse using Multiple Covariate Distance Sampling at Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern India Mammalian Biology 100(2):173-186  DOI  
Abstract: Reliable estimates of population size and a knowledge of determinants of detectability and density estimates are crucial for effective conservation of species. Using Multiple Covariate Distance Sampling (MCDS), we modelled the influence of covariates on detection probability and density estimates of native blackbuck Antilope cervicapra and the invasive feral-horse Equus caballus at Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary. Grids of 1,texttimes,1 km size were overlaid on the study area with a 1-km line transect in alternate grid cells. Sixteen transects were walked four times each, which detected 199 blackbuck and 152 feral-horse clusters. On each sighting, the climatic, habitat and anthropogenic covariates were recorded, which are likely to affect detection probability. At first, exploratory analyses were made using Conventional Distance Sampling (CDS) to arrive at estimates. Later, in Multiple Covariate Distance Sampling (MCDS), key models were fit into the dataset after selecting the potential covariates that had a significant effect on detection distances obtained from FAMD/PCA, and the best one was selected based on AIC. The MCDS analysis in blackbuck included covariates, viz., distance to water in the best model (29 individuals/km2; CI,22– 36; detection probability,=,0.58), followed by distance to feral-horse, sampling time and principal diet. The covariate distance to water emerged as the best model for feral-horse as well (13 individuals/km2; CI,9– 18; detection probability,=,0.36), followed by distance to cattle and principal diet. While the MCDS approach outperformed the CDS global and survey-strata estimates in blackbuck, both the approaches had a marginal difference in feral-horse. Post-stratification analysis showed that blackbuck density increased significantly with distance to water and feral-horse, but insignificantly with the absence of principal diet; whereas, the density of the feral-horse increased significantly with distance to water and cattle in the presence of principal diet. These findings suggest the ability of feral-horse to keep the blackbuck away from optimal areas, where the principal diet is abundant. Our study, thus, illustrates the need for the use of MCDS approach that ascertained (i) reliable population density estimates, (ii) spatiotemporal constraint on large herbivores caused by overabundance of water during the wet season, and (iii) competitive interaction of the invasive feral-horse with the native blackbuck and its likely effect on the latter keeping away from the former and the principal diet to overcome competition. Thus, the study highlights the impact of feral-horse on the native species and suggests measures for the long-term conservation of the blackbuck.
BibTeX:
@article{arandhara_modelling_2020,
  author = {Arandhara, Subhasish and Sathishkumar, Selvarasu and Baskaran, Nagarajan},
  title = {Modelling the effect of covariates on the detectability and density of native blackbucks and invasive feral-horse using Multiple Covariate Distance Sampling at Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern India},
  journal = {Mammalian Biology},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {100},
  number = {2},
  pages = {173--186},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s42991-020-00018-w}
}
Araújo, H., Bastos-Santos, J., Rodrigues, P.C., Ferreira, M., Pereira, A., Henriques, A.C., Monteiro, S.S., Eira, C. and Vingada, J. 2017 The importance of Portuguese continental shelf waters to Balearic shearwaters revealed by aerial census Marine Biology 164(3):55  DOI  
Abstract: The Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus is one of the most threatened seabirds in the world. To evaluate the abundance and distribution of Balearic Shearwaters in Portuguese Continental Shelf Waters, during the post-breeding period when migrating birds are outside the Mediterranean Sea, we conducted 5 aerial surveys between 2010 and 2014 (21 survey days covering 62,716Â km2). Following a line transect method, observers recorded a total of 181 Balearic Shearwaters sightings. Using Distance sampling software, we estimated an overall species abundance (2010– 2014) of 10,182, ranging between 2338 in 2010 and 23,221 individuals in 2012. During the 2012 post-breeding period, the Portuguese Continental Shelf Waters were used by up to 96.8% of the latest migratory population assessment. Considering Balearic Shearwater estimates per sampling block, there was a preference for the North and Center sectors of the Portuguese coast (respectively, 7058 and 1366 individuals) where several SPAs were already designated. We computed the annual and overall habitat predictive models for Balearic Shearwaters using a maximum entropy algorithm on MaxEnt software. In all models, the Balearic shearwater distribution was best predicted by mean chlorophyll concentration. Balearic Shearwaters are mostly present in shallow shelf and coastal waters particularly in the widest portions of the continental shelf. These areas are strongly influenced by upwelling, which concurs with the chlorophyll concentration being the most important predicting variable. Portuguese Continental Shelf Waters are one of the most important post-breeding grounds to the Balearic Shearwater.
BibTeX:
@article{Araujo2017,
  author = {Araújo, Hélder and Bastos-Santos, Jorge and Rodrigues, Pedro Correia and Ferreira, Marisa and Pereira, Andreia and Henriques, Ana Catarina and Monteiro, Sílvia S. and Eira, Catarina and Vingada, José},
  title = {The importance of Portuguese continental shelf waters to Balearic shearwaters revealed by aerial census},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {164},
  number = {3},
  pages = {55},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-017-3089-x}
}
Arendt, W.J., Gibbons, D.W. and Gray, G. 1999 Status of the volcanically threatened Montserrat oriole Icterus oberi and other forest birds in Montserrat, West Indies Bird Conservation International 9(4):351-372  DOI  
Abstract: The Montserrat Oriole Icterus oberi is endemic to the Caribbean island of Montserrat where, prior to 1995, it was widely distributed across the island's three main interior mountain ranges: the Centre, Soufriere and South Soufriere Hills. In July 1995, a long-dormant volcano on Chances Peak in the Soufriere Hills began to erupt. Since then the forest habitat of the oriole on the Soufriere and South Soufriere Hills has been devastated by pyroclastic flows and surges, heavy ash eruptions and rock falls. The Montserrat Oriole populations that inhabited these two mountain ranges have probably been lost. In December 1997, a census of the remaining Centre Hills population was undertaken to assess its status in the face of the heavy ash fall that occurred earlier the same year. To do this, a systematic grid of 140 sample points was overlaid on an area of 1,437⋅5 ha encompassing the Centre Hills, and a 10-minute count of all bird species was undertaken at 137 of these points during an eight-day survey period. The distance from the point to each oriole detected was measured and records of all other species were allocated to one of five distance bands radiating out from the point. Distance sampling was used to model densities, and thus to estimate population sizes, of eight bird species in the study area. It was estimated that 4,000 (95% CIs 1,500-7,800) Montserrat Orioles remain in the Centre Hills and thus the world. Although the probability of pyroclastic flows and surges overrunning the Centre Hills is considered remote, it is recommended that the Montserrat Oriole be classified as Globally Threatened (Endangered) under the revised IUCN threat categories because of its loss of breeding habitat since 1995.
BibTeX:
@article{Arendt1999,
  author = {Arendt, W. J. and Gibbons, D. W. and Gray, G.},
  title = {Status of the volcanically threatened Montserrat oriole Icterus oberi and other forest birds in Montserrat, West Indies},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {9},
  number = {4},
  pages = {351--372},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S095927090000352X}
}
Asefa, A., Davies, A.B., McKechnie, A.E., Kinahan, A.A. and van Rensburg, B.J. 2017 Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on bird diversity in ethiopian montane forests The Condor 119(3):416-430  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Asefa2017,
  author = {Asefa, Addisu and Davies, Andrew B. and McKechnie, Andrew E. and Kinahan, Anouska A. and van Rensburg, Berndt J.},
  title = {Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on bird diversity in ethiopian montane forests},
  journal = {The Condor},
  publisher = {American Ornithological Society},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {119},
  number = {3},
  pages = {416--430},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1650/CONDOR-16-81.1}
}
Ashenafi, Z.T., Coulson, T., Sillero-Zubiri, C. and Leader-Williams, N. 2005 Behaviour and ecology of the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in a human-dominated landscape outside protected areas Animal Conservation 8:113-121  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ashenafi2005,
  author = {Ashenafi, Z. T. and Coulson, T. and Sillero-Zubiri, C. and Leader-Williams, N.},
  title = {Behaviour and ecology of the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in a human-dominated landscape outside protected areas},
  journal = {Animal Conservation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {113--121},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S1367943005001952}
}
Astrup, R., Ducey, M., Granhus, A., Ritter, T. and von Lüpke, N. 2014 Approaches for estimating stand-level volume using terrestrial laser scanning in a single-scan mode Canadian Journal of Forest Research 44(6):666-676  DOI  
Abstract: The most efficient way to obtain stand inventory data with terrestrial laser systems (TLS) is with the single-scan mode, which involves taking one scan at a single point. With a single-scan setup, there will be a nondetection of trees in a plot and the representation of the individual trees will be incomplete. We explore how stand-level volume estimates, based on the single-scan mode, perform compared with standard inventory estimates. We base our study on 166 plots in 12 mature stands dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) in southern Norway. First, we compare individual-tree volume estimates from TLS with estimates from volume functions and measurements from harvesters. We show that individual-tree volumes can be estimated with high precision and accuracy with TLS in single-scan mode. Secondly, we test three approaches for correction of nondetection relying on model-based estimates of the detection probability obtained by point transect sampling estimators. We show that all three approaches adjust for nondetection and yield stand-level volume estimates that are similar to those obtained by fixed-area sampling. In conclusion, our results indicate that stand-level volume estimates, based on single-scan mode TLS data, perform well compared with standard inventory estimates.
BibTeX:
@article{Astrup2014,
  author = {Astrup, R. and Ducey, M. and Granhus, A. and Ritter, T. and von Lüpke, N.},
  title = {Approaches for estimating stand-level volume using terrestrial laser scanning in a single-scan mode},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Forest Research},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {44},
  number = {6},
  pages = {666--676},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2013-0535}
}
Atkinson, A.J., Yang, B.S., Fisher, R.N., Ervin, E., Case, T.J., Scott, N. and Shaffer, H.B. 2003 MCP Camp Pendleton arroyo toad monitoring protocol    
BibTeX:
@book{Atketal03,
  author = {Atkinson, A. J. and Yang, B. S. and Fisher, R. N. and Ervin, E. and Case, T. J. and Scott, N. and Shaffer, H. B.},
  title = {MCP Camp Pendleton arroyo toad monitoring protocol},
  publisher = {Western Ecological Research Center, U. S. Geological Survey},
  year = {2003}
}
Atuo, F.A. and O'Connell, T.J. 2017 The landscape of fear as an emergent property of heterogeneity: contrasting patterns of predation risk in grassland ecosystems Ecology and Evolution:1-12  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Atuo2017,
  author = {Atuo, Fidelis Akunke and O'Connell, Timothy John},
  title = {The landscape of fear as an emergent property of heterogeneity: contrasting patterns of predation risk in grassland ecosystems},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {1--12},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3021}
}
Averill-Murray, R.C. and Averill-Murray, A. 2005 Regional-scale estimation of density and habitat use of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in Arizona Journal of Herpetology 39(1):65-72  DOI  
Abstract: Desert Tortoise surveys and management in the Sonoran Desert typically exclude intermountain valleys, where tortoises are generally thought to be absent. Furthermore, few regional-level surveys have been conducted because of difficulties in sampling in the complex landscape of Sonoran Desert upland habitat. We used distance-sampling to document macrohabitat use and regional density of Desert Tortoises across the 76,800-ha Ironwood Forest National Monument in Arizona. We observed 42 tortoises on transects, and distance sampling produced an estimate of 17,997 tortoises ? 150 mm carapace length (coefficient of variation = 41.5%) on the monument. Stratification by habitat type (steep topography with boulders, incised washes, or neither of these components) improved precision slightly (37.2%). Detection probability contributed least to density variance, compared to encounter rate and tortoise detectability on the transect line, indicating that assumptions of the technique were met during sampling. We found tortoises or their sign on 92% of transects in boulder habitat, on 71% that included incised washes, and on 25% in habitat with neither of these features (up to 1.7 km away from the nearest slope). Our results indicate that Desert Tortoises in the Sonoran Desert occur at low density, but are not absent, from intermountain valleys, and the maintenance of these valleys for tortoise movement between local populations may be important for long-term population viability. With this in mind, concentrating survey effort in areas with steep topography and boulders will increase tortoise encounter rate, result in better precision of regional density and trend estimates, and may also reduce survey effort.
BibTeX:
@article{Averill-Murray2005,
  author = {Averill-Murray, R. C. and Averill-Murray, A.},
  title = {Regional-scale estimation of density and habitat use of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in Arizona},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39},
  number = {1},
  pages = {65--72},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1670/0022-1511(2005)039%5B0065:REODAH%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Azhar, B., Zakaria, M., Yusof, E. and Leong, P.C. 2008 Efficiency of fixed-width transect and line-transect-based distance sampling to survey red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) in peninsular Malaysia Journal of Sustainable Development 1:63-73   
BibTeX:
@article{Azhar2008,
  author = {Azhar, Badrul and Zakaria, Mohamed and Yusof, Ebil and Leong, Puan Chong},
  title = {Efficiency of fixed-width transect and line-transect-based distance sampling to survey red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) in peninsular Malaysia},
  journal = {Journal of Sustainable Development},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {63--73}
}
Baccaro, F.B. and Ferraz, G. 2012 Estimating density of ant nests using distance sampling Insectes Sociaux 60:103-110  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baccaro2012,
  author = {Baccaro, F. B. and Ferraz, G.},
  title = {Estimating density of ant nests using distance sampling},
  journal = {Insectes Sociaux},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {103--110},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00040-012-0274-2}
}
Bachl, F.E., Lindgren, F., Borchers, D.L. and Illian, J.B. 2019 Inlabru: an R package for Bayesian spatial modelling from ecological survey data Methods in Ecology and Evolution 10(6):760-766  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bachl2019,
  author = {Bachl, Fabian E. and Lindgren, Finn and Borchers, David L. and Illian, Janine B.},
  title = {Inlabru: an R package for Bayesian spatial modelling from ecological survey data},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {10},
  number = {6},
  pages = {760--766},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.13168}
}
Bächler, E. and Liechti, F. 2007 On the importance of g(0) for estimating bird population densities with standard distance-sampling: implications from a telemetry study and a literature review Ibis 149:693-700  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baechler2007,
  author = {Bächler, Erich and Liechti, Felix},
  title = {On the importance of g(0) for estimating bird population densities with standard distance-sampling: implications from a telemetry study and a literature review},
  journal = {Ibis},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {149},
  pages = {693--700},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.2007.00689.x}
}
Bagchi, S., Goyal, S.P. and Sankar, K. 2004 Herbivore density and biomass in a semi-arid tropical dry deciduous forest of western India Journal of Tropical Ecology 20(4):475-478  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bagchi2004,
  author = {Bagchi, S. and Goyal, S. P. and Sankar, K.},
  title = {Herbivore density and biomass in a semi-arid tropical dry deciduous forest of western India},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {20},
  number = {4},
  pages = {475--478},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S026646740400166X}
}
Baird, R.W. and Burkhart, S.M. 2000 Bias and variability in distance estimation on the water: implications for the management of whale watching (SC/52/WW1)School: IWC   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Baird2000,
  author = {Baird, R. W. and Burkhart, S. M.},
  title = {Bias and variability in distance estimation on the water: implications for the management of whale watching},
  school = {IWC},
  year = {2000},
  number = {SC/52/WW1}
}
Bakermans, M.H., Vitz, A.C., Rodewald, A.D. and Rengifo, C.G. 2009 Migratory songbird use of shade coffee in the venezuelan andes with implications for conservation of cerulean warbler Biological Conservation 142(11):2476-2483  DOI  
Abstract: Although previous studies have demonstrated high use of shade coffee plantations by Neotropical migratory birds, we still have a poor understanding of the suitability of shade coffee plantations as habitat on the wintering grounds. We studied density, body condition, and survivorship of Neotropical migrants, with emphasis on cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea), in primary forest and shade coffee plantations in Venezuela. We worked in three primary forest sites and three shade coffee plantations on the western slope of the Cordillera de MÃtextcopyright rida of the Andes Mountains. At each site, we surveyed migrants with distance-based line transects and mist-netted and banded migrants during November-February 2005/06 and 2006/07. In addition, we estimated apparent monthly survival for cerulean warbler based on 29 color-banded individuals. Densities of migrants were 3-14× higher in shade coffee plantations than primary forest sites, even after accounting for differences in detectability. Apparent monthly survival of cerulean warblers was estimated at 97% and overwinter persistence was similarly high. In addition, cerulean warblers demonstrated high between-season fidelity, with 65% of the birds banded the first year being resighted during the second year. Interestingly, immature birds returned at nearly half the rate as did adults. Banding data indicated that body condition increased significantly as the season progressed for cerulean warblers, Tennessee warblers (Vermivora peregrina), and American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla). Collectively, these data provide evidence that shade coffee plantations offer high quality wintering habitat for Neotropical migrants, including cerulean warblers.
BibTeX:
@article{Bakermans2009,
  author = {Bakermans, Marja H. and Vitz, Andrew C. and Rodewald, Amanda D. and Rengifo, Carlos G.},
  title = {Migratory songbird use of shade coffee in the venezuelan andes with implications for conservation of cerulean warbler},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {142},
  number = {11},
  pages = {2476--2483},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.05.018}
}
Bal, P. 2010 Estimating gopher tortoise abundance through design-based and model-based methods School: Univeristy of St Andrews   
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Bal2010,
  author = {Bal, Payal},
  title = {Estimating gopher tortoise abundance through design-based and model-based methods},
  school = {Univeristy of St Andrews},
  year = {2010}
}
Baldi, R., Albon, S.D. and Elston, D.A. 2001 Guanacos and sheep: evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia Oecologia 129:561-570  DOI  
Abstract: Guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are the only wild ungulate species widely distributed across the Patagonian steppe and have undergone a precipitous population decline since the introduction of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) 100 years ago. There has been speculation that sheep ranching may have played a major role in guanaco population decline after monopolising the most productive land because of competition for forage plants. Our aim in this work was to estimate guanaco abundance and account for its variation across nine different sites, two seasons and two years. We conducted over 100 ground surveys of both guanacos and sheep and estimated the availability of the preferred plant species both animal species might select in their diet. We found that (1) sheep densities were up to 23 times higher than guanaco densities in sympatric conditions, (2) at a protected site without sheep, guanaco density was one order of magnitude higher than at the rest of the sites, (3) across nine different sites, sheep densities alone accounted for around 60% of the variation in guanaco abundance, (4) guanaco densities were negatively related to both total plant cover and availability of the preferred plant species in their diet, which were both positively associated with sheep density, and (5) within-site changes in guanaco densities between seasons and years were negatively related to changes in sheep densities. Our results are consistent with predictions on interspecific competition for food resources, although we cannot rule out possible effects of other human-related activities influencing guanaco abundance. We conclude that sheep compete with guanacos for forage in arid Patagonia.
BibTeX:
@article{Baldi2001,
  author = {Baldi, R. and Albon, S. D. and Elston, D. A.},
  title = {Guanacos and sheep: evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia},
  journal = {Oecologia},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {129},
  pages = {561--570},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420100770}
}
Balph, M.H., Stoddart, S.L. and Balph D., H. 1977 A simple technique for analyzing bird transect counts The Auk 94:606-607   
BibTeX:
@article{Baletal77,
  author = {Balph, M. H. and Stoddart, S. L. and Balph D., H.},
  title = {A simple technique for analyzing bird transect counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {94},
  pages = {606--607}
}
Baldi, A. and Kisbenedek, T. 1999 Species-specific distribution of reed-nesting passerine birds across reed-bed edges: effects of spatial scale and edge type Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 45:97-114   
BibTeX:
@article{BalKis99,
  author = {Baldi, A. and Kisbenedek, T.},
  title = {Species-specific distribution of reed-nesting passerine birds across reed-bed edges: effects of spatial scale and edge type},
  journal = {Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {97--114}
}
Ball, S.J., Ramsey, D., Nugent, G., Warburton, B. and Efford, M. 2005 A method for estimating wildlife detection probabilities in relation to home-range use: insights from a field study on the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) Wildlife Research 32(3):217-227  DOI  
Abstract: Using field data from brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), we present a method for modelling wildlife detection probabilities. Whereas detection functions typically (e.g. for distance sampling) describe the probability of direct human observations of animal subjects, we adapted this approach for cryptic species where observation depends on animals being caught in traps. Specifically, we characterised the probability of individual brushtail possums being caught by leg-hold traps in an area of farmland and native forest in New Zealand. Detection probability was defined as the per-individual, per-trap, per-night probability of a possum being captured, and was modelled as a function of home-range utilisation. Radio-telemetry was used to define the home-range distributions of 18 possums, and a combination of scanning radio-receivers and movement-activated video-cameras recorded instances when radio-collared possums encountered and stepped on the trigger of leg-hold traps (inactivated by being wired open). We estimated a 5% chance of trapping individual possums with a single leg-hold trap located in the centre of their home range for one night (median value across possums). Furthermore, this probability decreased rapidly as a function of distance, so that at 120 m from the centre of the home range there was less than a 1% chance of trapping success per possum per night. The techniques developed in this study could be applied to a wide variety of species and sampling methods. textcopyright CSIRO 2005.
BibTeX:
@article{Ball2005,
  author = {Ball, S. J. and Ramsey, D. and Nugent, G. and Warburton, B. and Efford, M.},
  title = {A method for estimating wildlife detection probabilities in relation to home-range use: insights from a field study on the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {32},
  number = {3},
  pages = {217--227},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR03125}
}
Ballance, L.T. and Pitman, R.L. 1998 Cetaceans of the western tropical Indian Ocean: distribution, relative abundance, and comparisons with cetacean communities of two other tropical ecosystems Marine Mammal Science 14:429-459  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BalPit98,
  author = {Ballance, L. T. and Pitman, R. L.},
  title = {Cetaceans of the western tropical Indian Ocean: distribution, relative abundance, and comparisons with cetacean communities of two other tropical ecosystems},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {429--459},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00736.x}
}
Barnes, R.F.W. 2001 How reliable are dung counts for estimating elephant numbers? African Journal of Ecology 39:1-9  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bar01,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W.},
  title = {How reliable are dung counts for estimating elephant numbers?},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {1--9},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2001.00266.x}
}
Barlow, J. 2006 Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters estimated from a summer/fall survey in 2002 Marine Mammal Science 22(2):446-464  DOI  
Abstract: Cetacean abundance is estimated for the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the Hawaiian Islands based on a ship line-transect survey from August to November, 2002. Sighting detection functions are estimated from this and other NOAA research surveys from 1986 to 2002 using a new, multiple-covariate approach. Twenty-four species were seen on this survey, including two species (Fraser's dolphin [Lagenodelphis hosei] and sei whale [Balaenoptera borealis]) that had not been previously documented to occur in Hawaiian waters. The most abundant large whales are sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) and Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni). The most abundant delphinids are pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis), Fraser's dolphins, spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Dwarf and pygmy sperm whales (Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) are also estimated to be quite abundant. Some of the migratory baleen whales (fin whales [Balaenoptera physalus], sei whales, minke whales [B. acutorostrata], and humpback whales [Megaptera novaeangliae]) were seen only late in the survey. Abundance is estimated for 19 cetacean species. The overall density of cetaceans is low in the study area, especially for delphinids. The precision of density and abundance estimates is generally low for all species because of the low number of sightings. textcopyright 2006 the Society for Marine Mammalogy.
BibTeX:
@article{Bar06,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters estimated from a summer/fall survey in 2002},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {22},
  number = {2},
  pages = {446--464},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2006.00032.x}
}
Barlow, J. 1988 Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, abundance estimation for California, Oregon and Washington: I. ship surveys Fishery Bulletin 86:417-431   
BibTeX:
@article{Bar88,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, abundance estimation for California, Oregon and Washington: I. ship surveys},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {86},
  pages = {417--431}
}
Barlow, J. 1994 Abundance of large whales in California coastal waters: a comparison of ship surveys in 1979/80 and in 1991 Report of the International Whaling Commission 44:399-406   
BibTeX:
@article{Bar94,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Abundance of large whales in California coastal waters: a comparison of ship surveys in 1979/80 and in 1991},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {399--406}
}
Barlow, J. 1997 Preliminary estimates of cetacean abundance off California, Oregon, and Washington based on a 1996 ship survey and comparisons of passing and closing modes (LJ-97-11)   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Bar97,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Preliminary estimates of cetacean abundance off California, Oregon, and Washington based on a 1996 ship survey and comparisons of passing and closing modes},
  year = {1997},
  number = {LJ-97-11}
}
Barlow, J. 1999 Trackline detection probability for long-diving whales Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods:209-221   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bar99,
  author = {Barlow, J.},
  title = {Trackline detection probability for long-diving whales},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {209--221}
}
Barabesi, L. 2000 Local likelihood density estimation in line transect sampling Environmetrics 11(4):413-422  DOI  
Abstract: A novel semiparametric estimator for the probability density function of detected distances in line transect sampling is proposed. The estimator is obtained using a local likelihood density estimation approach, a technique recently proposed which affords the advantages of both parametric and nonparametric methods, i.e. accuracy and robustness. Moreover, a procedure for the selection of the local likelihood bandwidth is obtained. The performance of the proposed estimator with respect to some existing nonparametric and semiparametric estimators is assessed by means of a Monte Carlo study. Finally, a real data set is analyzed. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Barabesi2000,
  author = {Barabesi, L.},
  title = {Local likelihood density estimation in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {11},
  number = {4},
  pages = {413--422},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-095X(200007/08)11:4%3C413::AID-ENV422%3E3.0.CO;2-P}
}
Barabesi, L., Greco, L. and Naddeo, S. 2002 Density estimation in line transect sampling with grouped data by local least squares Environmetrics 13:167-176  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Barabesi2002,
  author = {Barabesi, Lucio and Greco, Luigi and Naddeo, Stefania},
  title = {Density estimation in line transect sampling with grouped data by local least squares},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {167--176},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/env.524}
}
Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L. 2012 Random versus stratified location of transects or points in distance sampling: theoretical results and practical considerations Environmental and Ecological Statistics 20(2):215-236  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Barabesi2012,
  author = {Barabesi, Lucio and Fattorini, Lorenzo},
  title = {Random versus stratified location of transects or points in distance sampling: theoretical results and practical considerations},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {20},
  number = {2},
  pages = {215--236},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10651-012-0216-1}
}
Barnes, R.F.W. and Barnes, K.L. 1992 Estimating decay rates of elephant dung-piles in forest African Journal of Ecology 30:316-321  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BarBar92,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W. and Barnes, K. L.},
  title = {Estimating decay rates of elephant dung-piles in forest},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {316--321},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1992.tb00508.x}
}
Barbraud, C. and Thiebot, J.-B. 2009 On the importance of estimating detection probabilities from at-sea surveys of flying seabirds Journal of Avian Biology 40:1-7  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Barbraud2009,
  author = {Barbraud, Christophe and Thiebot, Jean-Baptiste},
  title = {On the importance of estimating detection probabilities from at-sea surveys of flying seabirds},
  journal = {Journal of Avian Biology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {1--7},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-048X.2009.04653.x}
}
Bårdsen, B.-J. and Fox, J.L. 2006 Evaluation of line transect sampling for density estimates of chiru Pantholops hodgsoni in the Aru Basin, Tibet Wildlife Biology 12:89-100  DOI  
Abstract: The chiru or Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni has dramatically decreased in number over recent decades, and efficient monitoring of the density and distribution of chiru is vital to the management of this endangered species. We evaluated line transect sampling methodology, using track and cross-county transects, and assessed its conformity to underlying assumptions for use in estimating density of chiru in the ca 2,300 km2 Aru Basin, Tibet. Although violations of some assumptions were apparent, they were generally not substantial, and simple adjustments of sampling design can reduce their effects in future surveys. Sampling effort was not sufficient to demonstrate clear seasonal differences in chiru density between summer and autumn. However, cross-country transects on the west side of the study area did show a statistically significant higher autumn than summer density, and encounter rates (the number of detections per km) were significantly higher for both transect types in autumn. We tested for an expected negative bias associated with track transects, and although a clear difference in estimated density was not found, a significantly higher encounter rate was present for cross-country than for track transects. With increased sampling effort and a more effective design in future surveys, line transect sampling will be a useful methodology for assessment of chiru populations. textcopyright Wildlife Biology (2006).
BibTeX:
@article{Bardsen2006,
  author = {Bårdsen, B.-J. and Fox, J. L.},
  title = {Evaluation of line transect sampling for density estimates of chiru Pantholops hodgsoni in the Aru Basin, Tibet},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {89--100},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2981/0909-6396(2006)12%5B89:EOLTSF%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Barnes, R.F.W. and Dunn, A. 2002 Estimating forest elephant density in Sapo National Park (liberia) with a rainfall model African Journal of Ecology 40:159-163  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BarDun02,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W. and Dunn, A.},
  title = {Estimating forest elephant density in Sapo National Park (liberia) with a rainfall model},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {159--163},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2028.2002.00362.x}
}
Bart, J., Droege, S., Geissler, P., Peterjohn, B. and Ralph, C.J. 2004 Density estimation in wildlife surveys Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:1242-1247  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal04,
  author = {Bart, J. and Droege, S. and Geissler, P. and Peterjohn, B. and Ralph, C. J.},
  title = {Density estimation in wildlife surveys},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {1242--1247},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/0091-7648(2004)032%5B1242:DEIWS%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Barlow, J., Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J. 2001 Factors affecting perpendicular sighting distances on shipboard line-transect surveys for cetaceans Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3:201-212   
BibTeX:
@article{baretal2001,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J.},
  title = {Factors affecting perpendicular sighting distances on shipboard line-transect surveys for cetaceans},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {201--212}
}
Barnes, A., Hill, G.J.E. and Wilson, G.R. 1986 Correcting for incomplete sighting in aerial surveys of kangaroos Australian Wildlife Research 13:339-348  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal86,
  author = {Barnes, A. and Hill, G. J. E. and Wilson, G. R.},
  title = {Correcting for incomplete sighting in aerial surveys of kangaroos},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {339--348},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9860339}
}
Barlow, J., Oliver, C.W., Jackson, T.D. and Taylor, B.L. 1988 Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, abundance estimation for California, Oregon and Washington: II. aerial surveys Fishery Bulletin 86:433-444   
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal88,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Oliver, C. W. and Jackson, T. D. and Taylor, B. L.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, abundance estimation for California, Oregon and Washington: II. aerial surveys},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {86},
  pages = {433--444}
}
Barnes, R.F.W., Blom, A., Alers, M.P.T. and Barnes, K.L. 1995 An estimate of the numbers of forest elephants in Gabon Journal of Tropical Ecology 11:27-37  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal95,
  author = {Barnes, R. F. W. and Blom, A. and Alers, M. P. T. and Barnes, K. L.},
  title = {An estimate of the numbers of forest elephants in Gabon},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {27--37},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400008361}
}
Barlow, J., Gerrodette, T. and Silber, G. 1997 First estimates of vaquita abundance Marine Mammal Science 13:44-58  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Baretal97,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Gerrodette, T. and Silber, G.},
  title = {First estimates of vaquita abundance},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {44--58},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1997.tb00611.x}
}
Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L. 1993 Asymptotic properties of orthogonal series density estimators in line transect sampling with grouped data Metron 51:59-81   
BibTeX:
@article{BarFat93,
  author = {Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L.},
  title = {Asymptotic properties of orthogonal series density estimators in line transect sampling with grouped data},
  journal = {Metron},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {59--81}
}
Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L. 1994 A note on bandwidth selections for kernel density estimators at endpoints Metron 52:43-56   
BibTeX:
@article{BarFat94,
  author = {Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L.},
  title = {A note on bandwidth selections for kernel density estimators at endpoints},
  journal = {Metron},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {43--56}
}
Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L. 1998 The use of replicated plot, line and point sampling for estimating species abundance and ecological diversity Environmental and Ecological Statistics 5:353-370  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BarFat98,
  author = {Barabesi, L. and Fattorini, L.},
  title = {The use of replicated plot, line and point sampling for estimating species abundance and ecological diversity},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {353--370},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009655821836}
}
Bart, J. and Herrick, J. 1984 Diurnal timing of bird surveys The Auk 101:384-387  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BarHer84,
  author = {Bart, J. and Herrick, J.},
  title = {Diurnal timing of bird surveys},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {384--387},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/101.2.405}
}
Barlow, J. and Taylor, B. 2001 Estimates of large whale abundance off California, Oregon, Washington, and Baja California based on 1993 and 1996 ship surveys (LJ-01-03)School: National Marine Fisheries Center   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Barlow2001,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Taylor, B.},
  title = {Estimates of large whale abundance off California, Oregon, Washington, and Baja California based on 1993 and 1996 ship surveys},
  school = {National Marine Fisheries Center},
  year = {2001},
  number = {LJ-01-03}
}
Barlow, J. 2003 Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters during summer/fall of 2002 (LJ-03-13)School: Southwest Fisheries Science Center   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Barlow2003,
  author = {Barlow, Jay},
  title = {Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters during summer/fall of 2002},
  school = {Southwest Fisheries Science Center},
  year = {2003},
  number = {LJ-03-13}
}
Barlow, J. and Taylor, B.L. 2005 Estimates of sperm whale abundance in the northeastern temperate Pacific from a combined acoustic and visual survey Marine Mammal Science 21(3):429-445  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Barlow2005,
  author = {Barlow, J. and Taylor, B. L.},
  title = {Estimates of sperm whale abundance in the northeastern temperate Pacific from a combined acoustic and visual survey},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {21},
  number = {3},
  pages = {429--445},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2005.tb01242.x}
}
Barlow, J., Ferguson, M.C., Perrin, W.F., Ballance, L., Gerrodette, T., Joyce, G., Macleod, C.D., Mullin, K., Palka, D.L. and Waring, G. 2006 Abundance and densities of beaked and bottlenose whales (family Ziphiidae) Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7:263-270   
BibTeX:
@article{Barlow2006,
  author = {Barlow, Jay and Ferguson, Megan C. and Perrin, William F. and Ballance, Lisa and Gerrodette, Tim and Joyce, Gerald and Macleod, Colin D. and Mullin, Keith and Palka, Debra L. and Waring, Gordon},
  title = {Abundance and densities of beaked and bottlenose whales (family Ziphiidae)},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {263--270}
}
Barlow, J. and Griffiths, E.T. 2017 Precision and bias in estimating detection distances for beaked whale echolocation clicks using a two-element vertical hydrophone array The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 141:4388-4397  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Barlow2017,
  author = {Barlow, Jay and Griffiths, Emily T.},
  title = {Precision and bias in estimating detection distances for beaked whale echolocation clicks using a two-element vertical hydrophone array},
  journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {141},
  pages = {4388--4397},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4985109}
}
Barraclough, R.K. 2000 Distance sampling: a discussion document produced for the department of conservation (175)School: Department of Conservation   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Barraclough2000,
  author = {Barraclough, R. K.},
  title = {Distance sampling: a discussion document produced for the department of conservation},
  school = {Department of Conservation},
  year = {2000},
  number = {175}
}
Barry, S.C. and Welsh, A.H. 2001 Distance sampling methodology Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B: Statistical Methodology 63(1):31-53  DOI  
Abstract: We consider the method of distance sampling described by Buckland, Anderson, Burnham and Laake in 1993. We explore the properties of the methodology in simple cases chosen to allow direct and accessible comparisons of distance sampling in the design-and model-based frameworks. In particular, we obtain expressions for the bias and variance of the distance sampling estimator of object density and for the expected value of the recommended analytic variance estimator within each framework. These results enable us to clarify aspects of the performance of the methodology which may be of interest to users and potential users of distance sampling.
BibTeX:
@article{Barry2001,
  author = {Barry, S. C. and Welsh, A. H.},
  title = {Distance sampling methodology},
  journal = {Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B: Statistical Methodology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {63},
  number = {1},
  pages = {31--53},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9868.00274}
}
Bart, J. and Schoultz, J.D. 1984 Reliability of singing bird surveys: changes in observer efficiency with avian density The Auk 101:307-318  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BarSch84,
  author = {Bart, J. and Schoultz, J. D.},
  title = {Reliability of singing bird surveys: changes in observer efficiency with avian density},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {307--318},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/101.2.307}
}
Batcheler, C.L. 1975 Development of a distance method for deer census from pellet groups Journal of Wildlife Management 39:641-652  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bat75,
  author = {Batcheler, C. L.},
  title = {Development of a distance method for deer census from pellet groups},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {641--652},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800222}
}
Beasom S. L., J.C.H. and Cain, J.R. 1981 The effect of strip width on helicopter censusing of deer Journal of Range Management 34:36-37  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Beaetal81,
  author = {Beasom, S. L., J. C. Hood and Cain, J. R.},
  title = {The effect of strip width on helicopter censusing of deer},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {36--37},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3898449}
}
Beavers, S.C. and Ramsey, F.L. 1998 Detectability analysis in transect surveys Journal of Wildlife Management 62:948-957  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BeaRam98,
  author = {Beavers, S. C. and Ramsey, F. L.},
  title = {Detectability analysis in transect surveys},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {948--957},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802547}
}
Beare, D.J., Reid, D.G. and Petitgas, P. 2002 Spatio-temporal patterns in herring (Clupea harengus L.) school abundance and size in the northwest North Sea: modelling space-time dependencies to allow examination of the impact of local school abundance on school size ICES Journal of Marine Science 59(3):469-479  DOI  
Abstract: As part of the EU-funded project "CLUSTER" a database was constructed of herring schools identified during a series of acoustic surveys in the northwest North Sea. Among other descriptors, the database included each schools' height, length, and acoustic backscattering energy (Sa). The number of schools per nautical mile. EDSU (Elementary Distance Sampling Unit) was also recorded. The relationships between local school count and school backscattering energy to time-of-day and location were first modelled using multiple regression techniques. The results indicate a considerable degree of non-linear dependency on both time-of-day and location. Herring-school counts per EDSU tended to be high during the middle part of the day and lower at dawn and dusk and were higher along the continental shelf edge about 130 m west of Orkney and Shetland. The regression models, by definition, also allow variability due to each explanatory variable to be assayed and divided. This feature meant that their output could be used to explore further into the relationships among the schools. In this paper the residual variability from the regression models is used to describe density-dependent relationships among herring schools, i.e. we asked "To what extent does local herring school abundance influence the size (backscattering energy) of a given school?" It is concluded that herring school size is regulated mainly by location and time-of-day and that "measured" school size is not influenced by the local "school count per EDSU". The results and their implications are discussed. textcopyright 2002 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Beare2002,
  author = {Beare, D. J. and Reid, D. G. and Petitgas, P.},
  title = {Spatio-temporal patterns in herring (Clupea harengus L.) school abundance and size in the northwest North Sea: modelling space-time dependencies to allow examination of the impact of local school abundance on school size},
  journal = {ICES Journal of Marine Science},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {59},
  number = {3},
  pages = {469--479},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.2002.1201}
}
Becker, E.F. and Quang, P.X. 2009 A gamma-shaped detection function for line-transect surveys with mark-recapture and covariate data Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 14:207-223  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Becker,
  author = {Becker, E. F. and Quang, P. X.},
  title = {A gamma-shaped detection function for line-transect surveys with mark-recapture and covariate data},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {207--223},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1198/jabes.2009.0013}
}
Becker, B.H., Beissinger, S.R. and Carter, H.R. 1997 At-sea density monitoring of marbled murrelets in central California: methodological considerations Condor, The 99(3):743-755  DOI  
Abstract: We conducted at-sea line transect surveys for Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) to determine density off the coast of central California and to explore the utility of various survey protocols. Surveys were designed to compare line versus strip transect methods, and reveal the effects of distance from shore, viewing conditions and seasonal trends on density estimates. On consecutive days, we conducted 12 paired (24 total) at-sea line and strip transect surveys that were 20 km long at 400 m and 800 m from shore. We also performed nine surveys that were 10 km long and at distances of 400 m. 900 m, 1.400 m, 2,400 m, 3,400 m and 4.400 m from shore. Density estimates calculated using line transects were significantly greater than estimates based on strip transects of 100 m and 200 m widths. Marbled Murrelet density ranged from 2.4-39.4 birds km-2 at 400 m from shore, and from 0.0-16.5 birds km-2 at 800 m from shore. Density was higher on the 400 m than on the 800 m survey on 22 of 24 survey days. Densities measured on consecutive days were highly correlated on the 400 m transect but not on the 800 m transect. Line transect densities on the 400 m transect were higher when conducted under better viewing conditions. Line transects had higher statistical power to detect trends than strip transects. Statistical power analyses indicated only a 24% chance of detecting a population declining by 5% per year over 5 years when surveying line transects 20 km in length five times a year. Power to detect a 5% annual change increased to 57% when surveying line transects five times per year over 10 years. Survey design should strive to minimize variability in bird density in order to maximize likelihood of detecting population trends. An increase in the number of surveys per breeding season, length of a transect, or duration of monitoring effort should increase power to detect trends in murrelet density. We suggest that at-sea surveys should focus on detecting trends in density rather than population size.
BibTeX:
@article{Becker1997,
  author = {Becker, B. H. and Beissinger, S. R. and Carter, H. R.},
  title = {At-sea density monitoring of marbled murrelets in central California: methodological considerations},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {99},
  number = {3},
  pages = {743--755},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1370485}
}
Becker, E.A., Forney, K.A., Redfern, J.V., Barlow, J., Jacox, M.G., Roberts, J.J. and Palacios, D.M. 2018 Predicting cetacean abundance and distribution in a changing climate Diversity and Distributions 25(4):626-643  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Becker2018,
  author = {Becker, Elizabeth A. and Forney, Karin A. and Redfern, Jessica V. and Barlow, Jay and Jacox, Michael G. and Roberts, Jason J. and Palacios, Daniel M.},
  title = {Predicting cetacean abundance and distribution in a changing climate},
  journal = {Diversity and Distributions},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {25},
  number = {4},
  pages = {626--643},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12867}
}
Bedriñana-Romano, L., Hucke-Gaete, R., Viddi, F.A., Morales, J., Williams, R., Ashe, E., Garcés-Vargas, J., Torres-Florez, J.P. and Ruiz, J. 2018 Integrating multiple data sources for assessing blue whale abundance and distribution in Chilean northern Patagonia Diversity and Distributions 24(7):991-1004  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bedrinana-Romano2018,
  author = {Bedriñana-Romano, Luis and Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo and Viddi, Francisco Alejandro and Morales, Juan and Williams, Rob and Ashe, Erin and Garcés-Vargas, José and Torres-Florez, Juan Pablo and Ruiz, Jorge},
  title = {Integrating multiple data sources for assessing blue whale abundance and distribution in Chilean northern Patagonia},
  journal = {Diversity and Distributions},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {24},
  number = {7},
  pages = {991--1004},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12739}
}
Bell, H.L. and Ferrier, S. 1985 The reliability of estimates of density from transect counts Corella 9:3-13   
BibTeX:
@article{BelFer85,
  author = {Bell, H. L. and Ferrier, S.},
  title = {The reliability of estimates of density from transect counts},
  journal = {Corella},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {3--13}
}
Bellan, S.E., Gimenez, O., Choquet, R. and Getz, W.M. 2013 A hierarchical distance sampling approach to estimating mortality rates from opportunistic carcass surveillance data Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4(4):361-369  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bellan2013,
  author = {Bellan, Steve E. and Gimenez, Olivier and Choquet, Rémi and Getz, Wayne M.},
  title = {A hierarchical distance sampling approach to estimating mortality rates from opportunistic carcass surveillance data},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {361--369},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12021}
}
Bengtson, J.L., Blix, A.S., Boyd, I.L., Cameron, M.F., Hanson, M.B. and Laake, J.L. 1995 Antarctic pack-ice seal research, February and March 1995 Antarctic Journal 30:191-193   
BibTeX:
@article{Benetal95,
  author = {Bengtson, J. L. and Blix, A. S. and Boyd, I. L. and Cameron, M. F. and Hanson, M. B. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Antarctic pack-ice seal research, February and March 1995},
  journal = {Antarctic Journal},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {191--193}
}
Bergstedt, R.A. and Anderson, D.R. 1990 Evaluation of line transect sampling based on remotely sensed data from underwater video Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119:86-91  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ber90,
  author = {Bergstedt, R. A. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Evaluation of line transect sampling based on remotely sensed data from underwater video},
  journal = {Transactions of the American Fisheries Society},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {86--91},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1990)119%3C0086:EOLTSB%3E2.3.CO;2}
}
Berrow, S., O'brien, J., O'Connor, I. and Mcgrath, D. 2007 Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the Blasket Islands candidate special area of conservation School: National Parks and Wildlife Service   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Berrow2007,
  author = {Berrow, Simon and O'brien, Joanne and O'Connor, Ian and Mcgrath, David},
  title = {Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the Blasket Islands candidate special area of conservation},
  school = {National Parks and Wildlife Service},
  year = {2007}
}
Berrow, S., O'brien, J., O'Connor, I. and Mcgrath, D. 2009 Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the Blasket Islands candidate special area of conservation Biology & Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 109:35-46  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Berrow2009,
  author = {Berrow, Simon and O'brien, Joanne and O'Connor, Ian and Mcgrath, David},
  title = {Abundance estimate and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the Blasket Islands candidate special area of conservation},
  journal = {Biology & Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy},
  publisher = {National Parks and Wildlife Service},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {109},
  pages = {35--46},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3318/BIOE.2009.109.1.35}
}
Best, L.B. 1981 Seasonal changes in detection of individual bird species Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, Studies in Avian Biology No. 6:252-261   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bes81,
  author = {Best, L. B.},
  title = {Seasonal changes in detection of individual bird species},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds, Studies in Avian Biology No. 6},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {252--261}
}
Best, P.B. and Butterworth, D.S. 1980 Report of the Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1978/79 Report of the International Whaling Commission 30:257-283   
BibTeX:
@article{BesBut80,
  author = {Best, P. B. and Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {Report of the Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1978/79},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {257--283}
}
Bessone, M., Kühl, H.S., Hohmann, G., Herbinger, I., N'Goran, K.P., Asanzi, P., Costa, P.B.D., Dérozier, V., Fotsing, E.D.B., Beka, B.I., Iyomi, M.D., Iyatshi, I.B., Kafando, P., Kambere, M.A., Moundzoho, D.B., Wanzalire, M.L.K. and Fruth, B. 2020 Drawn out of the shadows: Surveying secretive forest species with camera trap distance sampling Journal of Applied Ecology 57(5):963-974  DOI  
Abstract: With animal species disappearing at unprecedented rates, we need an efficient monitoring method providing reliable estimates of population density and abundance, critical for the assessment of population status and trend. We deployed 160 camera traps (CTs) systematically over 743 locations covering 17,127 km2 of evergreen lowland rainforest of Salonga National Park, block South, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We evaluated the applicability of CT distance sampling (CTDS) to species different in size and behaviour. To improve precision of estimates, we evaluated two methods estimating species' availability (`A') for detection by CTs. We recorded 16,700 video clips, revealing 43 different animal taxa. We estimated densities of 14 species differing in physical, behavioural and ecological traits, and extracted species-specific availability from available video footage using two methods (a) `ACa' (Cappelle et al. [2019] Am. J. Primatol., 81, e22962) and (b) `ARo' (Rowcliffe et al. [2014] Methods Ecol. Evol. 5, 1170). With sample sizes being large enough, we found minor differences between ACa and ARo in estimated densities. In contrast, low detectability and reactivity to the camera were main sources of bias. CTDS proved efficient for estimating density of homogenously rather than patchily distributed species. Synthesis and applications. Our application of camera trap distance sampling (CTDS) to a diverse vertebrate community demonstrates the enormous potential of this methodology for surveys of terrestrial wildlife, allowing rapid assessments of species' status and trends that can translate into effective conservation strategies. By providing the first estimates of understudied species such as the Congo peafowl, the giant ground pangolin and the cusimanses, CTDS may be used as a tool to revise these species' conservation status in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Based on the constraints we encountered, we identify improvements to the current application, enhancing the general applicability of this method.
BibTeX:
@article{bessone_drawn_2020,
  author = {Bessone, Mattia and Kühl, Hjalmar S. and Hohmann, Gottfried and Herbinger, Ilka and N'Goran, Kouame Paul and Asanzi, Papy and Costa, Pedro B. Da and Dérozier, Violette and Fotsing, Ernest D. B. and Beka, Bernard Ikembelo and Iyomi, Mpongo D. and Iyatshi, Iyomi B. and Kafando, Pierre and Kambere, Mbangi A. and Moundzoho, Dissondet B. and Wanzalire, Musubaho L. K. and Fruth, Barbara},
  title = {Drawn out of the shadows: Surveying secretive forest species with camera trap distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {57},
  number = {5},
  pages = {963--974},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13602}
}
Bibby, C.J. and Buckland, S.T. 1987 Bias of bird census results due to detectability varying with habitat Acta Ecologica 8:103-112   
BibTeX:
@article{Bibbuc87,
  author = {Bibby, C. J. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Bias of bird census results due to detectability varying with habitat},
  journal = {Acta Ecologica},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {103--112}
}
Bibby, C., Jones, M. and Marsden, S. 1998 Expedition field techniques - bird surveys    
BibTeX:
@book{Bibby1998,
  author = {Bibby, Colin and Jones, Martin and Marsden, Stuart},
  title = {Expedition field techniques - bird surveys},
  publisher = {Expedition Advisory Centre, Royal Geographical Society},
  year = {1998}
}
Bibby, C.J., Burgess, N.D., Hill, D.A. and Mustoe, S. 2000 Bird census techniques, 2nd ed.    
BibTeX:
@book{Bibetal00,
  author = {Bibby, C. J. and Burgess, N. D. and Hill, D. A. and Mustoe, S.},
  title = {Bird census techniques, 2nd ed.},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  year = {2000}
}
Bibby, C.J., Phillips, B.N. and Seddon, A.J.E. 1985 Birds of restocked conifer plantations in Wales Journal of Applied Ecology 22:619-633  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bibetal85,
  author = {Bibby, C. J. and Phillips, B. N. and Seddon, A. J. E.},
  title = {Birds of restocked conifer plantations in Wales},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {619--633},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2403216}
}
Bibby, C.J., Burgess, N.D. and Hill, D.A. 1992 Bird census techniques    
BibTeX:
@book{Bibetal92,
  author = {Bibby, C. J. and Burgess, N. D. and Hill, D. A.},
  title = {Bird census techniques},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  year = {1992}
}
Bicknell, J. and Peres, C.A. 2010 Vertebrate population responses to reduced-impact logging in a neotropical forest Forest Ecology and Management 259(12):2267-2275  DOI  
Abstract: Vertebrate population densities were quantified in lowland central Guyana using line-transect censuses at three forest sites subjected to reduced-impact logging (RIL), and three adjacent unlogged sites. We censused a range of forest vertebrate species including large canopy-dwelling and terrestrial birds, three primates, one rodent and one tortoise. Two 4 km transects at each site were repeatedly surveyed during the wet season of 2008 to derive population density estimates on the basis of a cumulative survey effort of 416 km. RIL had ended within 16 months, and sites had been subjected to a mean extraction rate of 3.9 m3 ha-1, equivalent to only 1.1 trees ha-1. Three of the 15 vertebrate species examined here exhibited significantly different abundances at forest RIL sites, two of which were negative. Large frugivores such as primates were less abundant in sites subject to RIL, whereas smaller frugivores, granivores, folivores and insectivores were more common in logged sites. We are unable to reliably distinguish between responses of different taxonomic groups, since robust abundance metrics could only be estimated for four mammal species. Despite this, species traits including dietary guild, body mass, home range size and vertical stratification of forest use are used to explain varying responses. Our findings suggest that responsible reduced-impact logging practices in neotropical forests can be considered as a relatively benign form of forest management that can coexist with the requirements of both local economies and biodiversity conservation. However, our study sites experienced comparably low extraction rates, and detrimental effects such as hunting were low. Our results therefore provide an opportunity to scrutinise the effects of best practice logging systems, though do not necessarily represent typical circumstances across tropical forests.
BibTeX:
@article{Bicknell2010,
  author = {Jake Bicknell and Carlos A. Peres},
  title = {Vertebrate population responses to reduced-impact logging in a neotropical forest},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {259},
  number = {12},
  pages = {2267--2275},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.02.027}
}
Bilgmann, K., Parra, G.J., Holmes, L., Peters, K.J., Jonsen, I.D. and Möller, L.M. 2019 Abundance estimates and habitat preferences of bottlenose dolphins reveal the importance of two gulfs in South Australia Scientific Reports 9(1):8044  DOI  
Abstract: Informed conservation management of marine mammals requires an understanding of population size and habitat preferences. In Australia, such data are needed for the assessment and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries interactions, coastal zone developments, oil and gas exploration and mining activities. Here, we present large-scale estimates of abundance, density and habitat preferences of southern Australian bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) over an area of 42,438km2 within two gulfs of South Australia. Using double-observer platform aerial surveys over four strata and mark-recapture distance sampling analyses, we estimated 3,493 (CV,=,0.21; 95%CI,=,2,327-5,244) dolphins in summer/autumn, and 3,213 (CV,=,0.20; 95%CI,=,2,151-4,801) in winter/spring of 2011. Bottlenose dolphin abundance and density was higher in gulf waters across both seasons (0.09-0.24 dolphins/km2) compared to adjacent shelf waters (0.004– 0.04 dolphins/km2). The high densities of bottlenose dolphins in the two gulfs highlight the importance of these gulfs as a habitat for the species. Habitat modelling associated bottlenose dolphins with shallow waters, flat seafloor topography, and higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in summer/autumn and lower SSTs in winter/spring. Spatial predictions showed high dolphin densities in northern and coastal gulf sections. Distributional data should inform management strategies, marine park planning and environmental assessments of potential anthropogenic threats to this protected species.
BibTeX:
@article{bilgmann_abundance_2019,
  author = {Bilgmann, Kerstin and Parra, Guido J. and Holmes, Lauren and Peters, Katharina J. and Jonsen, Ian D. and Möller, Luciana M.},
  title = {Abundance estimates and habitat preferences of bottlenose dolphins reveal the importance of two gulfs in South Australia},
  journal = {Scientific Reports},
  publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {9},
  number = {1},
  pages = {8044},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44310-3}
}
Bilgmann, K., Parra, G.J. and Möller, L.M. 2018 Occurrence, distribution and abundance of cetaceans off the Western Eyre Peninsula in the Great Australian Bight Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 157-158:134-145  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bilgmann2017,
  author = {Bilgmann, Kerstin and Parra, Guido J. and Möller, Luciana M.},
  title = {Occurrence, distribution and abundance of cetaceans off the Western Eyre Peninsula in the Great Australian Bight},
  journal = {Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {157-158},
  pages = {134--145},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2017.11.006}
}
Fewster, R.M. 2011 Variance estimation for systematic designs in spatial surveys Biometrics 67(4):1518-1531  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BIOM:BIOM1604,
  author = {Fewster, R. M.},
  title = {Variance estimation for systematic designs in spatial surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Inc},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {67},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1518--1531},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2011.01604.x}
}
Okamura, H., Minamikawa, S., Skaug, H.J. and Kishiro, T. 2012 Abundance estimation of long-diving animals using line transect methods Biometrics 68(2):504-513  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BIOM:BIOM1689,
  author = {Okamura, Hiroshi and Minamikawa, Shingo and Skaug, Hans J. and Kishiro, Toshiya},
  title = {Abundance estimation of long-diving animals using line transect methods},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Inc},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {68},
  number = {2},
  pages = {504--513},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2011.01689.x}
}
Bispo, R. 2012 Estimating wildlife mortality at wind farms: accounting for carcass removal, imperfect detection and partial coverage School: Faculdade de Ciências. Departamento de Estatística e Investigação Operacional   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Bispo2012,
  author = {Bispo, R.},
  title = {Estimating wildlife mortality at wind farms: accounting for carcass removal, imperfect detection and partial coverage},
  school = {Faculdade de Ciências. Departamento de Estatística e Investigação Operacional},
  year = {2012}
}
Biswas, S. and Sankar, K. 2002 Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India Journal of Zoology 256:411-420  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Biswas2002,
  author = {Biswas, S. and Sankar, K.},
  title = {Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {256},
  pages = {411--420},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836902000456}
}
Blake, J.G., Hanowski, J.M., Niemi, G.J. and Collins, P.T. 1991 Hourly variation in transect counts of birds Ornis Fennica 68:139-147   
BibTeX:
@article{Blaetal91,
  author = {Blake, J. G. and Hanowski, J. M. and Niemi, G. J. and Collins, P. T.},
  title = {Hourly variation in transect counts of birds},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {68},
  pages = {139--147}
}
Blake, J.G., Hanowski, J.M., Niemi, G.J. and Collins, P.T. 1994 Annual variation in bird populations of mixed-conifer northern hardwood forests Condor, The 96:381-399  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Blaetal94,
  author = {Blake, J. G. and Hanowski, J. M. and Niemi, G. J. and Collins, P. T.},
  title = {Annual variation in bird populations of mixed-conifer northern hardwood forests},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {96},
  pages = {381--399},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1369322}
}
Blaylock, R.A. 1993 Distribution and abundance of the Cownose Ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, in Lower Chesapeake Bay Estuaries 16:255-263  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Blaylock1993,
  author = {Blaylock, Robert A.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of the Cownose Ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, in Lower Chesapeake Bay},
  journal = {Estuaries},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {255--263},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1352498}
}
Blom, A., Almaši, A., Heitkönig, I.M.A., Kpanou, J.-B. and Prins, H.H.T. 2001 A survey of the apes in the dzanga-ndoki national park, central african republic: a comparison between the census and survey methods of estimating the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nest group density African Journal of Ecology 39(1):98-105  DOI  
Abstract: A survey of apes was carried out between October 1996 and May 1997 in the Dzanga sector of the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic (CAR), to estimate gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) densities. The density estimates were based on nest counts. The strip transect census and the line transect survey method (Standing Crop Nest Count) were used to estimate the gorilla nest group density. The strip transect has been most commonly used to date. It assumes that all nest groups within the width of the strip are detected, but as this assumption is easily violated in the dense tropical rain forest, the line transect survey was also used. In this method, only the nest groups on the transect line itself should be detected. This method proved to be an adequate and easy technique for estimating animal densities in dense vegetation. The gorilla density of 1.6 individuals km-2 (line transect survey method) found for the Dzanga sector is one of the highest densities ever reported in the literature for the Western lowland gorilla. The density estimate for chimpanzees was 0.16 individuals km-2 (census method). The results of this study confirm the importance of the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park for primate conservation.
BibTeX:
@article{Blom2001,
  author = {Blom, A. and Almaši, A. and Heitkönig, I. M. A. and Kpanou, J.-B. and Prins, H. H. T.},
  title = {A survey of the apes in the dzanga-ndoki national park, central african republic: a comparison between the census and survey methods of estimating the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nest group density},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {39},
  number = {1},
  pages = {98--105},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0141-6707.2000.00280.x}
}
Boano, G. and Toffoli, R. 2002 A line transect survey of wintering raptors in the western Po plain of northern Italy Journal Of Raptor Research 36:128-135   
BibTeX:
@article{Boano2002,
  author = {Boano, G. and Toffoli, R.},
  title = {A line transect survey of wintering raptors in the western Po plain of northern Italy},
  journal = {Journal Of Raptor Research},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {128--135}
}
Bodkin, J.L. and Udevitz, M.S. 1999 An aerial survey method to estimate sea otter abundance Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods:115-126   
BibTeX:
@incollection{BodUde99,
  author = {Bodkin, J. L. and Udevitz, M. S.},
  title = {An aerial survey method to estimate sea otter abundance},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {115--126}
}
de Boer, M.N. 2010 Spring distribution and density of minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata along an offshore bank in the central North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 408:265-274  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Boer2010,
  author = {de Boer, M. N.},
  title = {Spring distribution and density of minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata along an offshore bank in the central North Sea.},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {408},
  pages = {265--274},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08598}
}
Bolduc, F., Roy, C. and Rousseu, F. 2018 R2MCDS: An R package for the analysis of multi-species datasets collected using distance sampling Ecological Informatics 47:23-25  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bolduc2017,
  author = {Bolduc, François and Roy, Christian and Rousseu, François},
  title = {R2MCDS: An R package for the analysis of multi-species datasets collected using distance sampling},
  journal = {Ecological Informatics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {47},
  pages = {23--25},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2017.10.003}
}
Bollinger, E.K., Gavin, T.A. and McIntyre, D.C. 1988 Comparison of transects and circular-plots for estimating bobolink densities Journal of Wildlife Management 52:777-786  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Boletal88,
  author = {Bollinger, E. K. and Gavin, T. A. and McIntyre, D. C.},
  title = {Comparison of transects and circular-plots for estimating bobolink densities},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {777--786},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800946}
}
Bonnell, M.L. and Ford, R.G. 1987 California sea lion distribution: a statistical analysis of aerial transect data Journal of Wildlife Management 51:13-20  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BonFor87,
  author = {Bonnell, M. L. and Ford, R. G.},
  title = {California sea lion distribution: a statistical analysis of aerial transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {13--20},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801621}
}
Booth, C. 2010 Variation in habitat preference and distribution of harbour porpoises west of Scotland School: University of St Andrews   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Booth2010,
  author = {Booth, C.},
  title = {Variation in habitat preference and distribution of harbour porpoises west of Scotland},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2010}
}
Booth, C.G., Embling, C., Gordon, J., Calderan, S.V. and Hammond, P.S. 2013 Habitat preferences and distribution of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena west of Scotland Marine Ecology Progress Series 478:273-285  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Booth2013,
  author = {Booth, C. G. and Embling, C. and Gordon, J. and Calderan, S. V. and Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {Habitat preferences and distribution of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena west of Scotland},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {478},
  pages = {273--285},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10239}
}
Borchers, D.L., Buckland, S.T. and Zucchini, W. 2002 Estimating animal abundance    
BibTeX:
@book{BOR02,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Zucchini, W.},
  title = {Estimating animal abundance},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2002}
}
Borchers, D.L. 1994 Methods of estimating mean school size from IWC sightings survey data Report of the International Whaling Commission 44:429-437   
BibTeX:
@article{Bor94,
  author = {Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Methods of estimating mean school size from IWC sightings survey data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {429--437}
}
Borralho, R., Rego, F. and Pinto, P.V. 1996 Is driven transect sampling suitable for estimating red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa densities? Wildlife Biology 2:259-268  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BOR96,
  author = {Borralho, R. and Rego, F. and Pinto, P. V.},
  title = {Is driven transect sampling suitable for estimating red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa densities?},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {259--268},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2981/wlb.1996.029}
}
Borchers, D.L., Buckland, S.T., Goedhart, P.W., Clarke, E.D. and Hedley, S.L. 1998 Horvitz-Thompson estimators for double-platform line transect surveys Biometrics 54:1221-1237  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BOR98,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Goedhart, P. W. and Clarke, E. D. and Hedley, S. L.},
  title = {Horvitz-Thompson estimators for double-platform line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {1221--1237},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533652}
}
Borchers, D.L., Zucchini, W. and Fewster, R. 1998 Mark-recapture models for line transect surveys Biometrics 54:1207-1220  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BOR98b,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Zucchini, W. and Fewster, R.},
  title = {Mark-recapture models for line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {1207--1220},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533651}
}
Borchers, D.L. 1999 Composite mark-recapture line transect surveys Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods:115-126   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bor99,
  author = {Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Composite mark-recapture line transect surveys},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {115--126}
}
Borchers, D.L. and Burt, M.L. 2002 Generalized regression methods for estimating school size from line transect data (Paper SC/54/IA23)School: Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission   
BibTeX:
@techreport{BorBur02,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Burt, M. L.},
  title = {Generalized regression methods for estimating school size from line transect data},
  school = {Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {2002},
  number = {Paper SC/54/IA23}
}
Borchers, D.L., Laake, J.L., Southwell, C. and Paxton, C.G.M. 2006 Accommodating unmodeled heterogeneity in double-observer distance sampling surveys Biometrics 62:372-378  DOI  
Abstract: Mark-recapture models applied to double-observer distance sampling data neglect the information on relative detectability of objects contained in the distribution of observed distances. A difference between the observed distribution and that predicted by the mark-recapture model is symptomatic of a failure of the assumption of zero correlation between detection probabilities implicit in the mark-recapture model. We develop a mark-recapture-based model that uses the observed distribution to relax this assumption to zero correlation at only one distance. We demonstrate its usefulness in coping with unmodeled heterogeneity using data from an aerial survey of crabeater seals in the Antarctic.
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2006,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Laake, J. L. and Southwell, C. and Paxton, C. G. M.},
  title = {Accommodating unmodeled heterogeneity in double-observer distance sampling surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {372--378},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2005.00493.x}
}
Borchers, D.L., Marques, T.A., Gunnlaugsson, T. and Jupp, P.E. 2010 Estimating distance sampling detection functions when distances are measured with errors Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 15:346-361  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2010,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Marques, T. A. and Gunnlaugsson, Th. and Jupp, P. E.},
  title = {Estimating distance sampling detection functions when distances are measured with errors},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {346--361},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s13253-010-0021-y}
}
Borchers, D.L., Zucchini, W., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Cañadas, A. and Langrock, R. 2013 Using hidden Markov models to deal with availability bias on line transect surveys Biometrics 69:703-713  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2013,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Zucchini, W. and Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Cañadas, A. and Langrock, R.},
  title = {Using hidden Markov models to deal with availability bias on line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {69},
  pages = {703--713},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/biom.12049}
}
Borchers, D.L., Stevenson, B.C., Kidney, D., Thomas, L. and Marques, T.A. 2015 A unifying model for capture-recapture and distance sampling Journal of the American Statistical Association 201:195-204  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2014,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Stevenson, B. C. and Kidney, D. and Thomas, L. and Marques, T. A.},
  title = {A unifying model for capture-recapture and distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {201},
  pages = {195--204},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.2014.893884}
}
Borchers, D.L. and Marques, T.A. 2017 From distance sampling to spatial capture– recapture Advances in Statistical Analysis 101:475-494  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borchers2017,
  author = {Borchers, David L. and Marques, Tiago A.},
  title = {From distance sampling to spatial capture– recapture},
  journal = {Advances in Statistical Analysis},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {475--494},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10182-016-0287-7}
}
Borchers, D.L. 1996 Line transect estimation with uncertain detection on the trackline School: University of Cape Town   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Borchers96,
  author = {Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Line transect estimation with uncertain detection on the trackline},
  school = {University of Cape Town},
  year = {1996}
}
Borgoni, R. and Quatto, P. 2012 Uniformly most powerful unbiased test for shoulder condition in point transect sampling Statistical Papers 53(4):1035-1044  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borgoni2012,
  author = {Borgoni, Riccardo and Quatto, Piero},
  title = {Uniformly most powerful unbiased test for shoulder condition in point transect sampling},
  journal = {Statistical Papers},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {53},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1035--1044},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00362-011-0406-1}
}
Borkin, K.M., Summers, R.W. and Thomas, L. 2012 Surveying abundance and stand type associations of Formica aquilonia and F. lugubris (hymenoptera: Formicidae) nest mounds over an extensive area: trialing a novel method European Journal of Entomology 109:47-53  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Borkin2012,
  author = {Borkin, Kerry M. and Summers, Ron W. and Thomas, Len},
  title = {Surveying abundance and stand type associations of Formica aquilonia and F. lugubris (hymenoptera: Formicidae) nest mounds over an extensive area: trialing a novel method},
  journal = {European Journal of Entomology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {109},
  pages = {47--53},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2012.007}
}
Borchers, D.L., Pike, D., Gunnlaugsson, T. and Vikingsson, G.A. 2009 Minke whale abundance estimation from the NASS 1987 and 2001 aerial cue– counting surveys taking appropriate account of distance estimation errors NAMMCO Scientific Publications 7:95-110  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BorSub1,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Pike, D. and Gunnlaugsson, T. and Vikingsson, G. A.},
  title = {Minke whale abundance estimation from the NASS 1987 and 2001 aerial cue– counting surveys taking appropriate account of distance estimation errors},
  journal = {NAMMCO Scientific Publications},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {95--110},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.2708}
}
Bortolotto, G.A., Danilewicz, D., Andriolo, A. and Zerbini, A.N. 2016 Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae) group sizes in line transect ship surveys: an evaluation of observer errors Zoologia (Curitiba) 33:e20150133  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bortolotto2016,
  author = {Bortolotto, G. A. and Danilewicz, D. and Andriolo, A. and Zerbini, A. N.},
  title = {Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae) group sizes in line transect ship surveys: an evaluation of observer errors},
  journal = {Zoologia (Curitiba)},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {e20150133},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-4689zool-20150133}
}
Bortolotto, G.A., Danilewicz, D., Andriolo, A., Secchi, E.R. and Zerbini, A.N. 2016 Whale, whale, everywhere: Increasing abundance of western South Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in their wintering grounds PLoS ONE 11:e0164596  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bortolotto2016a,
  author = {Bortolotto, G. A. and Danilewicz, D. and Andriolo, A. and Secchi, E. R. and Zerbini, A. N.},
  title = {Whale, whale, everywhere: Increasing abundance of western South Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in their wintering grounds},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {e0164596},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164596}
}
Bortolotto, G.A., Danilewicz, D., Hammond, P.S., Thomas, L. and Zerbini, A.N. 2017 Whale distribution in a breeding area: spatial models of habitat use and abundance of western South Atlantic humpback whales Marine Ecology Progress Series 585:213-227  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bortolotto2017,
  author = {Bortolotto, G. A. and Danilewicz, D. and Hammond, P. S. and Thomas, L. and Zerbini, A. N.},
  title = {Whale distribution in a breeding area: spatial models of habitat use and abundance of western South Atlantic humpback whales},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  publisher = {Inter-Research Science Center},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {585},
  pages = {213--227},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps12393}
}
Bottenberg, H., Litsinger, J.A. and Kenmore, P.E. 1992 A line transect survey method for rice tungro virus Proceedings, Third International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Volume v   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Botetal92,
  author = {Bottenberg, H. and Litsinger, J. A. and Kenmore, P. E.},
  title = {A line transect survey method for rice tungro virus},
  booktitle = {Proceedings, Third International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Volume v},
  year = {1992}
}
Bowden, D.C., White, G.C., Franklin, A.B. and Ganey, J.L. 2003 Estimating population size with correlated sampling unit estimates Journal of Wildlife Management 67(1):1-10  DOI  
Abstract: Finite population sampling theory is useful in estimating total population size (abundance) from abundance estimates of each sampled unit (quadrat). We develop estimators that allow correlated quadrat abundance estimates, even for quadrats in different sampling strata. Correlated quadrat abundance estimates based on mark-recapture or distance sampling methods occur when data are pooled across quadrats to estimate, for example, capture probability parameters or sighting functions. When only minimal information is available from each quadrat, pooling of data across quadrats may be necessary to efficiently estimate capture probabilities or sighting functions. We further include information from a quadrat-based auxiliary variable to more precisely estimate total population size via a ratio estimator. We also provide variance estimators for the difference between or the ratio of 2 abundance estimates, taken at different times. We present an example based on estimating the number of Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in the Upper Gila Mountains Recovery Unit, Arizona and New Mexico, USA. Owl abundance for each quadrat was estimated with a Huggins 4-pass mark-resight population estimator, but with initial capture and resighting probabilities modeled in common across all sample quadrats. Pooling mark-resight data across quadrats was necessary because few owls were marked on individual quadrats to estimate quadrat-specific capture probabilities. Model-based estimates of owl abundance for each quadrat necessitated variance estimation procedures that take into account correlated quadrat estimates. An auxiliary variable relating to topographic roughness of sampled quadrats provided a useful covariate for a ratio estimator.
BibTeX:
@article{Bowden2003,
  author = {Bowden, D. C. and White, G. C. and Franklin, A. B. and Ganey, J. L.},
  title = {Estimating population size with correlated sampling unit estimates},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {67},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--10},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3803055}
}
Boyd, C., Barlow, J., Becker, E.A., Forney, K.A., Gerrodette, T., Moore, J.E. and Punt, A.E. 2017 Estimation of population size and trends for highly mobile species with dynamic spatial distributions Diversity and Distributions 24(1):1-12  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Boyd2017,
  author = {Boyd, Charlotte and Barlow, Jay and Becker, Elizabeth A. and Forney, Karin A. and Gerrodette, Tim and Moore, Jeffrey E. and Punt, André E.},
  title = {Estimation of population size and trends for highly mobile species with dynamic spatial distributions},
  journal = {Diversity and Distributions},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {24},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--12},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12663}
}
Bradfer-Lawrence, T., Gardner, N. and Dent, D.H. 2018 Canopy bird assemblages are less influenced by habitat age and isolation than understory bird assemblages in Neotropical secondary forest Ecology and Evolution 8(11):5586-5597  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bradfer-Lawrence2018,
  author = {Tom Bradfer-Lawrence and Nick Gardner and Daisy H. Dent},
  title = {Canopy bird assemblages are less influenced by habitat age and isolation than understory bird assemblages in Neotropical secondary forest},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {8},
  number = {11},
  pages = {5586--5597},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4086}
}
Bradford, A.L., Forney, K.A., Oleson, E.M. and Barlow, J. 2012 Line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in the pelagic region of the Hawaiian exclusive economic zone and in the insular waters of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Administrative Report H-12-02)School: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Bradford2012,
  author = {Bradford, Amanda L. and Forney, Karin A. and Oleson, Erin M. and Barlow, Jay},
  title = {Line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in the pelagic region of the Hawaiian exclusive economic zone and in the insular waters of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands},
  school = {Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center},
  year = {2012},
  number = {Administrative Report H-12-02}
}
Bradford, A.L., Forney, K.A., Oleson, E.M. and Barlow, J. 2014 Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian waters PLoS ONE 9:e90464  DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (¡ italic¿ Pseudorca crassidens/italic¿ ) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (¡ italic¿ n/italic¿â€Š= 5) and NWHI (¡ italic¿ n/italic¿â€Š= 1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (¡ italic¿ n/italic¿â€Š= 5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai’ i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479†``5,030) and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97†``3,123) individuals, respectively. Subgroup structure is an important factor to consider in line-transect analyses of false killer whales and other species with complex grouping patterns./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Bradford2014,
  author = {Bradford, Amanda L. and Forney, Karin A. and Oleson, Erin M. and Barlow, Jay},
  title = {Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian waters},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {e90464},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090464}
}
Bradford, A.L., Forney, K.A., Oleson, E.M. and Barlow, J. 2017 Abundance estimates of cetaceans from a line-transect survey within the U.S. Hawaiian Islands exclusive economic zone Fishery Bulletin. 115:129-142  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bradford2017,
  author = {Bradford, A. L. and Forney, K. A. and Oleson, E. M. and Barlow, J.},
  title = {Abundance estimates of cetaceans from a line-transect survey within the U.S. Hawaiian Islands exclusive economic zone},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin.},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {115},
  pages = {129--142},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7755/FB.115.2.1}
}
Branch, T.A. Humpback whale abundance south of 60s from three complete circumpolar sets of surveys Submitted to the Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue)   
BibTeX:
@article{Branch,
  author = {Branch, T. A.},
  title = {Humpback whale abundance south of 60s from three complete circumpolar sets of surveys},
  journal = {Submitted to the Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue)}
}
Brandt, C.A. and Rickard, W.H. 1992 Effects of survey frequency on bird density estimates in the shrub-steppe environment Northwest Science 66:172-182   
BibTeX:
@article{BraRic92,
  author = {Brandt, C. A. and Rickard, W. H.},
  title = {Effects of survey frequency on bird density estimates in the shrub-steppe environment},
  journal = {Northwest Science},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {172--182}
}
Braulik, G.T., Bhatti, Z.I., Ehsan, T., Hussain, B., Khan, A.R., Khan, A., Khan, U., Kundi, K.U., Rajput, R., Reichert, A.P., Northridge, S.P., Bhagat, H.B. and Garstang, R. 2012 Robust abundance estimate for endangered river dolphin subspecies in South Asia Endangered Species Research 17(3):201-215  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Braulik2012,
  author = {Braulik, Gillian T. and Bhatti, Zahid I. and Ehsan, Tahir and Hussain, Babar and Khan, Abdul R. and Khan, Ashfaq and Khan, Uzma and Kundi, Khalil U. and Rajput, Rafiq and Reichert, Albert P. and Northridge, Simon P. and Bhagat, Hussain B. and Garstang, Richard},
  title = {Robust abundance estimate for endangered river dolphin subspecies in South Asia},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  publisher = {Inter-Research Science Center},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {17},
  number = {3},
  pages = {201--215},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00425}
}
Braulik, G.T., Kasuga, M., Wittich, A., Kiszka, J.J., MacCaulay, J., Gillespie, D., Gordon, J., Said, S.S. and Hammond, P.S. 2017 Cetacean rapid assessment: an approach to fill knowledge gaps and target conservation across large data deficient areas Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 28(1):216-230  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Braulik2017,
  author = {Braulik, Gill T. and Kasuga, Magreth and Wittich, Anja and Kiszka, Jeremy J. and MacCaulay, Jamie and Gillespie, Doug and Gordon, Jonathan and Said, Said Shaib and Hammond, Philip S.},
  title = {Cetacean rapid assessment: an approach to fill knowledge gaps and target conservation across large data deficient areas},
  journal = {Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {28},
  number = {1},
  pages = {216--230},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2833}
}
Brennan, L.A. and Block, W.M. 1986 Line transect estimates of mountain quail density Journal of Wildlife Management 50:373-377  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BreBlo86,
  author = {Brennan, L. A. and Block, W. M.},
  title = {Line transect estimates of mountain quail density},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {373--377},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801089}
}
Breiwick, J.M., Rugh, D.J., Withrow, D.E., Dahlheim, M.E. and Buckland, S.T. 1988 Preliminary population estimate of gray whales during the 1987/88 southward migration (Paper SC/40/PS12)School: Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Breetal88,
  author = {Breiwick, J. M. and Rugh, D. J. and Withrow, D. E. and Dahlheim, M. E. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Preliminary population estimate of gray whales during the 1987/88 southward migration},
  school = {Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  number = {Paper SC/40/PS12}
}
Brewster, J.P. and Simons, T.R. 2009 Testing the importance of auditory detections in avian point counts Journal of Field Ornithology 80:178-182  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Brewster2009,
  author = {Brewster, Jerome P. and Simons, Theodore R.},
  title = {Testing the importance of auditory detections in avian point counts},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {80},
  pages = {178--182},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1557-9263.2009.00220.x}
}
Briggs, K.T., Tyler, W.B. and Lewis, D.B. 1985 Aerial surveys for seabirds: methodological experiments Journal of Wildlife Management 49:412-417  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Brietal85,
  author = {Briggs, K. T. and Tyler, W. B. and Lewis, D. B.},
  title = {Aerial surveys for seabirds: methodological experiments},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {412--417},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801543}
}
Brockelman, W.Y. 1980 The use of the line transect sampling method for forest primates Tropical Ecology and Development:367-371   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bro80,
  author = {Brockelman, W. Y.},
  title = {The use of the line transect sampling method for forest primates},
  booktitle = {Tropical Ecology and Development},
  publisher = {The International Society of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1980},
  pages = {367--371}
}
Brown, J.A. and Boyce, M.S. 1998 Line transect sampling of Karner blue butterflies (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) Environmental and Ecological Statistics 5:81-91  DOI  
Abstract: Line transect sampling is an effective survey method for estimating butterfly densities because it provides unbiased estimates of site-density (provided key assumptions are met), and estimates are comparable among sites. For monitoring Karner blue butterflies in Wisconsin, USA, comparable estimates are required because each year a different selection of sites will be monitored. Annual state-wide indices of species abundance can be derived from the site-surveys and compared to previous year's indices to monitor trends. We advocate that line transect sampling is preferable to Pollard-Yates transects as a survey technique for monitoring Karner blue butterflies. The Pollard-Yates surveys do not adjust for differences in site detectability. As a consequence, estimates of among-site from Pollard-Yates surveys can be biased. textcopyright 1998 Chapman & Hall.
BibTeX:
@article{Broboy98,
  author = {Brown, J. A. and Boyce, M. S.},
  title = {Line transect sampling of Karner blue butterflies (Lycaeides melissa samuelis)},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {81--91},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009620105039}
}
Brown, B.M. and Cowling, A. 1998 Clustering and abundance estimation for Neyman-Scott models and line transect surveys Biometrika 85:427-438  DOI  
Abstract: This paper considers the estimation of clustering parameters and mean species intensity based on likelihood theory for the simplified Neyman-Scott Poisson model, with observations taken from line transect surveys with a Gaussian detection function. The estimators and accompanying standard error expressions are tractable and easy to calculate, and, coming from likelihood methods, often will have high efficiency. Such properties compare favourably with those of existing K-function methods which however are semiparametric in nature and less reliant on specific parametric assumptions. The likelihood analysis reveals auxiliary information which could be used to check the form of the detection function.
BibTeX:
@article{BroCow98,
  author = {Brown, B. M. and Cowling, A.},
  title = {Clustering and abundance estimation for Neyman-Scott models and line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {427--438},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/85.2.427}
}
Broekema, I. and Overdyck, O. 2012 Distance sampling to estimate densities of four native forest bird species during multispecies surveys New Zealand Journal of Ecology 36  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Broekema2012,
  author = {Broekema, Iris and Overdyck, Oliver},
  title = {Distance sampling to estimate densities of four native forest bird species during multispecies surveys},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {36},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/24060894}
}
Bröker, K.C.A., Hansen, R.G., Leonard, K.E., Koski, W.R. and Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. 2019 A comparison of image and observer based aerial surveys of narwhal Marine Mammal Science 35(4):1253-1279  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Broeker2019,
  author = {Bröker, Koen C. A. and Hansen, Rikke G. and Leonard, Kathleen E. and Koski, William R. and Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter},
  title = {A comparison of image and observer based aerial surveys of narwhal},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {35},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1253--1279},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/mms.12586}
}
Broome, L.S., Bishop, K.D. and Anderson, D.R. 1984 Population density and habitat use by Megapodius freyinet eremita in West New Britain Australian Wildlife Research 11:161-171  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Broetal84,
  author = {Broome, L. S. and Bishop, K. D. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Population density and habitat use by Megapodius freyinet eremita in West New Britain},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {161--171},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9840161}
}
Brown, S., Clarke, M. and Clarke, R. 2009 Fire is a key element in the landscape-scale habitat requirements and global population status of a threatened bird: the mallee emu-wren (Stipiturus mallee) Biological Conservation 142(2):432-445  DOI  
Abstract: The Mallee Emu-wren (Stipiturus mallee) is a threatened, narrow-range passerine endemic to south-eastern Australia. To inform future conservation measures for this poorly known species, we used ecological niche factor analysis, habitat suitability modelling and distance sampling to determine landscape-scale habitat requirements and estimate the population size. Using GIS software, we integrated digital layers of ecogeographic variables with; (1) presence-only observations to derive and validate a habitat suitability model using ecological niche factor analysis, and (2) distance sampling to determine population distribution and densities across vegetation types. We detected populations in only five of seven reserves which they had occupied in 2000. We estimate the global population size to be 16,821 individuals (range 8431-39, 104), 68% greater than the previously estimated 10,000 individuals, with a single large reserve containing the majority ( 92%) of the global population. The Mallee Emu-wren is a habitat specialist, primarily occurring in mallee-Triodia vegetation that has not been burnt for at least 15 years. The highest densities were in vegetation associations containing at least a 15% cover of Triodia, however, time since the habitat was last burnt was the overriding factor in determining densities. Large-scale wildfires are a pervasive threat to the global status of the Mallee Emu-wren, and the risk to remaining populations is exacerbated by the adverse impact of prolonged drought and the potential for altered fire regimes caused by global warming. Evaluation of the global population status, and the continued wildfire threat warranted recent reclassification of the Mallee Emu-wren from Vulnerable to Endangered according to IUCN Red List categories and criteria.
BibTeX:
@article{Brown2009,
  author = {Brown, Sarah and Clarke, Michael and Clarke, Rohan},
  title = {Fire is a key element in the landscape-scale habitat requirements and global population status of a threatened bird: the mallee emu-wren (Stipiturus mallee)},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {142},
  number = {2},
  pages = {432--445},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.11.005}
}
Brunk, H.D. 1978 Univariate density estimation by orthogonal series Biometrika 65:521-528  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bru78,
  author = {Brunk, H. D.},
  title = {Univariate density estimation by orthogonal series},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {521--528},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/65.3.521}
}
Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L. 2001 Introduction to distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations    
BibTeX:
@book{BUC01,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D. L. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Introduction to distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2001}
}
Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L. 2004 Advanced distance sampling    
BibTeX:
@book{BUC04,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D. L. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Advanced distance sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004}
}
Buckland, S.T. 1982 A note on the Fourier series model for analysing line transect data Biometrics 38:469-477  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc82,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {A note on the Fourier series model for analysing line transect data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {469--477},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530461}
}
Buckland, S.T. 1984 Monte Carlo confidence intervals Biometrics 40:811-817  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc84,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Monte Carlo confidence intervals},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {811--817},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530926}
}
Buckland, S.T. 1985 Perpendicular distance models for line transect sampling Biometrics 41:177-195  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc85,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Perpendicular distance models for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {177--195},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530653}
}
Buckland, S.T. 1987 On the variable circular plot method of estimating animal density Biometrics 43:363-384  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc87a,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {On the variable circular plot method of estimating animal density},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {363--384},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2531819}
}
Buckland, S.T. 1987 An assessment of the performance of line transect models for fitting IWC/IDCR cruise data, 1978/79 to 1984/85 Report of the International Whaling Commission 37:277-279   
BibTeX:
@article{Buc87b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {An assessment of the performance of line transect models for fitting IWC/IDCR cruise data, 1978/79 to 1984/85},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {277--279}
}
Buckland, S.T. 1987 Estimation of minke whale numbers from the 1984/85 IWC/IDCR Antarctic sightings data Report of the International Whaling Commission 37:263-288   
BibTeX:
@article{Buc87c,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Estimation of minke whale numbers from the 1984/85 IWC/IDCR Antarctic sightings data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {263--288}
}
Buckland, S.T. 1992 Fitting density functions with polynomials Applied Statistics 41:63-76  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BUC92a,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Fitting density functions with polynomials},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {63--76},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2347618}
}
Buckland, S.T. 1992 Maximum likelihood fitting of Hermite and simple polynomial densities Applied Statistics 41:241-266  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buc92b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Maximum likelihood fitting of Hermite and simple polynomial densities},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {241--266},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2347650}
}
Buckland, S.T. 1992 Effects of heterogeneity on estimation of probability of detection on the trackline Report of the International Whaling Commission 42:569-573   
BibTeX:
@article{Buc92c,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Effects of heterogeneity on estimation of probability of detection on the trackline},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {569--573}
}
Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P. and Laake, J.L. 1993 Distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations    
BibTeX:
@book{BUC93,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations},
  publisher = {Chapman and Hall},
  year = {1993}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Anganuzzi, A.A. 1988 Comparison of smearing methods in the analysis of minke sightings data from IWC/IDCR Antarctic cruises Report of the International Whaling Commission 38:257-263   
BibTeX:
@article{BucAng88a,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anganuzzi, A. A.},
  title = {Comparison of smearing methods in the analysis of minke sightings data from IWC/IDCR Antarctic cruises},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {257--263}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Anganuzzi, A.A. 1988 Estimated trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific Report of the International Whaling Commission 38:411-437   
BibTeX:
@article{BucAng88b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anganuzzi, A. A.},
  title = {Estimated trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {411--437}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Breiwick, J.M. 2002 Estimated trends in abundance of eastern Pacific gray whales from shore counts, 1967/68 to 1995/96 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4:41-48   
BibTeX:
@article{BucBre02,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Breiwick, J. M.},
  title = {Estimated trends in abundance of eastern Pacific gray whales from shore counts, 1967/68 to 1995/96},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {41--48}
}
Buckland, S.T., Goudie, I.B.J. and Borchers, D.L. 2000 Wildlife population assessment: past developments and future directions Biometrics 56:1-12  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal00,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Goudie, I. B. J. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Wildlife population assessment: past developments and future directions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {1--12},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2000.00001.x}
}
Buckland, S.T., Thomas, L., Marques, F.F.C., Strindberg, S., Hedley, S.L., Pollard, J.H., Borchers, D.L. and Burt, M.L. 2002 Distance sampling: recent advances and future directions Quantitative Methods for Current Environmental Issues:79-97   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bucetal02,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Thomas, L. and Marques, F. F. C. and Strindberg, S. and Hedley, S. L. and Pollard, J. H. and Borchers, D. L. and Burt, M. L.},
  title = {Distance sampling: recent advances and future directions},
  booktitle = {Quantitative Methods for Current Environmental Issues},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {79--97}
}
Buckland, S.T., Borchers, D.L., Johnston, A., Henrys, P.A. and Marques, T.A. 2007 Line transect methods for plant surveys Biometrics 63:989-998  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal07,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Borchers, D. L. and Johnston, A. and Henrys, P. A. and Marques, T. A.},
  title = {Line transect methods for plant surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {63},
  pages = {989--998},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2007.00798.x}
}
Buckland, S.T., Cattanach, K.L. and Gunnlaugsson, T. 1992 Fin whale abundance in the North Atlantic, estimated from Icelandic and Faroese NASS-87 and NASS-89 data Report of the International Whaling Commission 42:645-651   
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal92d,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Cattanach, K. L. and Gunnlaugsson, Th.},
  title = {Fin whale abundance in the North Atlantic, estimated from Icelandic and Faroese NASS-87 and NASS-89 data},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {645--651}
}
Buckland, S.T., Cattanach, K.L. and Anganuzzi, A.A. 1992 Estimating trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific ocean, using sightings data collected on commercial tuna vessels Fishery Bulletin 90:1-12   
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal92e,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Cattanach, K. L. and Anganuzzi, A. A.},
  title = {Estimating trends in abundance of dolphins associated with tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific ocean, using sightings data collected on commercial tuna vessels},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {90},
  pages = {1--12}
}
Buckland, S.T., Bloch, D., Cattanach, K.L., Gunnlaugsson, T., Hoydal, K., Lens, S. and Sigurjónsson, J. 1993 Distribution and abundance of long-finned pilot whales in the North Atlantic, estimated from NASS-87 and NASS-89 data Biology of Northern Hemisphere Pilot Whales:33-49   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bucetal93b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Bloch, D. and Cattanach, K. L. and Gunnlaugsson, Th. and Hoydal, K. and Lens, S. and Sigurjónsson, J.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of long-finned pilot whales in the North Atlantic, estimated from NASS-87 and NASS-89 data},
  booktitle = {Biology of Northern Hemisphere Pilot Whales},
  publisher = {International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {33--49}
}
Buckland, S.T., Breiwick, J.M., Cattanach, K.L. and Laake, J.L. 1993 Estimated population size of the California gray whale Marine Mammal Science 9:235-249  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal93c,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Breiwick, J. M. and Cattanach, K. L. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Estimated population size of the California gray whale},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {235--249},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1993.tb00452.x}
}
Buckland, S.T., Burnham, K.P. and Augustin, N.H. 1997 Model selection: an integral part of inference Biometrics 53:603-618  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bucetal97,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Burnham, K. P. and Augustin, N. H.},
  title = {Model selection: an integral part of inference},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {603--618},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533961}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Garthwaite, P.H. 1990 Estimating confidence intervals by the Robbins–Monro search process Applied Statistics 39:413-424  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BucGar90,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Garthwaite, P. H.},
  title = {Estimating confidence intervals by the Robbins–Monro search process},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {413--424},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2347401}
}
Buchanan, G.M., Pearce-Higgins, J.W. and Grant, M.C. 2006 Observer variation in estimates of meadow pipit Anthus pratensis and skylark Alauda arvensis abundance on moorland Bird Study 53(1):92-95  DOI  
Abstract: Capsule Counts least susceptible to observer effects were those within 25 m of a transect and the total number along a transect, with observer effects greater for distance sampling. textcopyright 2006 British Trust for Ornithology.
BibTeX:
@article{Buchanan2006,
  author = {Buchanan, G. M. and Pearce-Higgins, J. W. and Grant, M. C.},
  title = {Observer variation in estimates of meadow pipit Anthus pratensis and skylark Alauda arvensis abundance on moorland},
  journal = {Bird Study},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {53},
  number = {1},
  pages = {92--95},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/00063650609461421}
}
Buckland, S.T., Burt, M.L., Rexstad, E.A., Mellor, M., Williams, A.E. and Woodward, R. 2012 Aerial surveys of seabirds: the advent of digital methods Journal of Applied Ecology 49:960-967  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Burt, M. L. and Rexstad, E. A. and Mellor, M. and Williams, A. E. and Woodward, R.},
  title = {Aerial surveys of seabirds: the advent of digital methods},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {960--967},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02150.x}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Anderson, D.R. 2004 Introduction to advanced distance sampling Advanced Distance Sampling:1-6   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Buckland2004,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Introduction to advanced distance sampling},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {1--6}
}
Buckland, S.T. 2006 Point transect surveys for songbirds: robust methodologies The Auk 123(2):345-357  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2006,
  author = {Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Point transect surveys for songbirds: robust methodologies},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {123},
  number = {2},
  pages = {345--357},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/123.2.345}
}
Buckland, S.T., Summers, R.W., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L. 2006 Point transect sampling with traps or lures Journal of Applied Ecology 43(2):377-384  DOI  
Abstract: 1. The ability to monitor abundance of animal populations is becoming increasingly important, in light of growing concerns over the loss of biodiversity through anthropogenic changes. A widely used tool for such monitoring is distance sampling, in which distances of detected animals from a line or point are modelled, to estimate detectability and hence abundance. Nevertheless, many species still prove problematic to survey. We have developed two extensions to point transect sampling that potentially allow abundance to be estimated for a number of species from diverse taxa for which good survey methods have not previously been available. 2. For each method, the primary survey comprises a random sample of points, or more usually a systematic grid of points, through the region of interest. Animals are lured to a point, or trapped at a point, and the number of animals observed at each point is recorded. A separate study is conducted on a subset of animals, to record whether they respond to the lure or enter the trap, for a range of known distances from the point. These data are used to estimate the probability that an animal will respond to the lure or enter the trap, as a function of its initial distance from the point. This allows the counts to be converted to an estimate of abundance in the survey region. 3. We illustrated the methods using a lure survey of crossbills Loxia spp. in coniferous woodland in Scotland. 4. Synthesis and applications. Two extensions of point transect sampling that use the same statistical methodology, lure point transects and trapping point transects, have been developed. Lure point transects extend the applicability of distance sampling to species that can be lured to a point, while trapping point transects potentially allow abundance estimation of species that can be trapped, with fewer resources needed than trapping webs and conventional mark-recapture methods. textcopyright 2006 British Ecological Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2006b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Summers, R. W. and Borchers, D. L. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Point transect sampling with traps or lures},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {43},
  number = {2},
  pages = {377--384},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01135.x}
}
Buckland, S.T., Marsden, S.J. and Green, R.E. 2008 Estimating bird abundance: making methods work Bird Conservation International 18:S91-S108  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2008,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Marsden, Stuart J. and Green, Rhys E.},
  title = {Estimating bird abundance: making methods work},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {S91--S108},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270908000294}
}
Buckland, S.T., Russell, R.E., Dickson, B.G., Saab, V.A., Gorman, D.N. and Block, W.M. 2009 Analysing designed experiments in distance sampling Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 14:432-442  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2009a,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Russell, Robin E. and Dickson, Brett G. and Saab, Victoria A. and Gorman, Donal N. and Block, William M.},
  title = {Analysing designed experiments in distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {432--442},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1198/jabes.2009.08030}
}
Buckland, S.T., Laake, J.L. and Borchers, D.L. 2010 Double-observer line transect methods: levels of independence Biometrics 66:169-177  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2010,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Laake, Jeffrey L. and Borchers, David L.},
  title = {Double-observer line transect methods: levels of independence},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {169--177},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2009.01239.x}
}
Buckland, S.T., Oedekoven, C.S. and Borchers, D.L. 2015 Model-based distance sampling Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 21(1):58-75  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buckland2015a,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Oedekoven, C. S. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Model-based distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {21},
  number = {1},
  pages = {58--75},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s13253-015-0220-7}
}
Buckland, S.T., Rexstad, E.A., Marques, T.A. and Oedekoven, C.S. 2015 Distance sampling: methods and applications    
BibTeX:
@book{Buckland2015b,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Rexstad, E. A. and Marques, T. A. and Oedekoven, C. S.},
  title = {Distance sampling: methods and applications},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015}
}
Buckland, S.T., Rexstad, E., Thomas, L. and Borchers, D.L. 2016 Distance sampling surveys of population size: enabling better decision-making by wildlife managers UK Success Stories in Industrial Mathematics:45-51  DOI  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Buckland2016,
  author = {Buckland, Stephen T. and Rexstad, Eric and Thomas, Len and Borchers, David L.},
  title = {Distance sampling surveys of population size: enabling better decision-making by wildlife managers},
  booktitle = {UK Success Stories in Industrial Mathematics},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {45--51},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25454-8_6}
}
Buckland, S.T. and Turnock, B.J. 1992 A robust line transect method Biometrics 48:901-909  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BucTur92,
  author = {Buckland, S. T. and Turnock, B. J.},
  title = {A robust line transect method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {901--909},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2532356}
}
Buford, E.W., Capen, D.E. and Williams, B.K. 1996 Distance sampling to estimate fledgling brood density of forest birds Canadian Field-Naturalist 110(4):642-648   
Abstract: Research on the status of avian communities often relies on estimates of abundance, but does not always consider demographic factors such as productivity. We introduce the application of a distance-sampling technique for estimating brood density of fledgling birds in forested habitats. During 1993 and 1994, we conducted 60 line-transect surveys on 10 sites in the Green Mountain National Forest in Vermont. Sites were divided into two groups, which allowed us to test for differences in fledgling density between groups. We detected 508 broods representing 38 species. Using standard distance-sampling procedures, we estimated densities of 0.576 (C.V.= 11.89) and 0.513 (C.V.=12.54) broods per hectare. Density was not statistically different between groups. As with other survey methods, distance sampling favors easily detected species; however, line-transect density of fledglings is less obtrusive and less labor-intesive than mist-netting or nest searches, and can contribute important information to studies of avian communities.
BibTeX:
@article{Buford1996,
  author = {Buford, E. W. and Capen, D. E. and Williams, B. K.},
  title = {Distance sampling to estimate fledgling brood density of forest birds},
  journal = {Canadian Field-Naturalist},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {110},
  number = {4},
  pages = {642--648}
}
Buford, E.W. and Capen, D.E. 1999 Abundance and productivity of forest songbirds in a managed, unfragmented landscape in vermont Journal of Wildlife Management 63(1):180-188  DOI  
Abstract: Effective conservation of forest songbirds requires knowledge of responses to landscape pattern. We studied a breeding songbird community in a landscape characterized by scattered openings in a forest matrix in Vermont, 1993-94. We measured species composition, abundance, and fledgling brood density in the forested areas of 10500-ha sites; we compared a group of 5 disturbed-canopy sites (?10% canopy disturbance) with a control group of 5 undisturbed-canopy sites. We conducted 456 point counts to determine species composition and abundance, and we conducted 60 line transect surveys to estimate fledgling brood density as a measure of productivity. Adult densities were not different between groups (P ¿ 0.05) for 18 species listed as priority for conservation, although power was low. Combined brood densities of all species, Neotropical migrants, and ground nesters were not different among groups (P ¿ 0.05). Brood densities of 3 Neotropical migrants also were not different (P ¿ 0.05). However, combined brood density of area-sensitive, forest interior species was greater on control sites (P ¡ 0.05). At the scale of this study, a minimal amount of canopy removal in the extensively forested landscape did not affect abundance and overall productivity of songbirds inhabiting the remaining forest, but canopy removal had begun to suppress productivity of some forest interior species.
BibTeX:
@article{Buford1999,
  author = {Buford, E. W. and Capen, D. E.},
  title = {Abundance and productivity of forest songbirds in a managed, unfragmented landscape in vermont},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {63},
  number = {1},
  pages = {180--188},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802499}
}
Burnham, K.P., Buckland, S.T., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L., Marques, T.A., Bishop, J.R.B. and Thomas, L. 2004 Further topics in distance sampling Advanced Distance Sampling:307-392   
BibTeX:
@incollection{BUR04,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Buckland, S. T. and Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D. L. and Marques, T. A. and Bishop, J. R. B. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Further topics in distance sampling},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {307--392}
}
Burnham, K.P. 1979 A parametric generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling Biometrics 35:587-595  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Bur79,
  author = {Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {A parametric generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {587--595},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530249}
}
Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. 1980 Estimation of density from line transect sampling of biological populations Wildlife Monographs 72:1-202  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BUR80,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Estimation of density from line transect sampling of biological populations},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {1--202},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2259887}
}
Burnham, K.P. 1981 Summarizing remarks: environmental influences Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6:324-325   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bur81,
  author = {Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {Summarizing remarks: environmental influences},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {324--325}
}
Burnham, K.P. and Anderson, D.R. 1976 Mathematical models for non-parametric inferences from line transect data Biometrics 32:325-336  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BurAnd76,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Mathematical models for non-parametric inferences from line transect data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {325--336},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2529501}
}
Burnham, K.P. and Anderson, D.R. 1984 The need for distance data in transect counts Journal of Wildlife Management 48:1248-1254  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BurAnd84,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {The need for distance data in transect counts},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {1248--1254},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801785}
}
Burdick, D.L. 1979 On estimation of the number of porpoise schools (Publication 79-2)   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Burd79,
  author = {Burdick, D. L.},
  title = {On estimation of the number of porpoise schools},
  year = {1979},
  number = {Publication 79-2}
}
Burnham, P., K., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. 1979 Robust estimation from line transect data Journal of Wildlife Management 43:992-996  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buretal79,
  author = {Burnham and K., P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Robust estimation from line transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {992--996},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3808290}
}
Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. 1981 Line transect estimation of bird population density using a Fourier series Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6:466-482   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Buretal81,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of bird population density using a Fourier series},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology No. 6},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {466--482}
}
Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. 1985 Efficiency and bias in strip and line transect sampling Journal of Wildlife Management 49:1012-1018  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Buretal85,
  author = {Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Efficiency and bias in strip and line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {1012--1018},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801387}
}
Burnham, K.P. and Anderson, D.R. 2004 Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection Sociological Methods & Research 33:261-304  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Burnham2004,
  author = {Burnham, Kenneth P. and Anderson, David R.},
  title = {Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection},
  journal = {Sociological Methods & Research},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {261--304},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124104268644}
}
Borchers, D.L. and Burnham, K.P. 2004 General formulation for distance sampling Advanced Distance Sampling:6-30   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Burnham2004a,
  author = {Borchers, D. L. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {General formulation for distance sampling},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {6--30}
}
Butterworth, D.S. 1982 A possible basis for choosing a functional form for the distribution of sightings with right angle distance: some preliminary ideas Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:555-558   
BibTeX:
@article{But82,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {A possible basis for choosing a functional form for the distribution of sightings with right angle distance: some preliminary ideas},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {555--558}
}
Butterworth, D.S. 1982 On the functional form used for g(y) for minke whale sightings, and bias in its estimation due to measurement inaccuracies Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:883-888   
BibTeX:
@article{But82b,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {On the functional form used for g(y) for minke whale sightings, and bias in its estimation due to measurement inaccuracies},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {883--888}
}
Butterworth, D.S. 1986 A note on the analysis of the 1980/81 variable speed experiment Report of the International Whaling Commission 36:485-489   
BibTeX:
@article{But86,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S.},
  title = {A note on the analysis of the 1980/81 variable speed experiment},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {485--489}
}
Butterworth, D.S. and Best, P.B. 1982 Report of the Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1980/81 Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:835-874   
BibTeX:
@article{ButBes82,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Best, P. B.},
  title = {Report of the Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise, 1980/81},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {835--874}
}
Butterworth, D.S. and Borchers, D.L. 1988 Estimates of g(0) for minke schools from the results of the independent observer experiment on the 1985/86 and 1986/87 IWC/IDCR Antarctic assessment cruises Report of the International Whaling Commission 38:301-313   
BibTeX:
@article{ButBor88,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Estimates of g(0) for minke schools from the results of the independent observer experiment on the 1985/86 and 1986/87 IWC/IDCR Antarctic assessment cruises},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {301--313}
}
Butterworth, D.S., Best, P.B. and Basson, M. 1982 Results of analysis of sighting experiments carried out during the 1980/81 Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:819-834   
BibTeX:
@article{Butetal82c,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Best, P. B. and Basson, M.},
  title = {Results of analysis of sighting experiments carried out during the 1980/81 Southern Hemisphere minke whale assessment cruise},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {819--834}
}
Butterworth, D.S., Best, P.B. and Hembree, D. 1984 Analysis of experiments carried out during the 1981/82 IWC/IDCR Antarctic minke whale assessment cruise in Area II Report of the International Whaling Commission 34:365-392   
BibTeX:
@article{Butetal84,
  author = {Butterworth, D. S. and Best, P. B. and Hembree, D.},
  title = {Analysis of experiments carried out during the 1981/82 IWC/IDCR Antarctic minke whale assessment cruise in Area II},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {365--392}
}
Butler, M.J., Wallace, M.C., Ballard, W.B., DeMaso, S.J. and Applegate, R.D. 2005 From the Field: The relationship of Rio Grande wild turkey distributions to roads Wildlife Society Bulletin 33(2):745-748  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Butler2005,
  author = {Butler, M. J. and Wallace, M. C. and Ballard, W. B. and DeMaso, S. J. and Applegate, R. D.},
  title = {From the Field: The relationship of Rio Grande wild turkey distributions to roads},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {33},
  number = {2},
  pages = {745--748},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/0091-7648(2005)33%5B745:FTFTRO%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Butler, M.J., Ballard, W.B., Wallace, M.C., DeMaso, S.J. and McGee, B.K. 2007 Aerial surveys for estimating wild turkey abundance in the Texas rolling plains Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1639-1645  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Butler2007,
  author = {Butler, M. J. and Ballard, W. B. and Wallace, M. C. and DeMaso, S. J. and McGee, B. K.},
  title = {Aerial surveys for estimating wild turkey abundance in the Texas rolling plains},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {1639--1645},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/2006-254}
}
Butler, J., Mark J. Butler and Gaff, H. 2017 Snap, crackle, and pop: acoustic-based model estimation of snapping shrimp populations in healthy and degraded hard-bottom habitats Ecological Indicators 77:377-385  DOI  
Abstract: Abstract Human use of the ocean and its ecosystems continues to degrade coastal habitats around the world. Assessing anthropogenic impacts on these environments can be costly and manpower-intensive; thus, the development of rapid, remote techniques to assess habitat quality is important. We employed autonomous hydrophone receivers to record the soundscapes of healthy, sponge-rich hard-bottom habitat in Florida Bay, Florida (USA) and hard-bottom areas impacted by sponge die-offs. We also recorded sounds emanating from individual sponges of three species that were isolated in underwater sound booths, and then enumerated the invertebrates (mostly snapping shrimp) dwelling within the canals of each sponge. From these recordings, a modified cylindrical sound propagation model was used to estimate distances to individual snapping shrimp snaps. Using the program Distance, we estimated snapping shrimp population density and abundance within both habitat types. More snapping shrimp snaps per unit time were recorded in healthy hard-bottom areas as compared to degraded hard-bottom areas. In addition, the average distance to a snap source was greater within degraded hard-bottom areas than within healthy hard-bottom areas. As a consequence, the estimated density and abundance of snapping shrimp were one to two orders of magnitude greater within healthy habitat than within degraded habitat. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using acoustic sampling and modeling to rapidly assess populations of soniferous benthic indicator species, whose vocalizations may yield indirect estimates of habitat quality.
BibTeX:
@article{Butler2017,
  author = {Butler, Jack and Mark J. Butler, and Gaff, Holly},
  title = {Snap, crackle, and pop: acoustic-based model estimation of snapping shrimp populations in healthy and degraded hard-bottom habitats},
  journal = {Ecological Indicators},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {77},
  pages = {377--385},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.02.041}
}
Buuveibaatar, B., Strindberg, S., Kaczensky, P., Payne, J., Chimeddorj, B., Naranbaatar, G., Amarsaikhan, S., Dashnyam, B., Munkhzul, T., Purevsuren, T., Hosack, D.A. and Fuller, T.K. 2017 Mongolian Gobi supports the world's largest populations of khulan Equus hemionus and goitered gazelles Gazella subgutturosa Oryx 51(4):639-647  DOI  
Abstract: Mongolia's Gobi Desert ecosystem, a stronghold for populations of the Asiatic wild ass (khulan) Equus hemionus and the goitered gazelle Gazella subgutturosa, faces conservation challenges as a result of rapid economic development, including mining-related infrastructure projects. There is a paucity of reliable data on population abundance for these ungulates in the region, which makes it difficult to assess how they are responding to increasing anthropogenic pressure. Our aim was to obtain abundance estimates for khulan and goitered gazelles to inform their management and form the basis of a long-term monitoring programme. Each year during 2012– 2015 we surveyed a total of 64 line transects spaced 20 km apart, with a total of 3,464 km of survey effort across 78,717 km2. Distance sampling analysis provided annual estimates of density and abundance, which were cross-referenced with the results of an aerial survey conducted in 2013. Overall, we observed 784 groups (14,608 individuals) of khulan and 1,033 groups (3,955 individuals) of goitered gazelles during the four surveys. The abundance estimates for 2013 were 35,899 (95% CI 22,680– 40,537) khulan and 28,462 (95% CI 21,326– 37,987) goitered gazelles. These estimates were congruent with the results from the aerial survey, which overlapped spatially and temporally with our ground-based survey. Our findings confirm that Mongolia's Gobi Desert supports the largest population of khulan and goitered gazelles in the world, and we provide a critical update on the status of the two species.
BibTeX:
@article{buuveibaatar_mongolian_2017,
  author = {Buuveibaatar, B. and Strindberg, S. and Kaczensky, P. and Payne, J. and Chimeddorj, B. and Naranbaatar, G. and Amarsaikhan, S. and Dashnyam, B. and Munkhzul, T. and Purevsuren, T. and Hosack, D. A. and Fuller, T. K.},
  title = {Mongolian Gobi supports the world's largest populations of khulan Equus hemionus and goitered gazelles Gazella subgutturosa},
  journal = {Oryx},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {51},
  number = {4},
  pages = {639--647},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605316000417}
}
Byth, K. 1982 On robust distance-based intensity estimators Biometrics 38:127-135  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Byt82,
  author = {Byth, K.},
  title = {On robust distance-based intensity estimators},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {127--135},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530295}
}
Byth, K. and Ripley, B.D. 1980 On sampling spatial patterns by distance methods Biometrics 36:279-284  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BytRip36,
  author = {Byth, K. and Ripley, B. D.},
  title = {On sampling spatial patterns by distance methods},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {279--284},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2529979}
}
Cahall, R.E. and Hayes, J.P. 2009 Influences of postfire salvage logging on forest birds in the eastern Cascades, Oregon, USA Forest Ecology and Management 257(3):1119-1128  DOI  
Abstract: In coniferous forests of western North American, fire is an important disturbance that influences the structure and composition of floral and faunal communities. The impacts of postfire management, including salvage logging and replanting, on these forests are not well known. We compared densities and relative abundances of forest birds after fire in unsalvaged stands and stands subjected to one of two intensities of salvage logging (moderate, 30 snags retained per ha and heavy, 5-6 snags retained per ha) in mixed-conifer forests in central Oregon. We used analysis of variance with repeated measures to evaluate three hypotheses concerning the influence of different intensities of salvage on densities or relative abundances of sixteen species of birds, and two hypotheses concerning the influence of time since salvage logging on relative abundances or densities of birds. We also examined the relationship between vegetation and abundances of each bird species. We did not detect significant differences among treatments in densities or relative abundances for eight species and one genus of birds. We detected significant differences for seven species, though the patterns differed among species. Relative abundances or densities of the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), hairy woodpecker (P. villosus), brown creeper (Certhia americana), western wood-pewee (Contopus sordidulus) and yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) were lower in the heavy and moderate salvage treatment compared to the unsalvaged treatment, while densities of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) and fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca) were greater in the moderately and heavily salvaged stands than in the unsalvaged treatment. We detected significant differences between years for four species of birds. Our findings suggest that both cavity-nesting and cup-nesting species respond to salvage logging, and that some species respond uniquely to habitat features influenced by salvage logging. For species that responded negatively to salvage logging, the moderate salvage intensity did not appear to mitigate the negative influence of salvage logging. Areas of unlogged burned forest appear to provide important habitat for some species of birds following forest fires. Our findings parallel those of other recent studies of these species, suggesting robust patterns that transcend particular locations.
BibTeX:
@article{Cahall2009,
  author = {Cahall, Rebecca E. and Hayes, John P.},
  title = {Influences of postfire salvage logging on forest birds in the eastern Cascades, Oregon, USA},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {257},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1119--1128},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.11.019}
}
Cahill, A.J., Walker, J.S. and Marsden, S.J. 2006 Recovery within a population of the Critically Endangered citron-crested cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata in Indonesia after 10 years of international trade control Oryx 40:161-167  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cahill2006,
  author = {Cahill, A. J. and Walker, J. S. and Marsden, S. J.},
  title = {Recovery within a population of the Critically Endangered citron-crested cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata in Indonesia after 10 years of international trade control},
  journal = {Oryx},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {161--167},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605306000366}
}
Calambokidis, J. and Barlow, J. 2004 Abundance of blue and humpback whales in the eastern north Pacific estimated by capture-recapture and line-transect methods Marine Mammal Science 20(1):63-85  DOI  
Abstract: We estimated humpback and blue whale abundance from 1991 to 1997 off the west coast of the U.S. and Mexico comparing capture-recapture models based on photographically identified animals and line-transect methods from ship-based surveys. During photo-identification research we obtained 4,212 identifications of 824 humpback whales and 2,403 identifications of 908 blue whales primarily through non-systematic small-boat surveys along the coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. Line-transect surveys from NOAA ships in 1991, 1993, and 1996 covered approximately 39,000 km along the coast of Baja California, California, Oregon, and Washington out to 555 km from shore. The nearshore and clumped distribution of humpback whales allowed photographic identification from small boats to cost-effectively sample a substantial portion of the population, but made it difficult to obtain effective samples in the line-transect surveys covering broad areas. The humpback capture-recapture estimates indicated humpback whale abundance increased over the six years (from 569 to 837). The broader more offshore distribution of blue whales made it harder to obtain a representative sample of identification photographs, but was well suited to the line-transect estimates. The line-transect estimates, after correction for missed animals, indicated approximately 3,000 blue whales (CV = 0.14). Capture-recapture estimates of blue whales were lower than this: approximately 2,000 when using photographs obtained from the line-transect surveys as one of the samples. Comparison of the results from the two methods provides validation, as well as insight into potential biases associated with each method.
BibTeX:
@article{Calambokidis2004,
  author = {Calambokidis, J. and Barlow, J.},
  title = {Abundance of blue and humpback whales in the eastern north Pacific estimated by capture-recapture and line-transect methods},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {20},
  number = {1},
  pages = {63--85},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2004.tb01141.x}
}
Calambokidis, J., Steiger, G.H., Ellifrit, D.K., Troutman, B.L. and Bowlby, C.E. 2004 Distribution and abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) and other marine mammals off the northern Washington coast Fisheries Bulletin 102:563-580   
BibTeX:
@article{Calambokidis2004a,
  author = {Calambokidis, John and Steiger, Gretchen H. and Ellifrit, David K. and Troutman, Barry L. and Bowlby, C. Edward},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) and other marine mammals off the northern Washington coast},
  journal = {Fisheries Bulletin},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {102},
  pages = {563--580}
}
Camacho, C., Feinberg, J. and Green, T. 2005 Use of the program distance to assess population size of the eastern hognose snake (Heterodon platirhinos) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory    
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Camacho,
  author = {Camacho and C. and Feinberg, J. and Green, T.},
  title = {Use of the program distance to assess population size of the eastern hognose snake (Heterodon platirhinos) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory},
  year = {2005}
}
Young, J.K., Murray, K.M., Strindberg, S., Buuveibaatar, B. and Berger, J. 2010 Population estimates of endangered Mongolian saiga Saiga tatarica mongolica: implications for effective monitoring and population recovery Oryx 44(02):285-292  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CambridgeJournals:7467984,
  author = {Young, Julie K. and Murray, Kim M. and Strindberg, Samantha and Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar and Berger, Joel},
  title = {Population estimates of endangered Mongolian saiga Saiga tatarica mongolica: implications for effective monitoring and population recovery},
  journal = {Oryx},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {44},
  number = {02},
  pages = {285--292},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605309990858}
}
Dallimer, M., Melo, M., Collar, N.J. and Jones, P.J. 2010 The príncipe thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus: a newly split, "critically endangered", forest flagship species Bird Conservation International First View:1-7  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CambridgeJournals:7852429,
  author = {Dallimer, Martin and Melo, Martim and Collar, Nigel J. and Jones, Peter J.},
  title = {The príncipe thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus: a newly split, "critically endangered", forest flagship species},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {First View},
  pages = {1--7},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270910000390}
}
Camp, R. 2007 Measurement errors in Hawaiian forest bird surveys and their effect on density estimation (Technical Report HCSU-005)School: Hawai'i Cooperative Studies Unit. University of Hawai'i at Hilo   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Camp2007,
  author = {Camp, Rick},
  title = {Measurement errors in Hawaiian forest bird surveys and their effect on density estimation},
  school = {Hawai'i Cooperative Studies Unit. University of Hawai'i at Hilo},
  year = {2007},
  number = {Technical Report HCSU-005}
}
Camp, R.J., Marshall, T.K., Amidon, A.P., Williams, F. and Pratt, L.L. 2009 Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered nightingale reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia Bird Conservation International 19(4):323-337  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Camp2009323,
  author = {Camp, R. J. and Marshall, T. K. and Amidon, A. P. and Williams, F. and Pratt, L. L.},
  title = {Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered nightingale reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {19},
  number = {4},
  pages = {323--337},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270909008417}
}
Camp, R.J., Brinck, K.W., Gorresen, P.M. and Paxton, E.H. 2016 Evaluating abundance and trends in a Hawaiian avian community using state-space analysis Bird Conservation International 26:225-242  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Camp2016,
  author = {Camp, Richard J. and Brinck, Kevin W. and Gorresen, P. Marcos and Paxton, Eben H.},
  title = {Evaluating abundance and trends in a Hawaiian avian community using state-space analysis},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {225--242},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270915000088}
}
Campbell, G.S., Thomas, L., Whitaker, K., Douglas, A.B., Calambokidis, J. and Hildebrand, J.A. 2015 Inter-annual and seasonal trends in cetacean distribution, density and abundance off southern California Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 112(0):143-157  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Campbell2014,
  author = {Campbell, Gregory S. and Thomas, Len and Whitaker, Katherine and Douglas, Annie B. and Calambokidis, John and Hildebrand, John A.},
  title = {Inter-annual and seasonal trends in cetacean distribution, density and abundance off southern California},
  journal = {Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {112},
  number = {0},
  pages = {143--157},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.10.008}
}
Campos-Cerqueira, M., Arendt, W.J., Wunderle, J.M. and Aide, T.M. 2017 Have bird distributions shifted along an elevational gradient on a tropical mountain? Ecology and Evolution 7(23):9914-9924  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Campos-Cerqueira2017,
  author = {Campos-Cerqueira, Marconi and Arendt, Wayne J. and Wunderle, Joseph M. and Aide, T. Mitchell},
  title = {Have bird distributions shifted along an elevational gradient on a tropical mountain?},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {7},
  number = {23},
  pages = {9914--9924},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3520}
}
Cañadas, A., Desportes, G. and Borchers, D. 2004 The estimation of the detection function and g(0) for shortbeaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), using double platform data collected during the NASS-95 Faroese survey Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6:191-198   
BibTeX:
@article{CANADAS2004,
  author = {Cañadas, A. and Desportes, G. and Borchers, D.},
  title = {The estimation of the detection function and g(0) for shortbeaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), using double platform data collected during the NASS-95 Faroese survey},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {191--198}
}
Cañadas, A. and Hammond, P.S. 2006 Model-based abundance estimates for bottlenose dolphins off southern Spain: implications for conservation and management Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8:13-27   
BibTeX:
@article{Canadas2006,
  author = {Cañadas, A. and Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {Model-based abundance estimates for bottlenose dolphins off southern Spain: implications for conservation and management},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {13--27}
}
Cañadas, A. and Hammond, P.S. 2008 Abundance and habitat preferences of the short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the southwestern mediterranean: implications for conservation Endangered Species Research 4(3):309-331  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Canadas2008,
  author = {Cañadas, A. and Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {Abundance and habitat preferences of the short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the southwestern mediterranean: implications for conservation},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  publisher = {Inter-Research Science Center},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {4},
  number = {3},
  pages = {309--331},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00073}
}
Cappelle, N., Després-Einspenner, M.-L., Howe, E.J., Boesch, C. and Kühl, H.S. 2019 Validating camera trap distance sampling for chimpanzees American Journal of Primatology 81(3):e22962  DOI  
Abstract: The extension of distance sampling methods to accommodate observations from camera traps has recently enhanced the potential to remotely monitor multiple species without the need of additional data collection (sign production and decay rates) or individual identification. However, the method requires that the proportion of time is quantifiable when animals can be detected by the cameras. This can be problematic, for instance, when animals spend time above the ground, which is the case for most primates. In this study, we aimed to validate camera trap distance sampling (CTDS) for the semiarboreal western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire by estimating abundance of a population of known size and comparing estimates to those from other commonly applied methods. We estimated chimpanzee abundance using CTDS and accounted for limited availability for detection (semiarboreal). We evaluated bias and precision of estimates, as well as costs and efforts required to obtain them, and compared them to those from spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) and line transect nest surveys. Abundance estimates obtained by CTDS and SECR produced a similar negligible bias, but CTDS yielded a larger coefficient of variation (CV = 39.70% for CTDS vs. 1%/19% for SECR). Line transects generated the most biased abundance estimates but yielded a better coefficient of variation (27.40– 27.85%) than CTDS. Camera trap surveys were twice more costly than line transects because of the initial cost of cameras, while line transects surveys required more than twice as much time in the field. This study demonstrates the potential to obtain unbiased estimates of the abundance of semiarboreal species like chimpanzees by CTDS. HIGHLIGHTS Camera trap distance sampling produced accurate density estimates for semiarboreal chimpanzees. Availability for detection must be accounted for and can be derived from the activity pattern.
BibTeX:
@article{cappelle_validating_2019,
  author = {Cappelle, Noémie and Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne and Howe, Eric J. and Boesch, Christophe and Kühl, Hjalmar S.},
  title = {Validating camera trap distance sampling for chimpanzees},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {81},
  number = {3},
  pages = {e22962},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22962}
}
Carretta, J.V., Forney, K.A. and Laake, J.L. 1998 Abundance of California coastal bottlenose dolphins estimated from tandem aerial surveys Marine Mammal Science 14:655-675  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Caretal98,
  author = {Carretta, J. V. and Forney, K. A. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Abundance of California coastal bottlenose dolphins estimated from tandem aerial surveys},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {655--675},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00755.x}
}
Carlucci, R., Ricci, P., Cipriano, G. and Fanizza, C. 2017 Abundance, activity and critical habitat of the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba in the Gulf of Taranto (northern Ionian Sea, central Mediterranean Sea) Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Carlucci2017,
  author = {Carlucci, Roberto and Ricci, Pasquale and Cipriano, Giulia and Fanizza, Carmelo},
  title = {Abundance, activity and critical habitat of the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba in the Gulf of Taranto (northern Ionian Sea, central Mediterranean Sea)},
  journal = {Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2017},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2867}
}
Carlucci, R., Cipriano, G., Paoli, C., Ricci, P., Fanizza, C., Capezzuto, F. and Vassallo, P. 2018 Random forest population modelling of striped and common-bottlenose dolphins in the gulf of taranto (Gulf of Taranto (northern Ionian Sea, central Mediterranean Sea) Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 204:177-192  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Carlucci2018,
  author = {Carlucci, Roberto and Cipriano, Giulia and Paoli, Chiara and Ricci, Pasquale and Fanizza, Carmelo and Capezzuto, Francesca and Vassallo, Paolo},
  title = {Random forest population modelling of striped and common-bottlenose dolphins in the gulf of taranto (Gulf of Taranto (northern Ionian Sea, central Mediterranean Sea)},
  journal = {Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {204},
  pages = {177--192},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2018.02.034}
}
Carrascal, L.M., Seoane, J. and Palomino, D. 2008 Density bias estimations using strip transects in dry open–country environments in the Canary Islands Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 31:45-50   
BibTeX:
@article{Carrascal2008,
  author = {Carrascal, L. M. and Seoane, J. and Palomino, D.},
  title = {Density bias estimations using strip transects in dry open–country environments in the Canary Islands},
  journal = {Animal Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {45--50}
}
Carretta, J.V., Taylor, B.L. and Chivers, S.J. 2001 Abundance and depth distribution of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in northern California determined from a 1995 ship survey Fishery Bulletin 99(1):29-39   
BibTeX:
@article{Carretta2001,
  author = {Carretta, J. V. and Taylor, B. L. and Chivers, S. J.},
  title = {Abundance and depth distribution of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in northern California determined from a 1995 ship survey},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {99},
  number = {1},
  pages = {29--39}
}
Carretta, J.V., Chivers, S.J. and Perryman, W.L. 2011 Abundance of the long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis) in California and western Baja California waters estimated from a 2009 ship-based line-transect survey Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences 110:152-164  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Carretta2011,
  author = {Carretta, J. V. and Chivers, S. J. and Perryman, W. L.},
  title = {Abundance of the long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis) in California and western Baja California waters estimated from a 2009 ship-based line-transect survey},
  journal = {Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {110},
  pages = {152--164},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3160/0038-3872-110.3.152}
}
Carroll, J.M. and Krementz, D.G. 2014 Density and abundance of Wilson's snipe Gallinago delicata in winter in the lower Mississippi flyway, USA Wildlife Biology 20(2):108-114  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Carroll2014,
  author = {Carroll, James M. and Krementz, David G.},
  title = {Density and abundance of Wilson's snipe Gallinago delicata in winter in the lower Mississippi flyway, USA},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology},
  publisher = {Nordic Board for Wildlife Research},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {20},
  number = {2},
  pages = {108--114},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2981/wlb.13075}
}
Carvalho, J.S., Marques, T.A. and Vicente, L. 2013 Population status of Pan troglodytes verus in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau Plos ONE 8:e71527  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Carvalho2013,
  author = {Carvalho, Joana Silva and Marques, Tiago A. and Vicente, Luis},
  title = {Population status of Pan troglodytes verus in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park, Guinea-Bissau},
  journal = {Plos ONE},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {e71527},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071527}
}
Casagrande, D.G. and Beissinger, S.R. 1997 Evaluation of four methods for estimating parrot population size Condor, The 99:445-457  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CasBei97,
  author = {Casagrande, D. G. and Beissinger, S. R.},
  title = {Evaluation of four methods for estimating parrot population size},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {99},
  pages = {445--457},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1369951}
}
Cassey, P. and McArdle, B.H. 1999 An assessment of distance sampling techniques for estimating animal abundance Environmetrics 10(3):261-278  DOI  
Abstract: Line transects have been widely applied for the estimation of animal abundance because they are regarded as simple, economical, and relatively precise. The recent development of automated techniques for the estimation of animal density from distance sampling data allows greater potential for field biologists and wildlife managers to become involved in the analytical summary of their research. An assessment was made of the ability of program DISTANCE to produce unbiased estimates of density in spite of potential sources of error from the estimation of transect and population density. Populations were simulated to investigate the robustness of program DISTANCE to changes in the density, distribution, and detection of animals across sampling areas and transects. It is concluded that if distance sampling data is collected reliably from a random sample of possible primary sampling units (PSUs) it can be expected that estimates of density will be presented accurately and with correct estimates of variance. If the proportion of the study area surveyed by transects is large however, then the presence of large between PSU variation will cause the variance estimates from program DISTANCE to be a sizeable overestimate.
BibTeX:
@article{Cassey1999,
  author = {Cassey, P. and McArdle, B. H.},
  title = {An assessment of distance sampling techniques for estimating animal abundance},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {10},
  number = {3},
  pages = {261--278},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-095X(199905/06)10:3%3C261::AID-ENV351%3E3.0.CO;2-O}
}
Cassey, P. 1999 Estimating animal abundance by distance sampling techniques School: School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Cassey1999a,
  author = {Cassey, Phillip},
  title = {Estimating animal abundance by distance sampling techniques},
  school = {School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland},
  year = {1999}
}
Cassey, P., Craig, J.L., McArdle, B.H. and Barraclough, R.K. 2007 Distance sampling techniques compared for a New Zealand endemic passerine (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater) New Zealand Journal of Ecology 31:223-231  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Cassey2007,
  author = {Cassey, Phillip and Craig, John L. and McArdle, Brian H. and Barraclough, Rosemary K.},
  title = {Distance sampling techniques compared for a New Zealand endemic passerine (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater)},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {223--231},
  url = {https://newzealandecology.org/nzje/2837}
}
Cassey, P. and Usher, G.T. 1999 Estimating abundance of tuatara Biological Conservation 88:361-366  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CasUsh99,
  author = {Cassey, P. and Usher, G. T.},
  title = {Estimating abundance of tuatara},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {361--366},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00114-1}
}
Catt, D.C., Baines, D., Picozzi, N., Moss, R. and Summers, R.W. 1998 Abundance and distribution of capercaillie Tetrao urogallus in Scotland 1992-1994 Biological Conservation 85:257-267  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Catetal98,
  author = {Catt, D. C. and Baines, D. and Picozzi, N. and Moss, R. and Summers, R. W.},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of capercaillie Tetrao urogallus in Scotland 1992-1994},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {257--267},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(97)00171-7}
}
Catry, F.X., Rego, F.C., Santos, T., Almeida, J. and Relvas, P. 2007 Forest fires prevention in Portugal - using GIS to help improving early fire detection effectiveness Proceedings of the 4th International Wildland Fire Conference   
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Catry2007,
  author = {Catry, F. X. and Rego, F. C. and Santos, T. and Almeida, J. and Relvas, P.},
  title = {Forest fires prevention in Portugal - using GIS to help improving early fire detection effectiveness},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th International Wildland Fire Conference},
  year = {2007}
}
Caughley, G. 1972 Improving the estimates from inaccurate censuses Journal of Wildlife Management 36:135-140  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cau72,
  author = {Caughley, G.},
  title = {Improving the estimates from inaccurate censuses},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1972},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {135--140},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3799197}
}
Caughley, G. 1974 Bias in aerial survey Journal of Wildlife Management 38:921-933  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cau74,
  author = {Caughley, G.},
  title = {Bias in aerial survey},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {921--933},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800067}
}
Caughley, G., Sinclair, R. and Scott-Kemmis, D. 1976 Experiments in aerial survey Journal of Wildlife Management 40:290-300  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cauetal76,
  author = {Caughley, G. and Sinclair, R. and Scott-Kemmis, D.},
  title = {Experiments in aerial survey},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {290--300},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800428}
}
Ceia, R.S., Ramos, J.A., Heleno, R.H., Hilton, G.M. and Marques, T.A. 2011 Status assessment of the critically endangered Azores bullfinch Pyrrhula murina Bird Conservation International 21:477-489  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ceia2011,
  author = {Ceia, Ricardo S. and Ramos, Jaime A. and Heleno, Ruben H. and Hilton, Geoff M. and Marques, Tiago A.},
  title = {Status assessment of the critically endangered Azores bullfinch Pyrrhula murina},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {477--489},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270911000025}
}
Chafota, J. 1988 Effect of measurement errors in estimating density from line transect sampling School: Colorado State University   
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Cha88,
  author = {Chafota, J.},
  title = {Effect of measurement errors in estimating density from line transect sampling},
  school = {Colorado State University},
  year = {1988}
}
Chapman, C.A. and Lambert, J.E. 2000 Habitat alteration and the conservation of African primates: case study of Kibale National Park, Uganda American Journal of Primatology 50:169-185  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ChaLam00,
  author = {Chapman, C. A. and Lambert, J. E.},
  title = {Habitat alteration and the conservation of African primates: case study of Kibale National Park, Uganda},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {169--185},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(200003)50:3%3C169::AID-AJP1%3E3.0.CO;2-P}
}
Chandler, R.B., Royle, J.A. and King, D.I. 2011 Inference about density and temporary emigration in unmarked populations. Ecology 92:1429-1435  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ChandlerRB2011,
  author = {Chandler, R. B. and Royle, J. A. and King, D. I.},
  title = {Inference about density and temporary emigration in unmarked populations.},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {92},
  pages = {1429--1435},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/10-2433.1}
}
Chantrey, J., Dale, T.D., Read, J.M., White, S., Whitfield, F., Jones, D., McInnes, C.J. and Begon, M. 2014 European red squirrel population dynamics driven by squirrelpox at a gray squirrel invasion interface Ecology and Evolution 4(19):3788-3799  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Chantrey2014,
  author = {Chantrey, Julian and Dale, Timothy D. and Read, Jonathan M. and White, Steve and Whitfield, Fiona and Jones, David and McInnes, Colin J. and Begon, Michael},
  title = {European red squirrel population dynamics driven by squirrelpox at a gray squirrel invasion interface},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {4},
  number = {19},
  pages = {3788--3799},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1216}
}
Anderson, C.W., Nielsen, C.K., Hester, C.M., Hubbard, R.D., Stroud, J.K. and Schauber, E.M. 2013 Comparison of indirect and direct methods of distance sampling for estimating density of white-tailed deer Wildlife Society Bulletin 37:146-154  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CharlesW.Anderson2013,
  author = {Anderson, Charles W. and Nielsen, Clayton K. and Hester, Cyrus M. and Hubbard, Ryan D. and Stroud, Janice K. and Schauber, Eric M.},
  title = {Comparison of indirect and direct methods of distance sampling for estimating density of white-tailed deer},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {146--154},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.231}
}
Chatterjee, S. and Basu, P. 2018 Food preferences determine habitat selection at multiple scales: implication for bird conservation in tropical forests Animal Conservation 21(4):332-342  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Chatterjee2018,
  author = {Chatterjee, S. and Basu, P.},
  title = {Food preferences determine habitat selection at multiple scales: implication for bird conservation in tropical forests},
  journal = {Animal Conservation},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {21},
  number = {4},
  pages = {332--342},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12397}
}
Chauvenet, A.L.M., Gill, R.M.A., Smith, G.C., Ward, A.I. and Massei, G. 2017 Quantifying the bias in density estimated from distance sampling and camera trapping of unmarked individuals Ecological Modelling 350:79-86  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Chauvenet2017,
  author = {Chauvenet, Alienor L. M. and Gill, Robin M. A. and Smith, Graham C. and Ward, Alastair I. and Massei, Giovanna},
  title = {Quantifying the bias in density estimated from distance sampling and camera trapping of unmarked individuals},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {350},
  pages = {79--86},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2017.02.007}
}
Chav́ez-Leoń, G. and Velaźquez, A. 2004 Abundance and distribution of the long-tailed wood-partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) in a temperate coniferous forest Journal of Field Ornithology 75(4):345-352  DOI  
Abstract: The Long-tailed Wood-Partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) is a species endemic to Mexico, inhabiting dense coniferous forests of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Sierra Madre del Sur, of which little is known about its ecology and conservation status. The abundance and density of the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge was estimated by point counts with playback distance sampling from March-October of 1998-2000 in a temperate coniferous forest managed for timber production by a Mexican indigenous community. The average detection rate was 0.31 individuals per point, resulting in a mean estimate for population density of 20.9 birds/km2 and a mean population estimate of 2679 individuals, estimated using the half-normal key function with cosine adjustments. Density estimates of the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge were 8 individuals/km2 in dry, open, scrubby habitats with deep ash and sand volcanic deposits subject to intense human use and in closed canopy, humid forests with moderate human disturbance. Density estimates were 14.6 and 21.5 individuals/km2 in humid, closed canopy, multi-stratified forests. The latter areas are recommended as the core area for protection of the Long-tailed Wood-Partridge.
BibTeX:
@article{Chavez-Leon2004,
  author = {Chav́ez-Leoń, G. and Velaźquez, A.},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of the long-tailed wood-partridge (Dendrortyx macroura) in a temperate coniferous forest},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {75},
  number = {4},
  pages = {345--352},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1648/0273-8570-75.4.345}
}
Chen, S.X. 2000 Animal abundance estimation in independent observer line transect surveys Environmental and Ecological Statistics 7:285-299  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Che00,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Animal abundance estimation in independent observer line transect surveys},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {285--299},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009623301208}
}
Chen, S.X. and Cowling, A. 2001 Measurement errors in line transect surveys where detectability varies with distance and size Biometrics 57:732-742  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CHE01,
  author = {Chen, S. X. and Cowling, A.},
  title = {Measurement errors in line transect surveys where detectability varies with distance and size},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {57},
  pages = {732--742},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2001.00732.x}
}
Chen, S.X. 1996 A kernel estimate for the density of a biological population by using line transect sampling Applied Statstics 45:135-150  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CHE96,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {A kernel estimate for the density of a biological population by using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Applied Statstics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {135--150},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2986150}
}
Chen, S.X. 1996 Studying school size effects in line transect sampling using the kernel method Biometrics 52:1283-1294  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Che96b,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Studying school size effects in line transect sampling using the kernel method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {1283--1294},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2532844}
}
Chen, S.X. 1998 Measurement errors in line transect surveys Biometrics 54:899-908  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CHE98,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Measurement errors in line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {899--908},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533844}
}
Chen, S.X. 1999 Estimation in independent observer line transect surveys for clustered populations Biometrics 55:754-759  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Che99,
  author = {Chen, S. X.},
  title = {Estimation in independent observer line transect surveys for clustered populations},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {754--759},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.1999.00754.x}
}
Chelgren, N.D., Samora, B., Adams, M.J. and Mccreary, B. 2011 Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed western toads (Anaxyrus boreas) Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6:175-190   
BibTeX:
@article{Chelgren2011a,
  author = {Chelgren, Nathan D. and Samora, Barbara and Adams, Michael J. and Mccreary, Brome},
  title = {Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed western toads (Anaxyrus boreas)},
  journal = {Herpetological Conservation and Biology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {175--190}
}
Chen, S.X. and Lloyd, C.J. 2000 A nonparametric approach to the analysis of two-stage mark-recapture experiments Biometrika 87:633-649  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CheLlo00,
  author = {Chen, S. X. and Lloyd, C. J.},
  title = {A nonparametric approach to the analysis of two-stage mark-recapture experiments},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {87},
  pages = {633--649},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/87.3.633}
}
Chen, B., Zheng, D., Zhai, F., X. Xu, P.S., Wang, Q. and Yang, G. 2008 Abundance, distribution and conservation of chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Xiamen, China Mammalian Biology 73:156-164  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Chen2008,
  author = {Chen, Bingyao and Zheng, Dongmei and Zhai, Feifei and X. Xu, P. Sun and Wang, Q. and Yang, G.},
  title = {Abundance, distribution and conservation of chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Xiamen, China},
  journal = {Mammalian Biology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {156--164},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2006.12.002}
}
Chen, S.X., Yip, P.S.F. and Zhou, Y. 2002 Sequential estimation in line transect surveys Biometrics 58(2):263-269  DOI  
Abstract: This article considers using sequential procedures to determine the amount of survey effort required in a line transect survey in order to achieve a certain precision level in estimating the abundance of a biological population. Sequential procedures are constructed for both parametric and nonparametric animal abundance estimators. The criterion used to derive the stopping rules is the width of confidence intervals for the animal abundance. For each estimator considered, we develop stopping rules based on the asymptotic distributions and the bootstrap. A sequential analysis on an aerial survey of the southern bluefin tuna indicates substantial saving of survey effort can be made by employment of the proposed sequential procedures. This savings of survey effort is also observed in a simulation study designed to evaluate the empirical performance of the proposed sequential procedures.
BibTeX:
@article{ChenBiometrics2002,
  author = {Chen, Song Xi and Yip, Paul S. F. and Zhou, Yong},
  title = {Sequential estimation in line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {58},
  number = {2},
  pages = {263--269},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2002.00263.x}
}
Cherenkov, S.E. 1998 Accuracy of one-visit censuses of forest passerine birds during a breeding season Zoologichesky Zhurnal 77:474-485   
BibTeX:
@article{Cher98,
  author = {Cherenkov, S. E.},
  title = {Accuracy of one-visit censuses of forest passerine birds during a breeding season},
  journal = {Zoologichesky Zhurnal},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {77},
  pages = {474--485}
}
Chiarello, A.G. 1999 Effects of fragmentation of the Atlantic forest on mammal communities in south-eastern Brazil Biological Conservation 89:71-82  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Chi99,
  author = {Chiarello, A. G.},
  title = {Effects of fragmentation of the Atlantic forest on mammal communities in south-eastern Brazil},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {89},
  pages = {71--82},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00130-X}
}
Chiarello, A.G. and Arruda, L.N. 2017 Unpaved roads are not adequate surrogates of true transects for sampling Agoutis Mammalia 81(5):489-501  DOI  
Abstract:

Abstract

The distance sampling is one of the most widely used techniques for estimating abundance and density, particularly for mammals. Managers/researchers sometimes sample unpaved roads assuming that these do not violate important assumptions. However, relatively few studies have attempted to address this, simultaneously comparing behavior between roads and transects, a key issue as behavior can potentially affect detection. Here, we used distance sampling to compare abundance and behavior of agoutis between transects and unpaved roads. We sampled an isolated agouti population during two contrasting seasons. Road densities (347– 432 agoutis/km2 for dry and wet seasons, respectively) were statistically similar to those from transects (373– 322 agoutis/km2, respectively). However, road data had a different variance contribution, lower detection probability and poorer model fitting. We also found that agoutis move/interact and forage/feed differently on roads in comparison with transects and were more vigilant in transects than in roads during the first season we sampled (wet). Together, these findings indicated that (1) we detect agoutis differently on these two transect types and (2) road sampling more seriously violates the assumption of randomness of transects in relation to animals. We conclude that while avoiding roads is unfeasible given time and logistical limitations, researchers should be aware of the potential bias, making this clear when discussing and comparing their results.

BibTeX:
@article{chiarello_unpaved_2017,
  author = {Chiarello, Adriano G. and Arruda, Licia N.},
  title = {Unpaved roads are not adequate surrogates of true transects for sampling Agoutis},
  journal = {Mammalia},
  publisher = {De Gruyter},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {81},
  number = {5},
  pages = {489--501},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/mammalia-2015-0134}
}
Childs, J.E., Robinson, L.E., Sadek, R., Madden, A., Miranda, M.E. and Miranda, N.L. 1998 Density estimates of rural dog populations and an assessment of marking methods during a rabies vaccination campaign in the Philippines Preventive Veterinary Medicine 33(1-4):207-218  DOI  
Abstract: We estimated the population density of dogs by distance sampling and assessed the potential utility of two marking methods for capture-mark-recapture applications following a mass canine rabies-vaccination campaign in Sorsogon Province, the Republic of the Philippines. Thirty villages selected to assess vaccine coverage and for dog surveys were visited 1 to 11 days after the vaccinating team. Measurements of the distance of dogs or groups of dogs from transect lines were obtained in 1088 instances (N = 1278 dogs; mean group size = 1.2). Various functions modelling the probability of detection were fitted to a truncated distribution of distances of dogs from transect lines. A hazard rate model provided the best fit and an overall estimate of dog-population density of 468/km2 (95% confidence interval, 359 to 611). At vaccination, most dogs were marked with either a paint stick or a black plastic collar. Overall, 34.8% of 2167 and 28.5% of 2115 dogs could be accurately identified as wearing a collar or showing a paint mark; 49.1% of the dogs had either mark. Increasing time interval between vaccination-team visit and dog survey and increasing distance from transect line were inversely associated with the probability of observing a paint mark. Probability of observing a collar was positively associated with increasing estimated density of the dog population in a given village and with animals not associated with a house. The data indicate that distance sampling is a relatively simple and adaptable method for estimating dog-population density and is not prone to problems associated with meeting some model assumptions inherent to mark-recapture estimators. textcopyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Childs1998,
  author = {Childs, J. E. and Robinson, L. E. and Sadek, R. and Madden, A. and Miranda, M. E. and Miranda, N. L.},
  title = {Density estimates of rural dog populations and an assessment of marking methods during a rabies vaccination campaign in the Philippines},
  journal = {Preventive Veterinary Medicine},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {33},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {207--218},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(97)00039-1}
}
Clancy, T.F., Pople, A.R. and Gibson, L.A. 1997 Comparison of helicopter line transects with walked line transects for estimating densities of kangaroos Wildlife Research 24:397-409  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Claetal97,
  author = {Clancy, T. F. and Pople, A. R. and Gibson, L. A.},
  title = {Comparison of helicopter line transects with walked line transects for estimating densities of kangaroos},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {397--409},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR96103}
}
Clark, P.J. and Evans, F.C. 1954 Distance to nearest neighbour as a measure of spatial relationships in populations Ecology 35:23-30  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ClaEva54,
  author = {Clark, P. J. and Evans, F. C.},
  title = {Distance to nearest neighbour as a measure of spatial relationships in populations},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1954},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {23--30},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1931034}
}
Clarke, R.H., Boulton, R.L. and Clarke, M.F. 2005 Estimating population size of the black-eared miner, with an assessment of landscape-scale habitat requirements Pacific Conservation Biology 11(3):174-188  DOI  
Abstract: The decline of the Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis has been caused primarily by habitat degradation and vegetation clearance. To better direct conservation actions for this species there was a need to assess habitat requirements on a regional-scale and to estimate the population size using quantitative methods. We used vegetation mapping and the current distribution of the Black-eared Miner to determine regional-scale habitat requirements. These findings were combined with the results of distance sampling to provide population estimates. The species is restricted to large tracts of intact mallee in the Murray Mallee of southeastern Australia that have not been burnt for at least 45 years. The density of Black-eared Miners is highest in areas that are dominated by mallee-Triodia associations and have not been intensively grazed. The Bookmark Biosphere Reserve supports an estimated 501 (270-927, 95% Cl) colonies, containing 3 758 (2 026-6 954) phenotypically pure Black-eared Miners, 2 255 (1 215-4170) hybrids and small numbers of Yellow-throated Miners Manorina flavigula. However, the effective population size is considerably smaller (390 Black-eared Miners (210-726) and 234 hybrids (126-433)), due to a skewed adult sex ratio (1 female: 1.81 males) and complex social organization. A smaller population also persists in the Murray Sunset National Park containing 53 (32-85) Black-eared Miner/hybrid colonies. Both populations face a high risk of extinction from large-scale wildfire. The endangered status of the species under IUCN criteria remains warranted.
BibTeX:
@article{Clarke2005,
  author = {Clarke, R. H. and Boulton, R. L. and Clarke, M. F.},
  title = {Estimating population size of the black-eared miner, with an assessment of landscape-scale habitat requirements},
  journal = {Pacific Conservation Biology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {11},
  number = {3},
  pages = {174--188},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/PC050174}
}
Clement, D., Slooten, D., Dawson, S. and DuFresne, S. 2001 Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Farewell Spit and Motunau (22)School: Department of Conservation   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Clement2001,
  author = {Clement, D. and Slooten, D. and Dawson, S. and DuFresne, S.},
  title = {Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Farewell Spit and Motunau},
  school = {Department of Conservation},
  year = {2001},
  number = {22}
}
Clement, M.J., Converse, S.J. and Royle, J.A. 2017 Accounting for imperfect detection of groups and individuals when estimating abundance Ecology and Evolution 7(18):7304-7310  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Clement2017,
  author = {Clement, Matthew J. and Converse, Sarah J. and Royle, J. Andrew},
  title = {Accounting for imperfect detection of groups and individuals when estimating abundance},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {7},
  number = {18},
  pages = {7304--7310},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3284}
}
Coelho, L. 2009 Estimativa de densidade de aves utilizando amostragem por distâncias em uma área verde urbana School: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Biociencias   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Coelho2009,
  author = {Coelho, Liliane},
  title = {Estimativa de densidade de aves utilizando amostragem por distâncias em uma área verde urbana},
  school = {Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Biociencias},
  year = {2009}
}
Colket, B. and Church, K.E. 2005 A comparison of traditional counts and distance sampling methods for estimating the abundance of ute ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis) School: Idaho Conservation Data Center Idaho Department of Fish and Game. US Fish and Wildlife Service   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Colket2005,
  author = {Colket, Beth and Church, Kevin E.},
  title = {A comparison of traditional counts and distance sampling methods for estimating the abundance of ute ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis)},
  school = {Idaho Conservation Data Center Idaho Department of Fish and Game. US Fish and Wildlife Service},
  year = {2005}
}
Collier, B.A., Farrell, S.L., Long, A.M., Campomizzi, A.J., Hays, K.B., Laake, J.L., Morrison, M.L. and Wilkins, R.N. 2013 Modeling spatially explicit densities of endangered avian species in a heterogeneous landscape The Auk 130:666-676  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Collier2013,
  author = {Collier, Bret A. and Farrell, Shannon L. and Long, Ashley M. and Campomizzi, Andrew J. and Hays, K. Brian and Laake, Jeffrey L. and Morrison, Michael L. and Wilkins, R. Neal},
  title = {Modeling spatially explicit densities of endangered avian species in a heterogeneous landscape},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {130},
  pages = {666--676},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2013.13017}
}
Compton, R., Banks, A., Goodwin, L. and Hooker, S.K. 2007 Pilot cetacean survey of the sub-arctic north Atlantic utilizing a cruise-ship platform Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87:321-325  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Compton2007,
  author = {Compton, Ross and Banks, Aaron and Goodwin, Lissa and Hooker, Sascha K.},
  title = {Pilot cetacean survey of the sub-arctic north Atlantic utilizing a cruise-ship platform},
  journal = {Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {87},
  pages = {321--325},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315407054781}
}
Conroy, M.J., Nichols, J.D. and Asanza, E.R. 1997 Métodos cuantitativos contemporáneos para entender y manejar poblaciones y comunidades animales [Contemporary quantitative methods to understand and manage animal populations and communities] Interciencia 22:247-258   
BibTeX:
@article{Conetal97,
  author = {Conroy, M. J. and Nichols, J. D. and Asanza, E. R.},
  title = {Métodos cuantitativos contemporáneos para entender y manejar poblaciones y comunidades animales [Contemporary quantitative methods to understand and manage animal populations and communities]},
  journal = {Interciencia},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {247--258}
}
Conn, P.B., Arthur, A.D., Bailey, L.L. and Singleton, G.R. 2006 Estimating the abundance of mouse populations of known size: promises and pitfalls of new methods Ecological Applications 16(2):829-837  DOI  
Abstract: Knowledge of animal abundance is fundamental to many ecological studies. Frequently, researchers cannot determine true abundance, and so must estimate it using a method such as mark-recapture or distance sampling. Recent advances in abundance estimation allow one to model heterogeneity with individual covariates or mixture distributions and to derive multimodel abundance estimators that explicitly address uncertainty about which model parameterization best represents truth. Further, it is possible to borrow information on detection probability across several populations when data are sparse. While promising, these methods have not been evaluated using mark-recapture data from populations of known abundance, and thus far have largely been overlooked by ecologists. In this paper, we explored the utility of newly developed mark-recapture methods for estimating the abundance of 12 captive populations of wild house mice (Mus musculus). We found that mark-recapture methods employing individual covariates yielded satisfactory abundance estimates for most populations. In contrast, model sets with heterogeneity formulations consisting solely of mixture distributions did not perform well for several of the populations. We show through simulation that a higher number of trapping occasions would have been necessary to achieve good estimator performance in this case. Finally, we show that simultaneous analysis of data from low abundance populations can yield viable abundance estimates. textcopyright 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.
BibTeX:
@article{Conn2006,
  author = {Conn, P. B. and Arthur, A. D. and Bailey, L. L. and Singleton, G. R.},
  title = {Estimating the abundance of mouse populations of known size: promises and pitfalls of new methods},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {16},
  number = {2},
  pages = {829--837},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016%5B0829:ETAOMP%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Conn, P.B., Laake, J.L. and Johnson, D.S. 2012 A hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer transect surveys PLoS ONE 7:e42294  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Conn2012,
  author = {Conn, P. B. and Laake, J. L. and Johnson, D. S.},
  title = {A hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer transect surveys},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {e42294},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042294}
}
Conn, P.B. and Alisauskas, R.T. 2018 Simultaneous modelling of movement, measurement error, and observer dependence in mark-recapture distance sampling: an application to arctic bird surveys The Annals of Applied Statistics 12(1):96-122  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Conn2018,
  author = {Conn, Paul B. and Alisauskas, Ray T.},
  title = {Simultaneous modelling of movement, measurement error, and observer dependence in mark-recapture distance sampling: an application to arctic bird surveys},
  journal = {The Annals of Applied Statistics},
  publisher = {Institute of Mathematical Statistics},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {12},
  number = {1},
  pages = {96--122},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1214/17-AOAS1108}
}
Cooke, J.G. 2001 A modification of the radial distance method for dual-platform line transect analysis, to improve robustness (Paper SC/53/IA31)School: Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Coo01,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {A modification of the radial distance method for dual-platform line transect analysis, to improve robustness},
  school = {Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {2001},
  number = {Paper SC/53/IA31}
}
Cooke, J.G. 1985 Notes on the estimation of whale density from line transects Report of the International Whaling Commission 35:319-323   
BibTeX:
@article{Coo85,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {Notes on the estimation of whale density from line transects},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {319--323}
}
Cooke, J.G. 1987 Estimation of the population of minke whales in Antarctic Area IVW in 1984/85 Report of the International Whaling Commission 37:273-276   
BibTeX:
@article{Coo87,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {Estimation of the population of minke whales in Antarctic Area IVW in 1984/85},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {273--276}
}
Cook, J.R. and Stefanski, L.A. 1994 Simulation-extrapolation estimation in parametric measurement error models Journal of the American Statistical Association 89:1314-1328  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{COO94,
  author = {Cook, J. R. and Stefanski, L. A.},
  title = {Simulation-extrapolation estimation in parametric measurement error models},
  journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {89},
  pages = {1314--1328},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1994.10476871}
}
Cooke, J.G. 1997 An implementation of a surfacing-based approach to abundance estimation of minke whales from shipborne surveys Report of the International Whaling Commission 47:513-528   
BibTeX:
@article{Coo97,
  author = {Cooke, J. G.},
  title = {An implementation of a surfacing-based approach to abundance estimation of minke whales from shipborne surveys},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {47},
  pages = {513--528}
}
Cook, R.D. and Jacobsen, J.O. 1979 A design for estimating visibility bias in aerial surveys Biometrics 35:735-742  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CooJac79,
  author = {Cook, R. D. and Jacobsen, J. O.},
  title = {A design for estimating visibility bias in aerial surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {735--742},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530104}
}
Cooke, J.G. and Leaper, R. 1998 General modelling framework for the estimation of whale abundance from line transect surveys (Paper SC/50/RMP21)School: Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission   
BibTeX:
@techreport{CooLea98,
  author = {Cooke, J. G. and Leaper, R.},
  title = {General modelling framework for the estimation of whale abundance from line transect surveys},
  school = {Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1998},
  number = {Paper SC/50/RMP21}
}
Corlatti, L., Nelli, L., Bertolini, M., Zibordi, F. and Pedrotti, L. 2017 A comparison of four different methods to estimate population size of Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy 28  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Corlatti2017,
  author = {Corlatti, Luca and Nelli, Luca and Bertolini, Matteo and Zibordi, Filippo and Pedrotti, Luca},
  title = {A comparison of four different methods to estimate population size of Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota)},
  journal = {Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy},
  publisher = {Associazione Teriologica Italiana},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {28},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-28.1-11698}
}
Corn, J.L. and Conroy, M.J. 1998 Estimation of density of mongooses with capture-recapture and distance sampling Journal of Mammalogy 79(3):1009-1015  DOI  
Abstract: We captured mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) in live traps arranged in trapping webs in Antigua, West Indies, and used capture-recapture and distance sampling to estimate density. Distance estimation and program DISTANCE were used to provide estimates of density from the trapping-web data. Mean density based on trapping webs was 9.5 mongooses/ha (range, 5.9-10.2/ha); estimates had coefficients of variation ranging from 29.82-31.58% (X = 30.46%). Mark-recapture models were used to estimate abundance, which was converted to density using estimates of effective trap area. Tests of model assumptions provided by CAPTURE indicated pronounced heterogeneity in capture probabilities and some indication of behavioral response and variation over time. Mean estimated density was 1.80 mongooses/ha (range, 1.37-2.15/ha) with estimated coefficients of variation of 4.68-11.92% (X = 7.46%). Estimates of density based on mark-recapture data depended heavily on assumptions about animal home ranges; variances of densities also may be underestimated, leading to unrealistically narrow confidence intervals. Estimates based on trap webs require fewer assumptions, and estimated variances may be a more realistic representation of sampling variation. Because trap webs are established easily and provide adequate data for estimation in a few sample occasions, the method should be efficient and reliable for estimating densities of mongooses.
BibTeX:
@article{Corn1998,
  author = {Corn, J. L. and Conroy, M. J.},
  title = {Estimation of density of mongooses with capture-recapture and distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {79},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1009--1015},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1383109}
}
Cosens, S.E. and Innes, S. 2000 Distribution and numbers of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in northwestern hudson bay in august 1995 Arctic 53(1):36-41  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cosens2000,
  author = {Cosens, S. E. and Innes, S.},
  title = {Distribution and numbers of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in northwestern hudson bay in august 1995},
  journal = {Arctic},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {53},
  number = {1},
  pages = {36--41},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic832}
}
Cottam, G. and Curtis, J.T. 1956 The use of distance measures in phytosociological sampling Ecology 37:451-460  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CotCur56,
  author = {Cottam, G. and Curtis, J. T.},
  title = {The use of distance measures in phytosociological sampling},
  journal = {Ecology},
  year = {1956},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {451--460},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1930167}
}
Cotté, C., Guinet, C., Taupier-Letage, I., Mate, B. and Petiau, E. 2009 Scale-dependent habitat use by a large free-ranging predator, the mediterranean fin whale Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 56(5):801-811  DOI  
Abstract: Since the heterogeneity of oceanographic conditions drives abundance, distribution, and availability of prey, it is essential to understand how foraging predators interact with their dynamic environment at various spatial and temporal scales. We examined the spatio-temporal relationships between oceanographic features and abundance of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), the largest free-ranging predator in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WM), through two independent approaches. First, spatial modeling was used to estimate whale density, using waiting distance (the distance between detections) for fin whales along ferry routes across the WM, in relation to remotely sensed oceanographic parameters. At a large scale (basin and year), fin whales exhibited fidelity to the northern WM with a summer-aggregated and winter-dispersed pattern. At mesoscale (20-100Â km), whales were found in colder, saltier (from an on-board system) and dynamic areas defined by steep altimetric and temperature gradients. Second, using an independent fin whale satellite tracking dataset, we showed that tracked whales were effectively preferentially located in favorable habitats, i.e. in areas of high predicted densities as identified by our previous model using oceanographic data contemporaneous to the tracking period. We suggest that the large-scale fidelity corresponds to temporally and spatially predictable habitat of whale favorite prey, the northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica), while mesoscale relationships are likely to identify areas of high prey concentration and availability.
BibTeX:
@article{Cotte2009,
  author = {Cotté, Cédric and Guinet, Christophe and Taupier-Letage, Isabelle and Mate, Bruce and Petiau, Estelle},
  title = {Scale-dependent habitat use by a large free-ranging predator, the mediterranean fin whale},
  journal = {Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {56},
  number = {5},
  pages = {801--811},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2008.12.008}
}
Coulson, G. 1993 Use of heterogeneous habitat by the western gray kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus Wildlife Research 20:137-149   
BibTeX:
@article{Cou93,
  author = {Coulson, G.},
  title = {Use of heterogeneous habitat by the western gray kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {137--149}
}
Coulson, G.M. and Raines, J.A. 1985 Methods for small-scale surveys of grey kangaroo populations Australian Wildlife Research 12:119-125  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CouRai85,
  author = {Coulson, G. M. and Raines, J. A.},
  title = {Methods for small-scale surveys of grey kangaroo populations},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {119--125},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9850119}
}
Cowling, A. 1998 Spatial methods for line transect surveys Biometrics 54:828-839  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cow98,
  author = {Cowling, A.},
  title = {Spatial methods for line transect surveys},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {828--839},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533837}
}
Cox, M.J., Borchers, D.L., Demer, D.A., Cutter, G.R. and Brierley, A.S. 2011 Estimating the density of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from multi-beam echo-sounder observations using distance sampling methods Applied Statistics 60:301-316  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cox2011,
  author = {Cox, Martin J. and Borchers, David L. and Demer, David A. and Cutter, George R. and Brierley, Andrew S.},
  title = {Estimating the density of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from multi-beam echo-sounder observations using distance sampling methods},
  journal = {Applied Statistics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {301--316},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9876.2010.00748.x}
}
Cox, T.F. 1976 The robust estimation of the density of a forest stand using a new conditioned distance method Biometrika 63:493-500  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cox76,
  author = {Cox, T. F.},
  title = {The robust estimation of the density of a forest stand using a new conditioned distance method},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {63},
  pages = {493--500},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/63.3.493}
}
Crain, B.R. 1974 Estimation of distributions using orthogonal expansions The Annals of Statistics 2:454-463  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cra74,
  author = {Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Estimation of distributions using orthogonal expansions},
  journal = {The Annals of Statistics},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {454--463},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1214/aos/1176342706}
}
Crain, B.R. 1998 Some comments on line transect grouped data analysis Ecological Modelling 109:243-249  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cra98,
  author = {Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Some comments on line transect grouped data analysis},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {109},
  pages = {243--249},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(98)00037-4}
}
Crain, B.R. 1998 Window sensitivity functions for line transect sampling Environmental Management 22:471-481  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cra98b,
  author = {Crain, B. R.},
  title = {Window sensitivity functions for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Environmental Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {471--481},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s002679900120}
}
Crain, B.R., Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. 1978 A Fourier series estimator of population density for line transect sampling    
BibTeX:
@book{Craetal78,
  author = {Crain, B. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {A Fourier series estimator of population density for line transect sampling},
  publisher = {Utah State University Press},
  year = {1978}
}
Crain, B.R., Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. and Laake, J.L. 1979 Nonparametric estimation of population density for line transect sampling using Fourier series Biometrical Journal 21:731-748  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Craetal79,
  author = {Crain, B. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Nonparametric estimation of population density for line transect sampling using Fourier series},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {731--748},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.4710210804}
}
Crase, B., Duguid, A., Pengart, R.N., Jakamarra, P.W., Angal, L.P. and Kemarr, M.S.P.a.A.W. 2010 Distribution and conservation status of the giant sweet potato, a rare aboriginal food plant from central Australia Northern Territory Naturalist 22:17-30   
BibTeX:
@article{Crase2010,
  author = {Crase, Beth and Duguid, Angus and Pengart, Raymond Nelson and Jakamarra, Paddy Willis and Angal, Laurie Price and Kemarr, Margaret Scobie Pengart adn Aggie Woods},
  title = {Distribution and conservation status of the giant sweet potato, a rare aboriginal food plant from central Australia},
  journal = {Northern Territory Naturalist},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {17--30}
}
Crespo, E.A., Pedraza, S.N., Grandi, M.F., Dans, S.L. and Garaffo, G.V. 2010 Abundance and distribution of endangered Franciscana dolphins in Argentine waters and conservation implications Marine Mammal Science 26:17-35  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Crespo2010,
  author = {Crespo, Enrique A. and Pedraza, Susana N. and Grandi, M. Florencia and Dans, Silvana L. and Garaffo, Griselda V.},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of endangered Franciscana dolphins in Argentine waters and conservation implications},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {17--35},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00313.x}
}
Cuarón, A.D., Martínez-Morales, M.A., McFadden, K.W., Valenzuela, D. and Gompper, M.E. 2004 The status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel Island, Mexico Biodiversity and Conservation 13(2):317-331  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Cuaron2004,
  author = {Cuarón, A. D. and Martínez-Morales, M. A. and McFadden, K. W. and Valenzuela, D. and Gompper, M. E.},
  title = {The status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel Island, Mexico},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {13},
  number = {2},
  pages = {317--331},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOC.0000006501.80472.cc}
}
Cuthbert R., J., de Brooke M., L. and Torr, N. 2012 Overcoming hermit-crab interference during rodent-baiting operations: a case study from Henderson Island, south Pacific Wildlife Research 39:70-77  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{CuthbertR.2012,
  author = {Cuthbert R., J. and de Brooke M., L. and Torr, N.},
  title = {Overcoming hermit-crab interference during rodent-baiting operations: a case study from Henderson Island, south Pacific},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {70--77},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR11033}
}
Thomas, L., Laake, J.L., Derry, J.F., Buckland, S.T., Borchers, D.L., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Strindberg, S., Hedley, S.L., Marques, F.F.C., Pollard, J.H. and Fewster, R.M. 2002 Distance 3.5 Research Unit for Wildlife Population Assessment, University of St. Andrews, UK.   
BibTeX:
@book{D35,
  author = {Thomas, L. and Laake, J. L. and Derry, J. F. and Buckland, S. T. and Borchers, D. L. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Strindberg, S. and Hedley, S. L. and Marques, F. F. C. and Pollard, J. H. and Fewster, R. M.},
  title = {Distance 3.5},
  year = {2002}
}
Thomas, L., Laake, J.L., Strindberg, S., Marques, F.F.C., Buckland, S.T., Borchers, D.L., Burnham, K.P., Hedley, S.L. and Pollard, J.H. 2002 Distance 4.0. release 2 Research Unit for Wildlife Population Assessment, University of St. Andrews, UK. http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance/   
BibTeX:
@book{D4,
  author = {Thomas and L. and Laake, J. L. and Strindberg, S. and Marques, F. F. C. and Buckland, S. T. and Borchers, D. L. and Burnham, K. P. and Hedley, S. L. and Pollard, J. H.},
  title = {Distance 4.0. release 2},
  year = {2002}
}
Thomas, L., Laake, J.L., Strindberg, S., Marques, F.F.C., Buckland, S.T., Borchers, D.L., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Hedley, S.L., Pollard, J.H., Bishop, J.R.B. and Marques, T.A. 2006 Distance 5.0 Research Unit for Wildlife Population Assessment, University of St. Andrews, UK. http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance/   
BibTeX:
@book{D5,
  author = {Thomas, L. and Laake, J. L. and Strindberg, S. and Marques, F. F. C. and Buckland, S. T. and Borchers, D. L. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Hedley, S. L. and Pollard, J. H. and Bishop, J. R. B. and Marques, T. A.},
  title = {Distance 5.0},
  year = {2006}
}
Thomas, L., Laake, J.L., Strindberg, S., Marques, F.F.C., Buckland, S.T., Borchers, D.L., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Hedley, S.L., Pollard, J.H., Bishop, J.R.B. and Marques, T.A. 2005 Distance 5.0. beta 4 Research Unit for Wildlife Population Assessment, University of St. Andrews, UK. http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance/   
BibTeX:
@book{D5b4,
  author = {Thomas, L. and Laake, J. L. and Strindberg, S. and Marques, F. F. C. and Buckland, S. T. and Borchers, D. L. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P. and Hedley, S. L. and Pollard, J. H. and Bishop, J. R. B. and Marques, T. A.},
  title = {Distance 5.0. beta 4},
  year = {2005}
}
Dahlheim, M., York, A., Towell, R., Waite, J. and Breiwick, J. 2000 Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) abundance in Alaska: Bristol Bay to Southeast Alaska, 1991-1993 Marine Mammal Science 16:28-45  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dahetal00,
  author = {Dahlheim, M. and York, A. and Towell, R. and Waite, J. and Breiwick, J.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) abundance in Alaska: Bristol Bay to Southeast Alaska, 1991-1993},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {28--45},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2000.tb00902.x}
}
Dahlheim, M.E., Zerbini, A.N., Waite, J. and Kennedy, A.S. 2015 Temporal changes in abundance of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) inhabiting the inland waters of southeast alaska Fishery Bulletin 113:242-255  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dahlheim2015,
  author = {Dahlheim, Marilyn E. and Zerbini, Alexandre N. and Waite, Janice and Kennedy, Amy S.},
  title = {Temporal changes in abundance of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) inhabiting the inland waters of southeast alaska},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {113},
  pages = {242--255},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7755/FB.113.3.2}
}
Dallimer, M. and King, T. 2007 Habitat preferences of the forest birds on the island of Príncipe, Gulf of Guinea African Journal of Ecology 46:258-266  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dallimer2007,
  author = {Dallimer, Martin and King, Tony},
  title = {Habitat preferences of the forest birds on the island of Príncipe, Gulf of Guinea},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {258--266},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00891.x}
}
Dallimer, M., King, T. and Atkinson, R.J. 2009 Pervasive threats within a protected area: conserving the endemic birds of São Tomé, west Africa Animal Conservation 12:209-219  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dallimer2009,
  author = {Dallimer, M. and King, T. and Atkinson, R. J.},
  title = {Pervasive threats within a protected area: conserving the endemic birds of São Tomé, west Africa},
  journal = {Animal Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {209--219},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00240.x}
}
Daniel, A., Holechek, J., Valdez, R., Tembo, A., Saiwana, L., Fusco, M. and Cardenas, M. 1993 Jackrabbit densities on fair and good condition Chihuahuan desert range Journal of Range Management 46:524-528  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Danetal93,
  author = {Daniel, A. and Holechek, J. and Valdez, R. and Tembo, A. and Saiwana, L. and Fusco, M. and Cardenas, M.},
  title = {Jackrabbit densities on fair and good condition Chihuahuan desert range},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {524--528},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/4002865}
}
Dawson, D.G. 1981 Counting birds for a relative measure (index) of density (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds:12-16   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Daw81,
  author = {Dawson, D. G.},
  title = {Counting birds for a relative measure (index) of density},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {12--16}
}
Dawson, S., Slooten, E., DuFresne, S., Wade, P. and Clement, D. 2004 Small-boat surveys for coastal dolphins: line-transect surveys for Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) Fishery Bulletin 102(3):441-451   
Abstract: Management of coastal species of small cetaceans is often impeded by a lack of robust estimates of their abundance. In the Austral summers of 1997-98, 1998-99, and 1999-2000 we conducted line-transect surveys of Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) abundance off the north, east, and south coasts of the South Island of New Zealand. Survey methods were modified for the use of a 15-m sailing catamaran, which was equipped with a collapsible sighting platform giving observers an eye-height of 6 m. Eighty-six percent of 2061 km of survey effort was allocated to inshore waters (4 nautical miles [nmi] or 7.4 km from shore), and the remainder to offshore waters (4-10 nmi or 7.4-18.5 km from shore). Transects were placed at 45textdegree to the shore and spaced apart by 1, 2, 4, or 8 nmi according to pre-existing data on dolphin density. Survey effort within strata was uniform. Detection functions for sheltered waters and open coasts were fitted separately for each survey. The effect of attraction of dolphins to the survey vessel and the fraction of dolphins missed on the trackline were assessed with simultaneous boat and helicopter surveys in January 1999. Hector's dolphin abundance in the coastal zone to 4 nmi offshore was calculated at 1880 individuals (CV=15.7%, log-normal 95% CI=1384-2554). These surveys are the first line-transect surveys for cetaceans in New Zealand's coastal waters.
BibTeX:
@article{Dawetal04,
  author = {Dawson, S. and Slooten, E. and DuFresne, S. and Wade, P. and Clement, D.},
  title = {Small-boat surveys for coastal dolphins: line-transect surveys for Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori)},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {102},
  number = {3},
  pages = {441--451}
}
Dawson, S., DuFresne, S., Slooten, E. and Wade, P. 2000 Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Motunau and Timaru (3072)School: Department of Conservation   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Dawson2000,
  author = {Dawson, S. and DuFresne, S. and Slooten, E. and Wade, P.},
  title = {Line-transect survey of Hector's dolphin abundance between Motunau and Timaru},
  school = {Department of Conservation},
  year = {2000},
  number = {3072}
}
Dawson, S., Wade, P., Slooten, E. and Barlow, J. 2008 Design and field methods for sighting surveys of cetaceans in coastal and riverine habitats Mammal Review 38:19-49  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{DawsonJanuary2008,
  author = {Dawson, Steve and Wade, Paul and Slooten, Elisabeth and Barlow, Jay},
  title = {Design and field methods for sighting surveys of cetaceans in coastal and riverine habitats},
  journal = {Mammal Review},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {19--49},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2907.2008.00119.x}
}
Dayananda, S.K., Mammides, C., Lee, M.-B., Liu, J.-J., Pasion, B.O., Sreekar, R., Yasuda, M., Quan, R.-C., Slik, J.W.F., Tomlinson, K.W. and Goodale, E. 2017 Topography and soil type are critical to understanding how bird and herpetofaunal communities persist in forest fragments of tropical China Biological Conservation 215:107-115  DOI  
Abstract: Abstract Habitat fragmentation in heterogeneous landscapes is a non-random process, with farmers selecting lands with flat topography and fertile soils. To understand the persistence of biodiversity in forest fragments in such landscapes, it is necessary to distinguish between factors associated with fragmentation (e.g., area and distance to edge) and characteristics of where fragments are located (e.g., topography and soil conditions). Location factors have been previously demonstrated to be important in explaining the persistence of trees in fragments in the environmentally diverse region of Xishuangbanna, China (Liu and Slik, Biological Conservation, 2014). However, it is unknown how location factors influence more mobile, short-lived organisms. We sampled 42 of the previous study's plots for birds and herpetofauna across two years. A multi-model inference approach indicated that topography was the most important predictor of amphibian diversity, with valleys having more than three times the species in other locations. Topography interacted with fragment size for bird species, and particularly forest interior (FI) species: diversity in valley plots climbed strongly with fragment area, but the relationship between area and diversity was less strong in other locations. Soil type (limestone or not) most strongly influenced the score of plots on the first axis of a NMDS\ ordination of FI\ birds. These results suggest that managers should consider the location of fragments in the landscape in prioritizing forest fragments for protection. For Xishuangbanna, all valley fragments are important to protect amphibians; amalgamating them into large fragments > 1000 ha will make them most useful for bird conservation.
BibTeX:
@article{Dayananda2017,
  author = {Dayananda, Salindra K. and Mammides, Christos and Lee, Myung-Bok and Liu, Jia-Jia and Pasion, Bonifacio O. and Sreekar, Rachakonda and Yasuda, Mika and Quan, Rui-Chang and Slik, J. W. Ferry and Tomlinson, Kyle W. and Goodale, Eben},
  title = {Topography and soil type are critical to understanding how bird and herpetofaunal communities persist in forest fragments of tropical China},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {215},
  pages = {107--115},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.08.034}
}
De Boer, M.N., Leaper, R., Keith, S. and Simmonds, M.P. 2008 Winter abundance estimates for the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the western approaches of the English Channel and the effect of responsive movement Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 1:14-20   
BibTeX:
@article{DeBoer2008,
  author = {De Boer, M. N. and Leaper, R. and Keith, S. and Simmonds, M. P.},
  title = {Winter abundance estimates for the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the western approaches of the English Channel and the effect of responsive movement},
  journal = {Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {14--20}
}
Defos du Rau, P., Bourgeois, K., Thévenet, M., Ruffino, L., Dromzée, S., Ouni, R., Abiadh, A., Estève, R., Durand, J.-P., Anselme, L., Faggio, G., Yahya, J.M., Rguibi, H., Renda, M., Miladi, B., Hamrouni, H., Alilech, S., Nefla, A., Jaouadi, W., Agrebi, S. and Renou, S. 2015 Reassessment of the size of the Scopoli's shearwater population at its main breeding site resulted in a tenfold increase: implications for the species conservation Journal of Ornithology 156(4):877-892  DOI  
Abstract: Scopoli's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a Procellariiform endemic to the Mediterranean Basin which is considered to be vulnerable in Europe due to recent local declines and its susceptibility to both marine and terrestrial threats. In the 1970s– 1980s, its population size was estimated at 57,000– 76,000 breeding pairs throughout the Mediterranean Basin, with the largest colony, estimated at 15,000– 25,000 pairs, found on Zembra Island, Tunisia. The objectives of our study were to re-estimate the size of the breeding population on Zembra Island, to reassess the global population size of the species, and to analyse the implications of these findings on status and conservation of this species in the Mediterranean. Using distance sampling, we estimated the Zembra breeding population to be 141,780 pairs (95Â % confidence interval 113,720– 176,750 pairs). A review of the most recent data on populations of this species throughout the Mediterranean Basin led us to estimate its new global population size at 141,000– 223,000 breeding pairs. Using the demographic invariant and potential biological removal approaches, we estimated the maximum number of adults which could be killed annually by all non-natural causes without causing a population decline to be 8800 (range 7700– 9700) individuals, of which could be 3700 breeders. Although these results are less alarming in the context of species conservation than previously thought, uncertainties associated with global population size, trends and major threats still raise questions on the future of this species. More generally, we show how a monitoring strategy for a bird supposed to be relatively well known overall can be potentially misleading due to biases in survey design. The reduction of such biases would therefore appear to be an unavoidable prerequisite in cryptic species monitoring before any reliable inference on the conservation status of the species can be drawn.
BibTeX:
@article{DefosduRau2015,
  author = {Defos du Rau, Pierre and Bourgeois, Karen and Thévenet, Mathieu and Ruffino, Lise and Dromzée, Sylvain and Ouni, Ridha and Abiadh, Awatef and Estève, Roger and Durand, Jean-Patrick and Anselme, Lorraine and Faggio, Gilles and Yahya, Jaber Mohamed and Rguibi, Hamid and Renda, Michel and Miladi, Bayrem and Hamrouni, Hennabaal and Alilech, Slim and Nefla, Aymen and Jaouadi, Wahbi and Agrebi, Sofiene and Renou, Sébastien},
  title = {Reassessment of the size of the Scopoli's shearwater population at its main breeding site resulted in a tenfold increase: implications for the species conservation},
  journal = {Journal of Ornithology},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {156},
  number = {4},
  pages = {877--892},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-015-1187-4}
}
DeJong, M.J. and Emlen, J.T. 1985 The shape of the auditory detection function and its implication for songbird censusing Journal of Field Ornithology 56:213-223   
BibTeX:
@article{DejEml85,
  author = {DeJong, M. J. and Emlen, J. T.},
  title = {The shape of the auditory detection function and its implication for songbird censusing},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {213--223}
}
DeMaster, D.P., Lowry, L.F. and Frost, K.J. 2001 The effect of sea state on estimates of abundance for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Norton Sound, Alaska Fishery Bulletin 99:197-201   
BibTeX:
@article{DeMaster2001,
  author = {DeMaster, Douglas P. and Lowry, Lloyd F. and Frost, Kathryn J.},
  title = {The effect of sea state on estimates of abundance for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Norton Sound, Alaska},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {99},
  pages = {197--201}
}
Dénes, F.V., Silveira, L.F. and Beissinger, S.R. 2015 Estimating abundance of unmarked animal populations: accounting for imperfect detection and other sources of zero inflation Methods in Ecology and Evolution 6(5):543-556  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Denes2015,
  author = {Dénes, Francisco V. and Silveira, Luis Fabio and Beissinger, Steven R.},
  title = {Estimating abundance of unmarked animal populations: accounting for imperfect detection and other sources of zero inflation},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {6},
  number = {5},
  pages = {543--556},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12333}
}
Denis, T., Richard-Hansen, C., Brunaux, O., Etienne, M.-P., Guitet, S. and Hérault, B. 2017 Biological traits, rather than environment, shape detection curves of large vertebrates in neotropical rainforests Ecological Applications 27(5):1564-1577  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Denis,
  author = {Denis, Thomas and Richard-Hansen, Cécile and Brunaux, Olivier and Etienne, Marie-Pierre and Guitet, Stéphane and Hérault, Bruno},
  title = {Biological traits, rather than environment, shape detection curves of large vertebrates in neotropical rainforests},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {27},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1564--1577},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.1549}
}
DeSante, D.F. 1981 A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing technique in a California coastal scrub breeding bird community (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds:177-185   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Des81,
  author = {DeSante, D. F.},
  title = {A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing technique in a California coastal scrub breeding bird community},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {177--185}
}
DeSante, D.F. 1986 A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing method in a Sierran subalpine forest habitat Condor, The 88:129-142  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Des86,
  author = {DeSante, D. F.},
  title = {A field test of the variable circular-plot censusing method in a Sierran subalpine forest habitat},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {129--142},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1368908}
}
Desbiez, A. and Tomas, W.M. 2003 Aplicabilidade do método de amostragem de distâncias em levantamentos de médios e grandes vertebrados no pantana School: Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento / Embrapa Pantanal, volume 53   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Desbiez2003,
  author = {Desbiez, Arnaud and Tomas, Walfrido Moraes},
  title = {Aplicabilidade do método de amostragem de distâncias em levantamentos de médios e grandes vertebrados no pantana},
  school = {Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento / Embrapa Pantanal, volume 53},
  year = {2003}
}
DeVries, P.G. 1979 A generalization of the Hayne-type estimator as an application of line intercept sampling Biometrics 35:743-748  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dev79,
  author = {DeVries, P. G.},
  title = {A generalization of the Hayne-type estimator as an application of line intercept sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {743--748},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530105}
}
Devy, M.S., Ganesh, T. and Davidar, P. 1998 Patterns of butterfly distribution in the Andaman islands: implications for conservation Acta Oecologica 19:527-534  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Devetal98,
  author = {Devy, M. S. and Ganesh, T. and Davidar, P.},
  title = {Patterns of butterfly distribution in the Andaman islands: implications for conservation},
  journal = {Acta Oecologica},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {527--534},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S1146-609X(99)80007-1}
}
DeYoung, C.A., Guthery, F.S., Beasom, S.L., Coughlin, S.P. and Heffelfinger, J.R. 1989 Improving estimates of white-tailed deer abundance from helicopter surveys Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:275-279  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Deyetal89,
  author = {DeYoung, C. A. and Guthery, F. S. and Beasom, S. L. and Coughlin, S. P. and Heffelfinger, J. R.},
  title = {Improving estimates of white-tailed deer abundance from helicopter surveys},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {275--279},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782384}
}
Dias, F.S., Wenceslau, J.F.C., Marques, T.A. and Miller, D.L. 2019 Density and distribution of western chimpanzees around a bauxite deposit in the Boé Sector, Guinea-Bissau American Journal of Primatology 81(9):e23047  DOI  
Abstract: The Boé sector in southeast Guinea-Bissau harbors a population of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) that inhabits a mosaic of forest and savanna. The Boé sector contains a substantial bauxite deposit in a region called Ronde Hill, and there are plans for the construction of a mine, which may endanger the chimpanzee population. In 1-week survey in May 2013, we used the standing crop nest counts method to obtain the number of chimpanzee nests and from that estimate the density and abundance of chimpanzees. We carried out five 1-km line transects that covered the bauxite deposit and surrounding valleys. We used density surface modeling to analyze habitat preferences, then predicted chimpanzee nest density and distribution based on environmental variables. We found the projected location of the mine partially coincides with an area of high predicted abundances of chimpanzee nests and is surrounded by highly suitable areas for chimpanzees (northeast and southwest). We conclude the mine could have significant direct and indirect effects on this population of chimpanzees whose impacts must be carefully considered and properly mitigated if the mine is built.
BibTeX:
@article{dias_density_2019,
  author = {Dias, Filipe S. and Wenceslau, José F. C. and Marques, Tiago A. and Miller, David L.},
  title = {Density and distribution of western chimpanzees around a bauxite deposit in the Boé Sector, Guinea-Bissau},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {81},
  number = {9},
  pages = {e23047},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23047}
}
Dias, F.S., Miller, D.L., Marques, T.A., Marcelino, J., Caldeira, M.C., Cerdeira, J.O. and Bugalho, M.N. 2016 Conservation zones promote oak regeneration and shrub diversity in certified mediterranean oak woodlands Biological Conservation 195:226-234  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dias2016226,
  author = {Dias, Filipe S. and Miller, David L. and Marques, Tiago A. and Marcelino, Joana and Caldeira, Maria C. and Cerdeira, J. Orestes and Bugalho, Miguel N.},
  title = {Conservation zones promote oak regeneration and shrub diversity in certified mediterranean oak woodlands},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {195},
  pages = {226--234},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.01.009}
}
Dickinson, H.C. and Fa, J.E. 2000 Abundance, demographics and body condition of a translocated population of St Lucia whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus vanzoi) Journal of Zoology 251(2):187-197  DOI  
Abstract: The whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus vanzoi is a large-bodied teiid found only on two islands (Maria Major and Maria Minor), off St Lucia, West Indies. In May 1995, 42 lizards from Maria Major were introduced to the smaller uninhabited Praslin Island on the same coastline. Three years post-release, we studied abundance, demography and morphometrics of the translocated lizard population, during a 6-month period covering wet and dry seasons. Age, sex, snout-vent length (SVL), body mass (BM), tail length, tail regeneration, and overall condition (moulting, reproductive condition, cuts, external parasites) of 107 animals caught during the study are analysed in the present paper. Comparisons are also made with the source population. A body condition index (CI (BM/SVL)), sex ratio (adult males: adult females), age ratio (adults: juveniles), and sexual size dimorphism ratio (SVL adult male: SVL adult females) were calculated for the study population. Distance sampling and mark-re-sight surveys were used to estimate population size and lizard density. A total of 155 ± 26 individuals were estimated. The lizard population was found to have a high growth rate (r = 0.97-3.95). There were significant seasonal changes in lizard abundance. Seasonal differences in lizard numbers, BM and CI suggest either severe resource limitation during the dry season, or selective aestivation. A high frequency of tail autotomy may point to intense intraspecific competition as the island is relatively free from main predators such as the black rat Rattus rattus. Sex ratio, sexual size dimorphism and sexual dichromatism all indicate a territorial species in a generally non-territorial family (Teiidae). Some adult males seem to maintain juvenile colours. It is suggested that the introduced population has successfully colonized its new environment and that no significant change in the animals condition or size has occurred during the 3 years since translocation.
BibTeX:
@article{Dickinson2000,
  author = {Dickinson, H. C. and Fa, J. E.},
  title = {Abundance, demographics and body condition of a translocated population of St Lucia whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus vanzoi)},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {251},
  number = {2},
  pages = {187--197},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00603.x}
}
Diefenbach, D.R., Finley, J.C., Luloff, A.E., Stedman, R., Swope, C.B., Zinn, H.C. and San Julian, G.J. 2005 Bear and deer hunter density and distribution on public land in Pennsylvania Human Dimensions of Wildlife 10:201-212  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dieetal05,
  author = {Diefenbach, D. R. and Finley, J. C. and Luloff, A. E. and Stedman, R. and Swope, C. B. and Zinn, H. C. and San Julian, G. J.},
  title = {Bear and deer hunter density and distribution on public land in Pennsylvania},
  journal = {Human Dimensions of Wildlife},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {201--212},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/10871200591003445}
}
Diefenbach, D.R., Marshall, M.R., Mattice, J.A. and Brauning, D.W. 2007 Incorporating availability for detection in estimates of bird abundance The Auk 124(1):96-106  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dieetal07,
  author = {Diefenbach, D. R. and Marshall, M. R. and Mattice, J. A. and Brauning, D. W.},
  title = {Incorporating availability for detection in estimates of bird abundance},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {124},
  number = {1},
  pages = {96--106},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/124.1.96}
}
Diefenbach, D.R., Brauning, D.W. and Mattice, J.A. 2003 Variability in grassland bird counts related to observer differences and species detection rates The Auk 120(4):1168-1179  DOI  
Abstract: Differences among observers in ability to detect and identify birds has been long recognized as a potential source of error when surveying terrestrial birds. However, few published studies address that issue in their methods or study design. We used distance sampling with line transects to investigate differences in detection probabilities among observers and among three species of grassland songbirds: Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii), Grasshopper Sparrow (A. savannarum), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our review of 75 papers published in 1985-2001 found that the most commonly used methods were fixed-width transects (31%, 23 papers) and fixed-radius point counts (20%, 15 papers). The median half-width of fixed-width strip transects used by researchers was 50 m, but our results indicated detection probabilities were ¡ 1.0 at distances ¿ 25 m for most observers and species. Beyond 50 m from the transect line, we found that as many as 60% of birds were missed by observers and that the proportion missed differed among observers and species. Detection probabilities among observers ranged from 0.43 to 1.00 for Henslow's Sparrow, from 0.44 to 0.66 for Grasshopper Sparrow, and from 0.60 to 0.72 for Grasshopper Sparrow for birds detected within 58-100 m of the transect line. Using our estimates of detection probabilities for Henslow's Sparrows among six observers in a computer simulation of a monitoring program, we found that bird counts from fixed-width transects required an additional 2-3 years of monitoring to detect a given decline in abundance compared to density estimates that used a method to correct for missed birds. We recommend that researchers employ survey methods that correct for detection probabilities ¡ 1.0.
BibTeX:
@article{Diefenbach2003,
  author = {Diefenbach, D. R. and Brauning, D. W. and Mattice, J. A.},
  title = {Variability in grassland bird counts related to observer differences and species detection rates},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {120},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1168--1179},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1642/0004-8038(2003)120%5B1168:VIGBCR%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Gómez-Hoyos, D.A., Suarez-Joaquin, T., Bolívar, W. and García, J.L. 2017 Population assessment strategy for Atelopus elegans (Bufonidae) in the Gorgona National Natural Park, Colombia North-Western Journal of Zoology 13:154-158   
BibTeX:
@article{DiegoA.GOMEZ-HOYOS12017,
  author = {Gómez-Hoyos, Diego A. and Suarez-Joaquin, Tatiana and Bolívar, Wilmar and García, José Luis},
  title = {Population assessment strategy for Atelopus elegans (Bufonidae) in the Gorgona National Natural Park, Colombia},
  journal = {North-Western Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {154--158}
}
Diggle, P.J. 1975 Robust density estimation using distance methods Biometrika 62:39-48  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dig75,
  author = {Diggle, P. J.},
  title = {Robust density estimation using distance methods},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {39--48},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/62.1.39}
}
Diggle, P.J. 1977 A note on robust density estimation for spatial point patterns Biometrika 64:91-95  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dig77,
  author = {Diggle, P. J.},
  title = {A note on robust density estimation for spatial point patterns},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {64},
  pages = {91--95},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/64.1.91}
}
Dique, D.S., De Villiers, D.L. and Preece, H.J. 2003 Evaluation of line-transect sampling for estimating koala abundance in the Pine Rivers shire, south-east Queensland Wildlife Research 30(2):127-133  DOI  
Abstract: Distance sampling using line transects has not been previously used or tested for estimating koala abundance. In July 2001, a pilot survey was conducted to compare the use of line transects with strip transects for estimating koala abundance. Both methods provided a similar estimate of density. On the basis of the results of the pilot survey, the distribution and abundance of koalas in the Pine Rivers Shire, south-east Queensland, was determined using line-transect sampling. In total, 134 lines (length 64 km) were used to sample bushland areas. Eighty-two independent koalas were sighted. Analysis of the frequency distribution of sighting distances using the software program DISTANCE enabled a global detection function to be estimated for survey sites in bushland areas across the Shire. Abundance in urban parts of the Shire was estimated from densities obtained from total counts at eight urban sites that ranged from 26 to 51 ha in size. Koala abundance in the Pine Rivers Shire was estimated at 4584 (95% confidence interval, 4040-5247). Line-transect sampling is a useful method for estimating koala abundance provided experienced koala observers arc used when conducting surveys.
BibTeX:
@article{Dique2003,
  author = {Dique, D. S. and De Villiers, D. L. and Preece, H. J.},
  title = {Evaluation of line-transect sampling for estimating koala abundance in the Pine Rivers shire, south-east Queensland},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {30},
  number = {2},
  pages = {127--133},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR02042}
}
Dique, D., Preece, H. and de Villliers, D. 2003 Koalas in pine rivers shire: distribution, abundance and management School: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Dique2003b,
  author = {Dique, D. and Preece, H. and de Villliers, D.},
  title = {Koalas in pine rivers shire: distribution, abundance and management},
  school = {Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service},
  year = {2003}
}
DiTraglia, F.J. 2007 Models of random wildlife movement with an application to distance sampling School: University of St Andrews   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{DiTraglia2007,
  author = {DiTraglia, Francis J.},
  title = {Models of random wildlife movement with an application to distance sampling},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2007}
}
Dobkin, D.S. and Rich, A.C. 1998 Comparison of line transect, spot map, and point count surveys for birds in riparian habitats of the Great Basin Journal of Field Ornithology 69:430-443   
BibTeX:
@article{DobRic98,
  author = {Dobkin, D. S. and Rich, A. C.},
  title = {Comparison of line transect, spot map, and point count surveys for birds in riparian habitats of the Great Basin},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {69},
  pages = {430--443}
}
Dodd, C.K. 1990 Line transect estimation of Red Hills salamander burrow density using a Fourier series Copeia 1990(2):555-557  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dod90,
  author = {Dodd, C. K.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of Red Hills salamander burrow density using a Fourier series},
  journal = {Copeia},
  publisher = {JSTOR},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {1990},
  number = {2},
  pages = {555--557},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1446359}
}
Dohl, T.P., Bonnell, M.L. and Ford, R.G. 1986 Distribution and abundance of common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, in the Southern California Bight: a quantitative assessment based upon aerial transect data Fishery Bulletin 84:333-343   
BibTeX:
@article{Dohetal,
  author = {Dohl, T. P. and Bonnell, M. L. and Ford, R. G.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, in the Southern California Bight: a quantitative assessment based upon aerial transect data},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {84},
  pages = {333--343}
}
Doi, T. 1971 Further development of sighting theory on whales Bulletin of Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory 68:1-22   
BibTeX:
@article{Doi71,
  author = {Doi, T.},
  title = {Further development of sighting theory on whales},
  journal = {Bulletin of Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {68},
  pages = {1--22}
}
Doi, T. 1974 Further development of whale sighting theory The Whale Problem: A Status Report:359-368   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Doi74,
  author = {Doi, T.},
  title = {Further development of whale sighting theory},
  booktitle = {The Whale Problem: A Status Report},
  publisher = {Harvard University Press},
  year = {1974},
  pages = {359--368}
}
Doi, T., Kasamatsu, F. and Nakano, T. 1982 A simulation study on sighting survey of minke whales in the Antarctic Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:919-928   
BibTeX:
@article{Doietal82,
  author = {Doi, T. and Kasamatsu, F. and Nakano, T.},
  title = {A simulation study on sighting survey of minke whales in the Antarctic},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {919--928}
}
Doi, T., Kasamatsu, F. and Nakano, T. 1983 Further simulation studies on sighting by introducing both concentration of sighting effort by angle and aggregations of minke whales in the Antarctic Report of the International Whaling Commission 33:403-412   
BibTeX:
@article{Doietal83,
  author = {Doi, T. and Kasamatsu, F. and Nakano, T.},
  title = {Further simulation studies on sighting by introducing both concentration of sighting effort by angle and aggregations of minke whales in the Antarctic},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {403--412}
}
Dokter, A.M., Baptist, M.J., Ens, B.J., Krijgsveld, K.L. and van Loon, E.E. 2013 Bird radar validation in the field by time-referencing line-transect surveys PLoS ONE 8:e74129  DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ Track-while-scan bird radars are widely used in ornithological studies, but often the precise detection capabilities of these systems are unknown. Quantification of radar performance is essential to avoid observational biases, which requires practical methods for validating a radar’ s detection capability in specific field settings. In this study a method to quantify the detection capability of a bird radar is presented, as well a demonstration of this method in a case study. By time-referencing line-transect surveys, visually identified birds were automatically linked to individual tracks using their transect crossing time. Detection probabilities were determined as the fraction of the total set of visual observations that could be linked to radar tracks. To avoid ambiguities in assigning radar tracks to visual observations, the observer’ s accuracy in determining a bird’ s transect crossing time was taken into account. The accuracy was determined by examining the effect of a time lag applied to the visual observations on the number of matches found with radar tracks. Effects of flight altitude, distance, surface substrate and species size on the detection probability by the radar were quantified in a marine intertidal study area. Detection probability varied strongly with all these factors, as well as species-specific flight behaviour. The effective detection range for single birds flying at low altitude for an X-band marine radar based system was estimated at â{\frac{1}{4}}1.5 km. Within this range the fraction of individual flying birds that were detected by the radar was 0.50±0.06 with a detection bias towards higher flight altitudes, larger birds and high tide situations. Besides radar validation, which we consider essential when quantification of bird numbers is important, our method of linking radar tracks to ground-truthed field observations can facilitate species-specific studies using surveillance radars. The methodology may prove equally useful for optimising tracking algorithms./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Dokter2013,
  author = {Dokter, Adriaan M. and Baptist, Martin J. and Ens, Bruno J. and Krijgsveld, Karen L. and van Loon, E. Emiel},
  title = {Bird radar validation in the field by time-referencing line-transect surveys},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {e74129},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074129}
}
Donadio, E., Di Martino, S., Aubone, M. and Novaro, A.J. 2004 Feeding ecology of the Andean hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) in areas under different land use in north-western Patagonia Journal of Arid Environments 56(4):709-718  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Donadio2004,
  author = {Donadio, E. and Di Martino, S. and Aubone, M. and Novaro, A. J.},
  title = {Feeding ecology of the Andean hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) in areas under different land use in north-western Patagonia},
  journal = {Journal of Arid Environments},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {56},
  number = {4},
  pages = {709--718},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-1963(03)00084-3}
}
Dörgeloh, W.G. 2005 Density estimates of francolin in a Sporobolus ioclados-Acacia tortilis Savanna using distance sampling South African Journal of Wildlife Research 35(1):89-94   
Abstract: The status and ecology of francolin in the savanna biome has not been studied extensively. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the line transect method to estimate population densities of three francolin species, Swainson's spurfowl, crested and Natal francolin. Surveys were conducted in Sporobolus ioclados-Acacia tortilis Savanna in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve. Relative species composition showed 75.7% Swainson's spurfowl, 16.9% crested and 7.4% Natal francolin. Early morning counts within two hours of sunrise, when temperatures are low and with no wind or cloud cover, revealed the best results. Detectability was estimated as 85.6%. The Uniform Simple polynomial model was selected based on the lowest Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) values. Population density of all three species combined was estimated as 6.76 francolin/ha with an encounter rate of 32.24 francolin/km. A coefficient of variation of 23.57% and a poor model fit (AIC 1650.28; GOF 2 P = 0.024) indicated that the line transect method may not be a suitable method to count francolin in this plant community. However, this method may be improved to some extent by including additional lines to increase replication, stratifying the study area into low- and high-density units, and including the adjacent Nyl floodplain into the survey. This study suggests a need to improve the line transect method and to investigate other counting techniques to assist in monitoring these species.
BibTeX:
@article{Dorgeloh2005,
  author = {Dörgeloh, W. G.},
  title = {Density estimates of francolin in a Sporobolus ioclados-Acacia tortilis Savanna using distance sampling},
  journal = {South African Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {35},
  number = {1},
  pages = {89--94}
}
Drummer, T.D. 1997 Size-bias in line transect sampling (Laramie, WY, USA)School: University of Wyoming   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Dru85,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {Size-bias in line transect sampling},
  school = {University of Wyoming},
  year = {1997},
  number = {Laramie, WY, USA}
}
Drummer, T.D. 1990 Estimation of proportions and ratios from line transect data Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods 19:3069-3091  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dru90,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {Estimation of proportions and ratios from line transect data},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {3069--3091},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/03610929008830365}
}
Drummer, T.D. 1991 Sizetran: analysis of size-biased line transect data Wildlife Society Bulletin 19:117-118  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Dru91,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {Sizetran: analysis of size-biased line transect data},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {117--118},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2531944}
}
Drummer, T.D. 1999 Planning abundance estimation surveys when detectability is <1.0 Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods:67-73   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Dru99,
  author = {Drummer, T. D.},
  title = {Planning abundance estimation surveys when detectability is <1.0},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {67--73}
}
Drummer, T.D., Degange, A.R., Pank, L.L. and McDonald, L.L. 1990 Adjusting for group size influence in line transect sampling Journal of Wildlife Management 54:511-514  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Druetal90,
  author = {Drummer, T. D. and Degange, A. R. and Pank, L. L. and McDonald, L. L.},
  title = {Adjusting for group size influence in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {511--514},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3809667}
}
Drummer, T.D. and McDonald, L.L. 1987 Size bias in line transect sampling Biometrics 43:13-21  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{DruMcD87,
  author = {Drummer, T. D. and McDonald, L. L.},
  title = {Size bias in line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {13--21},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2531944}
}
Du Fresne, S., Fletcher, D. and Sawson, S. 2006 The effect of line-transect placement in a coastal distance sampling survey Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8:79-85   
BibTeX:
@article{Du2006,
  author = {Du Fresne, S. and Fletcher, D. and Sawson, S.},
  title = {The effect of line-transect placement in a coastal distance sampling survey},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {79--85}
}
Duffy, D.C. and Schneider, D.C. 1984 A comparison of two transect methods of counting birds at sea Cormorant 12:95-98   
BibTeX:
@article{DufSch84,
  author = {Duffy, D. C. and Schneider, D. C.},
  title = {A comparison of two transect methods of counting birds at sea},
  journal = {Cormorant},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {95--98}
}
Dunagan, S.P., Karels, T.J., Moriarty, J.G., Brown, J.L. and Riley, S.P.D. 2019 Bobcat and rabbit habitat use in an urban landscape Journal of Mammalogy 100(2):401-409  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Dunagan2019,
  author = {Dunagan, Sean P. and Karels, Tim J. and Moriarty, Joanne G. and Brown, Justin L. and Riley, Seth P. D.},
  title = {Bobcat and rabbit habitat use in an urban landscape},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {100},
  number = {2},
  pages = {401--409},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyz062}
}
Dunn, E.H., Bart, J., Collins, B.T., Craig, B., Dale, B., Downes, C.M., Francis, C.M., Woodley, S. and Zorn, P. 2006 Monitoring bird populations in small geographic areas School: Canadian Wildlife Service   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Dunn2006,
  author = {Dunn, Erica H. and Bart, Jon and Collins, Brian T. and Craig, Brian and Dale, Brenda and Downes, Connie M. and Francis, Charles M. and Woodley, Stephen and Zorn, Paul},
  title = {Monitoring bird populations in small geographic areas},
  school = {Canadian Wildlife Service},
  year = {2006}
}
Durant, S.M., Craft, M.E., Hilborn, R., Bashir, S., Hando, J. and Thomas, L. 2011 Long-term trends in carnivore abundance using distance sampling in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania Journal of Applied Ecology 48:1490-1500  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Durant2011,
  author = {Durant, Sarah M. and Craft, Meggan E. and Hilborn, Ray and Bashir, Sultana and Hando, Justin and Thomas, Len},
  title = {Long-term trends in carnivore abundance using distance sampling in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {1490--1500},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02042.x}
}
Durso, A.M. and Seigel, R.A. 2015 A snake in the hand is worth 10,000 in the bush Journal of Herpetology 49(4):503-506  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Durso2015,
  author = {Durso, Andrew M. and Seigel, Richard A.},
  title = {A snake in the hand is worth 10,000 in the bush},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  publisher = {The Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {49},
  number = {4},
  pages = {503--506},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1670/15-49-04.1}
}
Eberhardt, L.L. 1968 A preliminary appraisal of line transect Journal of Wildlife Management 32:82-88  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe68,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {A preliminary appraisal of line transect},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {82--88},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3798239}
}
Eberhardt, L.L. 1978 Transect methods for population studies Journal of Wildlife Management 42:1-31  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe78,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Transect methods for population studies},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {1--31},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800685}
}
Eberhardt, L.L. 1978 Appraising variability in population studies Journal of Wildlife Management 42:207-238  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe78b,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Appraising variability in population studies},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {207--238},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800260}
}
Eberhardt, L.L. 1979 Line-transects based on right-angle distances Journal of Wildlife Management 43:768-774  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ebe79,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Line-transects based on right-angle distances},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {768--774},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3808760}
}
Eberhardt, L.L., Chapman, D.G. and Gilbert, J.R. 1979 A review of marine mammal census methods Wildlife Monographs 63:1-46   
BibTeX:
@article{Ebeetal79,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L. and Chapman, D. G. and Gilbert, J. R.},
  title = {A review of marine mammal census methods},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {63},
  pages = {1--46}
}
Eberhardt, L.L. 1967 Some developments in `distance sampling' Biometrics 23(2):207-216  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Eberhardt1967,
  author = {Eberhardt, L. L.},
  title = {Some developments in `distance sampling'},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1967},
  volume = {23},
  number = {2},
  pages = {207--216},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2528156}
}
Gilles, A., Viquerat, S., Becker, E.A., Forney, K.A., Geelhoed, S.C.V., Haelters, J., Nabe-Nielsen, J., Scheidat, M., Siebert, U., Sveegaard, S., van Beest, F.M., van Bemmelen, R. and Aarts, G. 2016 Seasonal habitat-based density models for a marine top predator, the harbor porpoise, in a dynamic environment Ecosphere 7(6):e01367  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ECS2:ECS21367,
  author = {Gilles, A. and Viquerat, S. and Becker, E. A. and Forney, K. A. and Geelhoed, S. C. V. and Haelters, J. and Nabe-Nielsen, J. and Scheidat, M. and Siebert, U. and Sveegaard, S. and van Beest, F. M. and van Bemmelen, R. and Aarts, G.},
  title = {Seasonal habitat-based density models for a marine top predator, the harbor porpoise, in a dynamic environment},
  journal = {Ecosphere},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {7},
  number = {6},
  pages = {e01367},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1367}
}
Edwards, D.K., Dorsey, G.L. and Crawford, J.A. 1981 A comparison of three avian census methods (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds:170-176   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Edwetal81,
  author = {Edwards, D. K. and Dorsey, G. L. and Crawford, J. A.},
  title = {A comparison of three avian census methods},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {170--176}
}
Efford, M.G., Dawson, D.K. and Robbins, C.S. 2004 DENSITY: software for analysing capture-recapture data from passive detector arrays Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 27:217-228   
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2004,
  author = {Efford, M. G. and Dawson, D. K. and Robbins, C. S.},
  title = {DENSITY: software for analysing capture-recapture data from passive detector arrays},
  journal = {Animal Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {217--228}
}
Efford, M.G. 2004 Density estimation in live-trapping studies Oikos 106:598-610  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2004a,
  author = {Efford, M. G.},
  title = {Density estimation in live-trapping studies},
  journal = {Oikos},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {106},
  pages = {598--610},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.13043.x}
}
Efford, M.G., Warburton, B., Coleman, M.C. and Barker, R.J. 2005 A field test of two methods for density estimation Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:731-738  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2005,
  author = {Efford, M. G. and Warburton, B. and Coleman, M. C. and Barker, R. J.},
  title = {A field test of two methods for density estimation},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {731--738},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/0091-7648(2005)33%5B731:AFTOTM%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Efford, M. 2008 Book review: advanced distance sampling. estimating abundance of biological populations Environmental Conservation 35:187-192  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2008,
  author = {Efford, Murray},
  title = {Book review: advanced distance sampling. estimating abundance of biological populations},
  journal = {Environmental Conservation},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {187--192},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892908004761}
}
Efford, M.G. and Dawson, D.K. 2009 Effect of distance-related heterogeneity on population size estimates from point counts The Auk 126:100-111  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Efford2009,
  author = {Efford, Murray G. and Dawson, Deanna K.},
  title = {Effect of distance-related heterogeneity on population size estimates from point counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {126},
  pages = {100--111},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2009.07197}
}
Eguchi, T. and Gerrodette, T. 2009 A Bayesian approach to line-transect analysis for estimating abundance Ecological Modelling 220(13-14):1620-1630  DOI  
Abstract: Line-transect analysis is a widely used method of estimating plant and animal density and abundance. A Bayesian approach to a basic line-transect analysis is developed for a half-normal detection function. We extend the model of Karunamuni and Quinn [Karunamuni, R.J., Quinn II, T.J., 1995. Bayesian estimation of animal abundance for line-transect sampling. Biometrics 51, 1325-1337] by including a binomial likelihood function for the number of objects detected. The method computes a joint posterior distribution on the effective strip width and the density of objects in the sampled area. Analytical and computational methods for binned and unbinned perpendicular distance data are provided. Existing information about effective strip width and density can be brought into the analysis via prior distributions. The Bayesian approach is compared to a standard line-transect analysis using both real and simulated data. Results of the Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses are similar when there are no prior data on effective strip width or density, but the Bayesian approach performs better when such data are available from previous or related studies. Practical methods for including prior data on effective strip width and density are suggested. A numerical example shows how the Bayesian approach can provide valid estimates when the sample size is too small for the standard approach to work reliably. The proposed Bayesian approach can form the basis for developing more advanced analyses.
BibTeX:
@article{Eguchi2009,
  author = {Eguchi, Tomoharu and Gerrodette, Tim},
  title = {A Bayesian approach to line-transect analysis for estimating abundance},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {220},
  number = {13-14},
  pages = {1620--1630},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.04.011}
}
Eidous, O.M. 2005 Bias correction for histogram estimator using line transect sampling Environmetrics 16:61-69  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2005,
  author = {Eidous, Omar M.},
  title = {Bias correction for histogram estimator using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {61--69},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/env.671}
}
Eidous, O.M. 2005 Histogram and polygon methods using line transect sampling Journal of Applied Statistical Science 14:25-36   
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2005a,
  author = {Eidous, Omar M.},
  title = {Histogram and polygon methods using line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Statistical Science},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {25--36}
}
Eidous, O.M. 2005 On improving kernel estimators using line transect sampling. Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods 34:931-941  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2005b,
  author = {Eidous, O. M.},
  title = {On improving kernel estimators using line transect sampling.},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {931--941},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1081/STA-200054439}
}
Eidous, O. 2006 A semiparametric model for line transect sampling Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods 35:1211-1221  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Eidous2006,
  author = {Eidous, Omar},
  title = {A semiparametric model for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {1211--1221},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/03610920600628528}
}
Ekanayake, K.B., Weston, M.A., Dann, P. and Sutherland, D.R. 2016 Corvids congregate to breeding colonies of a burrow-nesting seabird Austral Ecology 41:291-301  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ekanayake2016,
  author = {Ekanayake, Kasun B. and Weston, Michael A. and Dann, Peter and Sutherland, Duncan R.},
  title = {Corvids congregate to breeding colonies of a burrow-nesting seabird},
  journal = {Austral Ecology},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {291--301},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/aec.12311}
}
Ekblom, R. 2010 Evaluation of the analysis of distance sampling data: a simulation study Ornis Svecica 20:45-53   
BibTeX:
@article{EKBLOM2010,
  author = {Ekblom, Robert},
  title = {Evaluation of the analysis of distance sampling data: a simulation study},
  journal = {Ornis Svecica},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {45--53}
}
Elenga, G., Bonenfant, C. and Péron, G. 2020 Distance sampling of duikers in the rainforest: Dealing with transect avoidance PLOS ONE 15(10):e0240049  DOI  
Abstract: Bushmeat is a major source of protein and income in tropical regions but is often over-harvested. A better monitoring of bushmeat stocks could help achieve sustainability. We used a combination of simulations and transect survey data collected from blue duikers (Philantomba monticola) in the Lomako wildlife reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo, to investigate the use of transect-based distance sampling to monitor bushmeat stocks. The comparison of dung piles and direct observations of duikers evidenced that animals avoided both the transects in the absence of observers, and the observers themselves. This type of behavioural response appeared common in a literature survey. It causes a negative bias in the estimates of population densities from the standard distance sampling methodology. This negative bias would lead to over-pessimistic predictions of population viability, especially if the behavioural response is more intense in the locations where the animals are hunted. In turn, this would lead to excessively conservative management recommendations. To correct for the effect of the behavioural response of the animals to either the transects or the observers, we recommend recording both the forward and perpendicular distances to the observers (2D distance sampling), not just the perpendicular distance. We also recommend multiple-observer protocols. As a cautionary note, we also demonstrate a scenario where the intensity of the behavioural response is too high to reliably estimate the abundance of the population. As a perspective, we outline the general principles of a local stakeholder-based program combining distance sampling with less intensive types of ecological indicators to monitor wildlife populations.
BibTeX:
@article{elenga_distance_2020,
  author = {Elenga, Gaïus and Bonenfant, Christophe and Péron, Guillaume},
  title = {Distance sampling of duikers in the rainforest: Dealing with transect avoidance},
  journal = {PLOS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {15},
  number = {10},
  pages = {e0240049},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240049}
}
Ellingson, A.R. and Lukacs, P.M. 2003 Improving methods for regional landbird monitoring: a reply to Hutto and Young Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:896-902  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{EliLuk03,
  author = {Ellingson, A. R. and Lukacs, P. M.},
  title = {Improving methods for regional landbird monitoring: a reply to Hutto and Young},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {896--902},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784616}
}
Ellis, A.M. and Bernard, R.T.F. 2005 Estimating the density of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in subtropical thicket using line transect surveys of dung and DISTANCE software African Journal of Ecology 43:362-3687  DOI  
Abstract: Many ecotourism reserves in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa have introduced large carnivores which prey on ungulates such as kudu. Kudu occupy thick vegetation and helicopter-based counts are not appropriate. In this study we tested line transect counts of faecal pellets in conjunction with DISTANCE analysis as a method for assessing the abundance of kudu. Transects were undertaken in three regions of two game reserves and the results compared with helicopter based game counts (for two regions) and a known kudu population in the third region (an enclosed breeding centre). Estimates of kudu abundance were two to three times greater than the helicopter counts, but within the known number of kudu in the breeding centre. The increased accuracy in the breeding centre was probably because the transects covered a greater percentage of the available habitat (0.07%) than in the reserves (approximately 0.007%). We suggest that DISTANCE software and line transects counts of pellet groups can be used for kudu and probably for other ungulates in thicket-type vegetations. Accuracy will depend on the percentage of the available habitat that is surveyed and on the accuracy of the defecation and decay rates.
BibTeX:
@article{Ellis&Bernard2005,
  author = {Ellis, Amanda M. and Bernard, Richard T. F.},
  title = {Estimating the density of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in subtropical thicket using line transect surveys of dung and DISTANCE software},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {362--3687},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2005.00591.x}
}
Elphick, C.S. 2008 How you count counts: the importance of methods research in applied ecology Journal of Applied Ecology 45:1313-1320  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Elphick2008,
  author = {Elphick, Chris S.},
  title = {How you count counts: the importance of methods research in applied ecology},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {1313--1320},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01545.x}
}
Emlen, J.T. 1971 Population densities of birds derived from transect counts The Auk 88:323-342  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Eml71,
  author = {Emlen, J. T.},
  title = {Population densities of birds derived from transect counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {323--342},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/4083883}
}
Emlen, J.T. 1977 Estimating breeding season bird densities from transect counts The Auk 94:455-468   
BibTeX:
@article{Eml77,
  author = {Emlen, J. T.},
  title = {Estimating breeding season bird densities from transect counts},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {94},
  pages = {455--468}
}
Emlen, J.T. and DeJong, M.J. 1981 The application of song detection threshold distance to census operations (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds:346-352   
BibTeX:
@incollection{EmlDej81,
  author = {Emlen, J. T. and DeJong, M. J.},
  title = {The application of song detection threshold distance to census operations},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {346--352}
}
Engeman, R.M., Nielson, R.M. and Sugihara, R.T. 2005 Evaluation of optimized variable area transect sampling using totally enumerated field data sets Environmetrics 16(7):767-772  DOI  
Abstract: Plotless density estimators (PDEs) can be efficient alternatives to quadrat sampling for estimating the density of stationary objects. Variable area transect (VAT) sampling had been identified, and optimized relative to effort, in previous Monte Carlo simulated population studies as a low-labor field method that demonstrated superior estimation properties among many PDEs considered. However, natural populations tend to be much more complex and less predictable in spatial distribution than computer generated populations. Therefore, we carried out a Monte Carlo simulation study that used 17 fully enumerated field populations rather than simulated populations. These natural populations represented a variety of population densities and spatial patterns. We focused on assessing the effect of the number of population members searched for along each transect (r), sample size, and transect width on estimation quality. Using relative root mean-squared error and relative bias as criteria, the optimal range for r was 5 to 7 population members encountered from each start point. Sample size was best if n ¿ 20, but returns in estimation quality diminished by n = 40. Transect width was previously uninvestigated and found to be the most important design factor affecting estimation quality. Field studies should strive for transects as wide as logistically reasonable.
BibTeX:
@article{Engeman2005,
  author = {Engeman, R. M. and Nielson, R. M. and Sugihara, R. T.},
  title = {Evaluation of optimized variable area transect sampling using totally enumerated field data sets},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {16},
  number = {7},
  pages = {767--772},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/env.736}
}
Ensign, W.E., Angermeier, P.L. and Dolloff, C.A. 1995 Use of line transect methods to estimate abundance of benthic stream fishes Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 52(1):213-222  DOI  
Abstract: Examination of the distribution of sighting distances for the Roanoke darter Percina roanoka, Roanoke logperch P. rex and black jumprock Moxostoma cervinum indicates that strip transect sighting models that assume probability of sighting remaining constant out to the limits of observer visibility are not appropriate for these benthic species. Distance sampling models that assume decreased sighting probability with increasing distance of the target from the observer provide a reasonable alternative to strip transect sighting models. -from Authors
BibTeX:
@article{Ensign1995,
  author = {Ensign, W. E. and Angermeier, P. L. and Dolloff, C. A.},
  title = {Use of line transect methods to estimate abundance of benthic stream fishes},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {52},
  number = {1},
  pages = {213--222},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/f95-021}
}
Epperly, S.P., Braun, J. and Chester, A.J. 1995 Aerial surveys for sea turtles in North Carolina inshore waters Fishery Bulletin 93:254-261   
BibTeX:
@article{Eppetal95,
  author = {Epperly, S. P. and Braun, J. and Chester, A. J.},
  title = {Aerial surveys for sea turtles in North Carolina inshore waters},
  journal = {Fishery Bulletin},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {93},
  pages = {254--261}
}
Erickson, A.W., Siniff, D.B. and Harwood, J. 1993 Estimation of population sizes Antarctic Seals: Research Methods and Techniques:29-45   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Erietal93,
  author = {Erickson, A. W. and Siniff, D. B. and Harwood, J.},
  title = {Estimation of population sizes},
  booktitle = {Antarctic Seals: Research Methods and Techniques},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {29--45}
}
Ersts, P.J., Kiszka, J., Vély, M. and Rosenbaum, H.C. 2011 Density, group composition and encounter rates of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the eastern Comoros Archipelago (C2) J. Cetacean Res. Manage. 3:175-182  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ersts_density_2011,
  author = {Ersts, Peter J. and Kiszka, Jeremy and Vély, Michel and Rosenbaum, Howard C.},
  title = {Density, group composition and encounter rates of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the eastern Comoros Archipelago (C2)},
  journal = {J. Cetacean Res. Manage.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {175--182},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.47536/jcrm.vi3.330}
}
Erwin, R.M. 1982 Observer variability in estimating numbers: an experiment Journal of Field Ornithology 53:159-167   
BibTeX:
@article{Erw82,
  author = {Erwin, R. M.},
  title = {Observer variability in estimating numbers: an experiment},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {159--167}
}
Erxleben, D.R., Butler, M.J., Ballard, W.B., Wallace, M.C., Hardin, J.B. and Demaso, S.J. 2010 Encounter rates from road-based surveys of Rio Grande wild turkeys in Texas The Journal of Wildlife Management 74:1134-1140  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Erxleben2010,
  author = {Erxleben, D. R. and Butler, M. J. and Ballard, W. B. and Wallace, M. C. and Hardin, J. B. and Demaso, S. J.},
  title = {Encounter rates from road-based surveys of Rio Grande wild turkeys in Texas},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {74},
  pages = {1134--1140},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/2009-288}
}
Estes, J.A. and Gilbert, J.R. 1978 Evaluation of an aerial survey of Pacific walruses Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 35:1130-1140  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{EstGil78,
  author = {Estes, J. A. and Gilbert, J. R.},
  title = {Evaluation of an aerial survey of Pacific walruses},
  journal = {Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {1130--1140},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/f78-178}
}
Estades, C.F. and Temple, S.A. 1999 Deciduous-forest bird communities in a fragmented landscape dominated by exotic pine plantations Ecological Applications 9:573-585  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Esttem99,
  author = {Estades, C. F. and Temple, S. A.},
  title = {Deciduous-forest bird communities in a fragmented landscape dominated by exotic pine plantations},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {573--585},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1999)009%5B0573:DFBCIA%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Evans-Mack, D., Raphael, M.G. and Laake, J.L. 2002 Probability of detecting marbled murrelets at sea: effects of single versus paired observers Journal of Wildlife Management 66:865-873  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Evaetal02,
  author = {Evans-Mack, D. and Raphael, M. G. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Probability of detecting marbled murrelets at sea: effects of single versus paired observers},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {865--873},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3803151}
}
Evans, T.J., Fischbach, A., Schliebe, S., Manly, B., Kalxdorff, S. and York, G. 2003 Polar bear aerial survey in the Eastern Chukchi Sea: a pilot study Arctic 56:359-366  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Evans2003,
  author = {Evans, Thomas J. and Fischbach, Anthony and Schliebe, Scott and Manly, Bryan and Kalxdorff, Susanne and York, Geoff},
  title = {Polar bear aerial survey in the Eastern Chukchi Sea: a pilot study},
  journal = {Arctic},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {359--366},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic633}
}
Evans, B., Ashley, J. and Marsden, S.J. 2005 Abundance, habitat use and movements of blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana) and other parrots in and around an Atlantic forest reserve Wilson Bulletin 117:154-164  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Evans2005,
  author = {Evans, B. and Ashley, J. and Marsden, S. J.},
  title = {Abundance, habitat use and movements of blue-winged macaws (Primolius maracana) and other parrots in and around an Atlantic forest reserve},
  journal = {Wilson Bulletin},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {117},
  pages = {154--164},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1676/04-026}
}
Evans, K.O., Burger, L.W., Oedekoven, C.S., Smith, M.D., Riffell, S.K., Martin, J.A. and Buckland, S.T. 2013 Multi-region response to conservation buffers targeted for northern bobwhite The Journal of Wildlife Management 77:716-725  DOI  
Abstract: We coordinated a large-scale evaluation of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population response to establishment of 9-m to 37-m linear patches (buffers) of native herbaceous vegetation along row-crop field margins as part of the Conservation Reserve Program practice Habitat Buffers for Upland Birds (CP33). We compared northern bobwhite covey densities on 1,088 paired row-crop fields with and without native herbaceous buffers in 13 states during autumn, 2006†``2008. We used a 2-stage random effects modeling approach that incorporates the effective area as an offset in generalized linear mixed models to assess regional relationships among autumn bobwhite covey densities and covariates of field type (i.e., fields with vs. without native herbaceous buffers), ecological region, year, survey week, and contracted vegetative cover (i.e., planting native grasses and forbs vs. establishing through natural regeneration). Covey density was correlated with year and interaction effects of field type and ecological region. The year effect suggested annual variation in covey densities, whereas the field type by ecological region interaction suggested covey response to buffers was dependent on spatial location, likely reflecting differences in buffer establishment, succession, and characteristics of the surrounding landscape among regions. Mean fitted covey density on fields across all survey sites was 0.047 (±0.008 bootstrap standard error [BSE]) and 0.031  coveys/ha (±0.003 BSE) on row-crop fields with and without herbaceous buffers, respectively. Covey density was greater on fields with buffers relative to matched, comparison fields without buffers in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (241%; P ¡â€‰ 0.001) and both the eastern (123%; P ¡â€‰ 0.001) and western (60%; P  =  0.01) portions of the Southeastern Coastal Plain region. Covey density was an order of magnitude greater in the central Texas region compared to other regions, but exhibited a small response to native herbaceous buffers, as did density of coveys in the Eastern Tallgrass Prairie and Central Hardwoods regions. Disproportionate response to buffers in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and Southeastern Coastal Plain suggests native herbaceous habitats might be limiting during autumn in these regions, whereas lack of response in the Eastern Tallgrass Prairie, Central Hardwoods, and central Texas regions suggests that herbaceous habitat either was not limiting or buffers failed to provide adequate requirements for bobwhites during autumn. Selection of other habitats to meet security and thermoregulatory needs might have resulted in lack of response in these regions. Native herbaceous cover provided by buffers can provide critical habitat in row-crop agricultural systems in some regions, and can contribute to regional population recovery objectives of the Northern Bobwhite Conservation Initiative (NBCI). However, range-wide NBCI recovery objectives will best be met through multiple conservation practices in row-crop agricultural systems. Âtextcopyright 2013 The Wildlife Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Evans2013,
  author = {Evans, Kristine O. and Burger, L. Wes and Oedekoven, Cornelia S. and Smith, Mark D. and Riffell, Samuel K. and Martin, James A. and Buckland, Stephen T.},
  title = {Multi-region response to conservation buffers targeted for northern bobwhite},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Inc.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {77},
  pages = {716--725},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.502}
}
Fais, A., Lewis, T.P., Zitterbart, D.P., Álvarez, O., Tejedor, A. and Aguilar Soto, N. 2016 Abundance and distribution of sperm whales in the Canary Islands: can sperm whales in the archipelago sustain the current level of ship-strike mortalities? PLoS ONE 11(3):1-16  DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the current rate of ship-strike mortality. The results of this study may also have implications for offshore areas where concentrations of sperm whales may coincide with high densities of ship traffic, but where ship-strikes may be undocumented. The absolute abundance of sperm whales in an area of 52933 km¡ sup¿ 2/sup, covering the territorial waters of the Canary Islands, was estimated from 2668 km of acoustic line-transect survey using Distance sampling analysis. Data on sperm whale diving and acoustic behaviour, obtained from bio-logging, were used to calculate g(0) = 0.92, this is less than one because of occasional extended periods when whales do not echolocate. This resulted in an absolute abundance estimate of 224 sperm whales (95% log-normal CI 120?418) within the survey area. The recruitment capability of this number of whales, some 2.5 whales per year, is likely to be exceeded by the current ship-strike mortality rate. Furthermore, we found areas of higher whale density within the archipelago, many coincident with those previously described, suggesting that these are important habitats for females and immature animals inhabiting the archipelago. Some of these areas are crossed by active shipping lanes increasing the risk of ship-strikes. Given the philopatry in female sperm whales, replacement of impacted whales might be limited. Therefore, the application of mitigation measures to reduce the ship-strike mortality rate seems essential for the conservation of sperm whales in the Canary Islands./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Fais2016,
  author = {Fais, Andrea and Lewis, Tim P. and Zitterbart, Daniel P. and Álvarez, Omar and Tejedor, Ana and Aguilar Soto, Natacha},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of sperm whales in the Canary Islands: can sperm whales in the archipelago sustain the current level of ship-strike mortalities?},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {11},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1--16},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150660}
}
Fancy, S.G. 1997 A new approach for analyzing bird densities from variable circular-plot counts Pacific Science 51:107-114   
BibTeX:
@article{Fan97,
  author = {Fancy, S. G.},
  title = {A new approach for analyzing bird densities from variable circular-plot counts},
  journal = {Pacific Science},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {107--114}
}
Fancy, S.G., Snetsinger, T.J. and Jacobi, J.D. 1997 Translocation of the palila, an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper Pacific Conservation Biology 3:39-46  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fancy1997,
  author = {Fancy, Steven G. and Snetsinger, Thomas J. and Jacobi, James D.},
  title = {Translocation of the palila, an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper},
  journal = {Pacific Conservation Biology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {39--46},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/PC970039}
}
Farina, A. 1995 Distribution and dynamics of birds in a rural sub-Mediterranean landscape Landscape and Urban Planning 31:269-280  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Far95,
  author = {Farina, A.},
  title = {Distribution and dynamics of birds in a rural sub-Mediterranean landscape},
  journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {269--280},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(94)01052-A}
}
Farnsworth, G.L., Pollock, K.H., Nichols, J.D., Simons, T.R., Hines, J.E. and Sauer, J.R. 2002 A removal model for estimating detection probabilities from point-count surveys The Auk 119:414-425  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Faretal02,
  author = {Farnsworth, G. L. and Pollock, K. H. and Nichols, J. D. and Simons, T. R. and Hines, J. E. and Sauer, J. R.},
  title = {A removal model for estimating detection probabilities from point-count surveys},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {414--425},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/119.2.414}
}
Farnsworth, G.L., Nichols, J.D., Sauer, J.R., Fancy, S.G., Kenneth, Pollock, H., Shriner, S.A. and Simons, T.R. 2005 Statistical approaches to the analysis of point count data: a little extra information can go a long way (PSW-GTR-191):736-743School: USDA Forest Service   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Faretalb02,
  author = {Farnsworth, George L. and Nichols, James D. and Sauer, John R. and Fancy, Steven G. and Kenneth and Pollock, H. and Shriner, Susan A. and Simons, Theodore R.},
  title = {Statistical approaches to the analysis of point count data: a little extra information can go a long way},
  school = {USDA Forest Service},
  year = {2005},
  number = {PSW-GTR-191},
  pages = {736--743}
}
Fashing, P.J. and Cords, M. 2000 Diurnal primate densities and biomass in the Kakamega Forest: an evaluation of census methods and a comparison with other forests American Journal of Primatology 50:139-152  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FasCor00,
  author = {Fashing, P. J. and Cords, M.},
  title = {Diurnal primate densities and biomass in the Kakamega Forest: an evaluation of census methods and a comparison with other forests},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {139--152},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(200002)50:2%3C139::AID-AJP4%3E3.0.CO;2-N}
}
Faustino, C.E.S. 2008 Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores Archipelago, Portugal School: University of St. Andrews   
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Faustino2008,
  author = {Faustino, Cláudia Estevinho Santos},
  title = {Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores Archipelago, Portugal},
  school = {University of St. Andrews},
  year = {2008}
}
Faustino, C.E.S., Silva, M.A., Marques, T.A. and Thomas, L. 2010 Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores Archipelago Arquipelago - Life and Marine Sciences 27:49-58   
BibTeX:
@article{FAUSTINO2010,
  author = {Faustino, C. E. S. and Silva, M. A. and Marques, T. A. and Thomas, L.},
  title = {Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores Archipelago},
  journal = {Arquipelago - Life and Marine Sciences},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {49--58}
}
Fay, J.M. 1991 An elephant (Loxodonta africana) survey using dung counts in the forests of the Central African republic Journal of Tropical Ecology 7:25-36  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fay,
  author = {Fay, J. M.},
  title = {An elephant (Loxodonta africana) survey using dung counts in the forests of the Central African republic},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {25--36},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400005022}
}
Fay, J.M. and Agnagna, M. 1991 A population survey of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in northern Congo African Journal of Ecology 29:177-87  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FayAgn91,
  author = {Fay, J. M. and Agnagna, M.},
  title = {A population survey of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in northern Congo},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {177--87},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1991.tb01000.x}
}
Felce, T., Stone, E., Whiteford, J., James, E., Castrillon, J. and Evans, P.G.H. To what extent can distance sampling be combined with photo identification as a monitoring tool for Tursiops truncatus    
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Felce,
  author = {Felce, Tom and Stone, Eleanor and Whiteford, Jim and James, Eve and Castrillon, Juliana and Evans, Peter G. H.},
  title = {To what extent can distance sampling be combined with photo identification as a monitoring tool for Tursiops truncatus}
}
Ferguson, J.W.H. and Bester, M.N. 2002 The treatment of spatial autocorrelation in biological surveys: the case of line transect surveys Antarctic Science 14(2):115-122  DOI  
Abstract: Marked spatial autocorrelation was encountered in an extensive data set on Antarctic seal densities as well as Antarctic pack ice characteristics. Whilst me methodology of measuring spatial autocorrelation is well developed, there is no established infrastructure for statistical inference in terms of correlation analysis or ANOVA. We survey the literature that deals with these problems, as well as some of the approaches that have been proposed for taking autocorrelation into account in inferential statistics. We apply these approaches to a data set comprising Antarctic pack ice seal counts as well as a few environmental measures. In contrast to the predictions from the existing literature, nonlinear estimation suggested that Pearson's r substantially overestimates the tree correlation between seal densities and environmental variables. When compared to spatially adjusted analysis of variance, conventional ANOVA that compared seal densities or pack ice characteristics in different areas overestimated the degree of difference between these areas in proportion to the degree of spatial autocorrelation of the particular data set. In our case, the effects of spatial autocorrelation were not neutralised by treating entire transects as single points. These results emphasise the need for a methodology that takes spatial autocorrelation into account for interpreting the spatial data on Antarctic seals collected during the Antarctic pack ice seal (APIS) program. New software written for performing these analyses is available from the senior author.
BibTeX:
@article{Ferguson2002,
  author = {Ferguson, J. W. H. and Bester, M. N.},
  title = {The treatment of spatial autocorrelation in biological surveys: the case of line transect surveys},
  journal = {Antarctic Science},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {14},
  number = {2},
  pages = {115--122},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102002000664}
}
Ferrari, S.F., Chagas, R.R. and Souza-Alves, J.P. 2010 Line transect surveying of arboreal monkeys: problems of group size and spread in a highly fragmented landscape American Journal of Primatology 72:1100-1107  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ferrari2010,
  author = {Ferrari, S. F. and Chagas, R. R. and Souza-Alves, J. P.},
  title = {Line transect surveying of arboreal monkeys: problems of group size and spread in a highly fragmented landscape},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {1100--1107},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20873}
}
Ferreira, S.M. and Roberts, C.C. 2003 Distribution and abundance of Maui's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori maui) along the North Island west coast, New Zealand (93)School: Department of Conservation   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Ferreira2003,
  author = {Ferreira, S. M. and Roberts, C. C.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of Maui's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori maui) along the North Island west coast, New Zealand},
  school = {Department of Conservation},
  year = {2003},
  number = {93}
}
Fewster, R.M. and Buckland, S.T. 2004 Assessment of distance sampling estimators Advanced Distance Sampling:281-306   
BibTeX:
@incollection{FewBuc04,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Assessment of distance sampling estimators},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {281--306}
}
Fewster, R.M., Laake, J.L. and Buckland, S.T. 2005 Line transect sampling in small and large regions Biometrics 61:856-859  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fewetal2005,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and Laake, J. L. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Line transect sampling in small and large regions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {61},
  pages = {856--859},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2005.00413_1.x}
}
Fewster, R.M., Southwell, C., Borchers, D.L., Buckland, S.T. and Pople, A.R. 2008 The influence of animal mobility on the assumption of uniform distances in aerial line transect surveys Wildlife Research 35:275-288  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2008,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and Southwell, C. and Borchers, D. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Pople, A. R.},
  title = {The influence of animal mobility on the assumption of uniform distances in aerial line transect surveys},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {275--288},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR07077}
}
Fewster, R.M. and Pople, A.R. 2008 A comparison of mark-recapture distance sampling methods applied to aerial surveys of Eastern grey kangaroos Wildlife Research 35:320-330  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2008a,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and Pople, A. R.},
  title = {A comparison of mark-recapture distance sampling methods applied to aerial surveys of Eastern grey kangaroos},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {320--330},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR07078}
}
Fewster, R.M., Buckland, S.T., Burnham, K.P., Borchers, D.L., Jupp, P.E., Laake, J.L. and Thomas., L. 2009 Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling Biometrics 65:225-236  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2008b,
  author = {Fewster, R. M. and Buckland, S. T. and Burnham, K. P. and Borchers, D. L. and Jupp, P. E. and Laake, J. L. and Thomas., L.},
  title = {Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {225--236},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2008.01018.x}
}
Fewster, R.M. and Jupp, P.E. 2009 Inference on population size in binomial detectability models Biometrika 96(4):805-820  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fewster2009,
  author = {Fewster and R.M. and Jupp, P. E.},
  title = {Inference on population size in binomial detectability models},
  journal = {Biometrika},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {96},
  number = {4},
  pages = {805--820},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/asp051}
}
Finlayson, G.R., Diment, A.N., Mitrovski, P., Thompson, G.G. and Thompson, S.A. 2010 Estimating western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) density using distance sampling Australian Mammalogy 32:197-200  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Finlayson2010,
  author = {Finlayson and G.R. and Diment, A. N. and Mitrovski, P. and Thompson, G. G. and Thompson, S. A.},
  title = {Estimating western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis) density using distance sampling},
  journal = {Australian Mammalogy},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {197--200},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/AM09037}
}
Fiske, I. and Chandler, R. 2010 Package unmarked    
BibTeX:
@techreport{Fiske2010,
  author = {Fiske, Ian and Chandler, Richard},
  title = {Package unmarked},
  year = {2010}
}
Fiske, I.J. and Chandler, R.B. 2011 Unmarked: an R package for fitting hierarchical models of wildlife occurrence and abundance Journal of Statistical Software 43:1-23  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fiske2011,
  author = {Fiske, Ian J. and Chandler, Richard B.},
  title = {Unmarked: an R package for fitting hierarchical models of wildlife occurrence and abundance},
  journal = {Journal of Statistical Software},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {1--23},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v043.i10}
}
Fitzgerald, S.M. and Tanner, G.W. 1992 Avian community response to fire and mechanical shrub control in south Florida Journal of Range Management 45:396-400  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FitTan92,
  author = {Fitzgerald, S. M. and Tanner, G. W.},
  title = {Avian community response to fire and mechanical shrub control in south Florida},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {396--400},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/4003090}
}
Fleming, K., K. and Giuliano, W.M. 1998 Effect of border-edge cuts on birds at woodlot edges in southwestern Pennsylvania Journal of Wildlife Management 62:1430-1437  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FleGiu98,
  author = {Fleming and K., K. and Giuliano, W. M.},
  title = {Effect of border-edge cuts on birds at woodlot edges in southwestern Pennsylvania},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {1430--1437},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802009}
}
Fletcher, J.R. and Hutto, L.R. 2006 Estimating detection probabilities of river birds using double surveys The Auk 123:695-707  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FleHut06,
  author = {Fletcher, J. R. and Hutto, L. R.},
  title = {Estimating detection probabilities of river birds using double surveys},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {123},
  pages = {695--707},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/123.3.695}
}
Flesch, A.D., Murray, I.W., Gicklhorn, J.M. and Powell, B.F. 2019 Application of distance sampling for assessing abundance and habitat relationships of a rare Sonoran Desert cactus Plant Ecology 220(11):1029-1042  DOI  
Abstract: Accurate abundance estimates of plant populations are fundamental to numerous ecological questions and for conservation. Estimating population parameters for rare or cryptic plant species, however, can be challenging and thus developing and testing new methods is useful. We assessed the efficacy of distance sampling for estimating abundance and habitat associations of the endangered Pima pineapple cactus (Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispina), a rare plant in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern North America that has traditionally been surveyed with census-based methods. Distance sampling (DS) involves measuring distances between focal objects and samples of lines or points, and modeling detection functions that adjust estimates for variation in detection probability (P). Although often used in animal systems, DS remains largely untested for plants. We encountered 105 live individuals along 36.9 km of transects in 11 study plots placed across much of the geographic range of the species, and estimated an average density of 1.47 individuals/ha (CV,=,0.139). Compared to values from intensive censuses, density estimates from DS were underestimated by only 2.3% on average and highly correlated on the untransformed (r,=,0.84) and logarithmic (r,=,0.93) scales. Estimates of P averaged 0.49 and declined as soils became increasingly dominated by larger soil substrates, and somewhat with increasing vegetation volume and decreasing cactus height. Local densities increased with increasing slope and soil substrate size and decreased with increasing vegetation volume (P,≤,0.024). Combined with careful survey design, DS offers an efficient method for estimating population parameters for uncommon and cryptic plants.
BibTeX:
@article{flesch_application_2019,
  author = {Flesch, Aaron D. and Murray, Ian W. and Gicklhorn, Jeffrey M. and Powell, Brian F.},
  title = {Application of distance sampling for assessing abundance and habitat relationships of a rare Sonoran Desert cactus},
  journal = {Plant Ecology},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {220},
  number = {11},
  pages = {1029--1042},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-019-00972-7}
}
Flowers, H.J. and Hightower, J.E. 2013 A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling Marine and Coastal Fisheries 5(1):211-223  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Flowers2013,
  author = {Flowers, H. Jared and Hightower, Joseph E.},
  title = {A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling},
  journal = {Marine and Coastal Fisheries},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {5},
  number = {1},
  pages = {211--223},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/19425120.2013.816396}
}
Marques, F.F.C. 2001 Estimating wildlife distribution and abundance from line transect surveys conducted from platforms of opportunity School: University of St. Andrews   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{FMAR01,
  author = {Marques, F. F. C.},
  title = {Estimating wildlife distribution and abundance from line transect surveys conducted from platforms of opportunity},
  school = {University of St. Andrews},
  year = {2001}
}
Marques, F.F.C. and Buckland, S.T. 2003 Incorporating covariates into standard line transect analyses Biometrics 59:924-935  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FMARBUC03,
  author = {Marques, F. F. C. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Incorporating covariates into standard line transect analyses},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {924--935},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2003.00107.x}
}
Marques, F.F.C. and Buckland, S.T. 2004 Covariate models for the detection function Advanced Distance Sampling:31-47   
BibTeX:
@incollection{FMARBUC04,
  author = {Marques, F. F. C. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Covariate models for the detection function},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {31--47}
}
Focardi, S., De Marinis, A.M., Rizzotto, M. and Pucci, A. 2001 Comparative evaluation of thermal infrared imaging and spotlighting to survey wildlife Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1):133-139  URL 
Abstract: Spotlighting (SL) is used widely to estimate animal abundance, but it yields density estimates that are underestimated and biased. Introduction of distance sampling has, to a large extent, contributed to solving these problems, but the reliability of this statistical method depends strongly on sample size. Thermal infrared (TI) imaging may improve number of observations, but very few studies have quantified performance of TI imaging relative to SL. This comparison is relevant because the high cost of a TI device is justified only by a significant increase of observations and a consequent reduction of labor costs. Our objectives were to compare animal detectability by SL and TI imaging as a function of animal size, species (red deer [Cervus elaphus], fallow deer [Dama dama], wild boar [Sus scrofa], red fox [Vulpes vulpes], European rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus], and brown hare [Lepus europaeus]), distance, and season. We also analyzed group size and composition for red deer and effect of grass height on detection of hares and rabbits. On average, TI imaging was more efficient (P¡ 0.001) than SL, which detected only 53.8% of the animals observed by TI imaging. This was especially true for wild boar (92.1%), but both devices observed comparable red fox (P=0.60) and fallow deer (P=0.72) numbers. Relative detectability of the 2 devices was influenced by different factors: for red deer, TI was more efficient than SL in summer and autumn, but not in winter; male groups of red deer were better observed by TI imaging than by SL; and wild boars were better imaged at short (0-100-m) distances with TI. Relative effectiveness of both instruments was not influenced by grass height (P=0.92). Our results showed that wild boar should only be surveyed using TI imager and that a strong improvement of sample size can be obtained using TI for red deer, brown hare, and European rabbit.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2001,
  author = {Focardi, S. and De Marinis, A. M. and Rizzotto, M. and Pucci, A.},
  title = {Comparative evaluation of thermal infrared imaging and spotlighting to survey wildlife},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  number = {1},
  pages = {133--139},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3783989}
}
Focardi, S., Isotti, R., Raganella Pelliccioni, E. and Iannuzzo, D. 2002 The use of distance sampling and mark-resight to estimate the local density of wildlife populations Environmetrics 13(2):177-186  DOI  
Abstract: We used distance sampling (line transects) and mark-resight to estimate habitat and local area (area size, range: 3.9-44.5 ha) population density of ungulates. The distance sampling study was performed on fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) in a mediterranean forest. The mark-resight study was performed on a roe deer population in a hilly area of the Apennines. The first study allowed us to estimate the animal density into four different habitats (deciduous oak wood, evergreen oak wood, maquis and open areas with domestic-pine woods). The between habitat differences of population density are large for the three species: fallow deer are more abundant in the open areas (22.22 heads/km2, c.i. 12.42-39.74), roe deer in the deciduous oak wood (14.50 heads/km2, c.i. 7.01-30.10) and wild boar in both the open areas (11.29 heads/km2, c.i. 4.86-26.20) and evergreen oak wood (10.42 heads/km2, c.i. 6.78-16.02). The roe deer population in the Apennines is characterized by large between-zone variations of population density (range: 1997: 13.25-131.31, 1998: 29.06-78.01, 1999: 10.67-88.58). Moreover, trends of local zones may be quite different with respect to the average trend of a wider study area, suggesting a well-defined short-scale spatial structure for this population. We conclude that both survey methods may be very useful in population assessment, but they need intense field effort and careful statistical design. Care needs to be taken to satisfy the assumptions of the statistical models. Copyright textcopyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2002,
  author = {Focardi, S. and Isotti, R. and Raganella Pelliccioni, E. and Iannuzzo, D.},
  title = {The use of distance sampling and mark-resight to estimate the local density of wildlife populations},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {13},
  number = {2},
  pages = {177--186},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/env.491}
}
Focardi, S., Isotti, R. and Tinelli, A. 2002 Line transect estimates of ungulate populations in a Mediterranean forest The Journal of Wildlife Management 66(1):48-58  DOI  
Abstract: We used line transect (distance) methodology to estimate the population density of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in a dense Mediterranean forest. Three different surveys (1 per year from 1995 to 1997) were analyzed. Density estimates, pooled among years, for fallow deer (9.9 deer/km^2, %CV = 24) and roe deer (8.5 deer/km^2, %CV = 21) were more precise than the estimate for wild boars (10.6 boars/km^2, %CV = 55). Fallow deer density was significantly higher during 1997 than during 1995 or 1996. For wild boars, we found differences among years (1995: 23.6 boars/km^2, %CV = 23; 1996: 10.9 boars/km^2, %CV = 24; 1997: 3.9 boars/km^2, %CV = 33). We attempted a confirmatory analysis using an independent survey method for fallow deer and total counts at supplementary feeding sites for wild boars. These comparisons showed that line transect estimates were negatively biased for fallow deer during 1996-1997 and for wild boars during 1997. For adults, the composition by sex from line transects was compared with information collected from fixed observation points. Differences in sex composition for fallow deer and wild boars were found when these 2 methods were compared. The structure of the roe deer population was similar when line transect information was compared with independent survey data. A spike in the detection probability function for wild boars may have been caused by the difficulty of detecting boars ¿ 20 m from the transect. The careful use of line transect sampling may prove useful for both research and management of fallow deer, roe deer, and wild boars.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2002a,
  author = {Focardi, Stefano and Isotti, Roberto and Tinelli, Aleandro},
  title = {Line transect estimates of ungulate populations in a Mediterranean forest},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {66},
  number = {1},
  pages = {48--58},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802870}
}
Focardi, S., Montanaro, P., Isotti, R., Ronchi, F., Scacco, M. and Calmanti, R. 2005 Distance sampling effectively monitored a declining population of Italian roe deer Capreolus capreolus italicus ORYX 39(4):421-428  DOI  
Abstract: Monitoring rare species of wild ungulates is critical for their conservation management. The Italian roe deer Capreolus capreolus italicus was recently confirmed to be a subspecies in Mediterranean habitats of central and southern Italy. We have monitored this subspecies at Castelporziano, near Rome, since 1988, and detected an abrupt population decline in 2001. We compared distance sampling surveys undertaken before and after the population crash to determine the ability of this method to detect variations in animal density and to investigate which factors may influence the precision of the estimates. We used radio tagged roe deer to evaluate the accuracy of our surveys, comparing distance sampling and mark-resight estimates at the same site, and studying the behavioural reaction of the animals to the presence of an observer. We found that before the crash distance sampling surveys attained a good precision but that the survey conditions influenced both precision and accuracy. Post-crash surveys were less precise, but the difference in density, before and after the crash was highly significant, indicating the potential of the method to quickly detect density variations and so to allow wildlife managers to react without delay to a crisis. The direct test of distance sampling assumptions showed that estimates were almost unbiased. We conclude that the methodology was successful for monitoring this population and that it may be used in other situations where ungulates are rare and efficient monitoring must be attained with restricted budgets. textcopyright 2005 FFI.
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2005,
  author = {Focardi, S. and Montanaro, P. and Isotti, R. and Ronchi, F. and Scacco, M. and Calmanti, R.},
  title = {Distance sampling effectively monitored a declining population of Italian roe deer Capreolus capreolus italicus},
  journal = {ORYX},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39},
  number = {4},
  pages = {421--428},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605305001109}
}
Focardi, S., Franzetti, B. and Ronchi, F. 2013 Nocturnal distance sampling of a Mediterranean population of fallow deer is consistent with population projections Wildlife Research 40:437-446  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Focardi2013,
  author = {Focardi, Stefano and Franzetti, Barbara and Ronchi, Francesca},
  title = {Nocturnal distance sampling of a Mediterranean population of fallow deer is consistent with population projections},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {437--446},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR12218}
}
Fogarty, J.H. and Vilella, F.J. 2001 Evaluating methodologies to survey Eleutherodactylus Frogs in montane forests of Puerto Rico Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:948-955  URL 
Abstract: The evaluation of anuran call-count survey methods against more precise population estimation techniques for validation purposes is being researched only recently. Many investigators believe that call-survey methods should be calibrated to true population size to obtain reliable records, and this has not been done for call-survey methods in Neotropical regions. We compared anuran survey methodologies in the Cordillera Central of Puerto Rico. We evaluated using mark-recapture, transects, and point counts to survey Eleutherodactylus populations for information content, logistics, and effort in native cordillera forest and eucalyptus plantations. We used programs CAPTURE and DISTANCE to generate population estimates and associated variances. Mark-recapture results showed density of E. coqui males was greater (P=0.04) in native forest. Total population estimates derived from mark-recapture were used with calling estimates to calculate proportion of calling males. Humidity was associated with density of calling males in native forest (P¡ 0.001) and eucalyptus (P=0.01) plantations. Call counts of E. coqui within 5-m radius of points were correlated with density of calling males in native (P¡ 0.001) and eucalyptus (P=0.001) sites and for combined data (P¡ 0.001). We recommend that mark-recapture be used when detailed information is needed on an anuran species. Mean species richness detected between line transect (x=1.98) and point count (x=1.67) differed significantly; only one frog species was detected using mark-recapture. Point counts required the least effort but provided the least amount of useful information. Future research should develop predictive models linking call counts to density estimates and examine seasonal effects.
BibTeX:
@article{Fogarty2001,
  author = {Fogarty, Jarrod H. and Vilella, Francisco J.},
  title = {Evaluating methodologies to survey Eleutherodactylus Frogs in montane forests of Puerto Rico},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {948--955},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784422}
}
Folkard, N.F.G. and Smith, J.N.M. 1995 Evidence for bottom up effects in the boreal forest: do passerine birds respond to large scale experimental fertilization? Canadian Journal of Zoology 73:2231-2237  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FolSmi95,
  author = {Folkard, N. F. G. and Smith, J. N. M.},
  title = {Evidence for bottom up effects in the boreal forest: do passerine birds respond to large scale experimental fertilization?},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Zoology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {2231--2237},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/z95-264}
}
Fontaine, A.L., Kennedy, P.L. and Johnson, D.H. 2004 Effects of distance from cattle water developments on grassland birds Journal of Range Management 57(3):238-242  DOI  
Abstract: Many North American grassland bird populations appear to be declining, which may be due to changes in grazing regimes on their breeding areas. Establishment of water developments and confining cattle (Bos taurus L.) to small pastures often minimizes spatial heterogeneity of cattle forage consumption, which may lead to uniformity in vegetative structure. This increased uniformity may provide suitable habitat for some bird species but not others. We assessed how cattle use, vegetative structure, and bird population densities varied with increasing distance from water developments (0-800 m) on the Little Missouri National Grassland (LMNG) in North Dakota. Lark buntings (Calamospiza melancorys Stejneger), which are typically associated with low vegetative cover, decreased with increasing distance from water developments. Horned larks (Eremophila alpestris L.), also a low-cover associate, followed a similar but weaker trend. Densities of another low-cover associate as well as moderate- and high-cover associates were not related to distance from water. Vegetative height-density and litter depth increased by 50 and 112%, respectively, while cowpie cover and structural variability decreased by 51 and 24%, respectively, with distance from water. Confidence interval overlap was common among all measures, showing substantial variability among study sites. Our results indicate cattle use is higher closer to water developments, and this pattern may positively affect the densities of lark buntings and horned larks. The absence of density gradients in the other bird species may be due to the paucity of locations ¿ 800 m from water on the LMNG.
BibTeX:
@article{Fontaine2004,
  author = {Fontaine, A. L. and Kennedy, P. L. and Johnson, D. H.},
  title = {Effects of distance from cattle water developments on grassland birds},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {57},
  number = {3},
  pages = {238--242},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/4003790}
}
Fontaine, J.B., Donato, D.C., Robinson, W.D., Law, B.E. and Kauffman, J.B. 2009 Bird communities following high-severity fire: response to single and repeat fires in a mixed-evergreen forest, Oregon, USA Forest Ecology and Management 257(6):1496-1504  DOI  
Abstract: Fire is a widespread natural disturbance agent in most conifer-dominated forests. In light of climate change and the effects of fire exclusion, single and repeated high-severity (stand-replacement) fires have become prominent land management issues. We studied bird communities using point counting in the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion of Oregon, USA at various points in time after one or two high-severity fires. Time points included 2 and 3 years after a single fire, 17 and 18 years after a single fire, 2 and 3 years after a repeat fire (15 year interval between fires), and ¿ 100 years since stand-replacement fire (mature/old-growth forest). Avian species richness did not differ significantly among habitats. Bird density was highest 17 and 18 years after fire, lowest 2 years after fire, and intermediate in repeat burns and unburned forest. Bird community composition varied significantly with habitat type (AÂ =Â 0.24, PÂ ¡Â 0.0001) with two distinct gradients in species composition relating to tree structure (live to dead) and shrub stature. Using indicator species analysis, repeat burns were characterized by shrub-nesting and ground-foraging bird species while unburned mature forests were characterized by conifer-nesting and foliage-gleaning species. Bird density was not related to snag basal area but was positively related to shrub height. Contrary to expectations, repeated high-severity fire did not reduce species richness, and bird densities were greater in repeat burns than in once-burned habitats. Broad-leaved hardwoods and shrubs appear to play a major role in structuring avian communities in the Klamath-Siskiyou region. In light of these results, extended periods of early seral broadleaf dominance and short-interval high-severity fires may be important to the conservation of avian biodiversity.
BibTeX:
@article{Fontaine2009,
  author = {Fontaine, Joseph B. and Donato, Daniel C. and Robinson, W. Douglas and Law, Beverly E. and Kauffman, J. Boone},
  title = {Bird communities following high-severity fire: response to single and repeat fires in a mixed-evergreen forest, Oregon, USA},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {257},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1496--1504},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.12.030}
}
Foote, K.G. and Stefansson, G. 1993 Definition of the problem of estimating fish abundance over an area from acoustic line transect measurements of density ICES Journal of Marine Science 50:369-381  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FooSte93,
  author = {Foote, K. G. and Stefansson, G.},
  title = {Definition of the problem of estimating fish abundance over an area from acoustic line transect measurements of density},
  journal = {ICES Journal of Marine Science},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {369--381},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1993.1042}
}
Forney, K.A. and Barlow, J. 1998 Seasonal patterns in the abundance and distribution of California cetaceans, 1991-1992 Marine Mammal Science 14:460-489  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ForBar98,
  author = {Forney, K. A. and Barlow, J.},
  title = {Seasonal patterns in the abundance and distribution of California cetaceans, 1991-1992},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {460--489},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00737.x}
}
Forbes, A.R., Mueller, J.M., Mitchell, R.B., Dabbert, C.B. and Wester, D.B. 2000 Accuracy of red imported fire ant mound density estimates Southwestern Entomologist 25(2 SUPPL.):109-112   
Abstract: Accuracy of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, mound density estimates was evaluated during 1998 in the Texas Coastal Prairie. Mound densities were estimated using belt transects and distance sampling, the grasslands were burned, and the estimated mound densities compared to complete ant mound counts made on each of the five sites. Mound population density estimates did not differ among the three methods. Detection of S. invicta mounds decreased with distance from the line transect on three sites. Based on the detection function derived by Program DISTANCE for these sites, we recorded 89.9, 97.3, and 98.1% of S. invicta mounds within 1 m and 70.8, 89.9, and 92.7% of S. invicta mounds within 2 m of the line transects, respectively. The 2-m belt transects and distance sampling are accurate estimators of S. invicta mound densities in grassland habitats. Although distance sampling is more time consuming, it does not require the assumption that all mounds are observed. This benefit was not obvious in this study because of the similarity of our sites and the high detectability of mounds within the 2-m belt transects. Accuracy of belt transects would decrease if wider transects were used or if detectability of S. invicta mounds was lower, such as in denser vegetation. We recommend using belt transects or distance sampling to estimate S. invicta mound density in grassland habitats.
BibTeX:
@article{Forbes2000,
  author = {Forbes, A. R. and Mueller, J. M. and Mitchell, R. B. and Dabbert, C. B. and Wester, D. B.},
  title = {Accuracy of red imported fire ant mound density estimates},
  journal = {Southwestern Entomologist},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {25},
  number = {2 SUPPL.},
  pages = {109--112}
}
Forcada, J. 2002 Multivariate methods for size-dependent detection in conventional line transect sampling School: Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Forcada2002,
  author = {Forcada, J.},
  title = {Multivariate methods for size-dependent detection in conventional line transect sampling},
  school = {Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA},
  year = {2002}
}
Forcada, J., Gazo, M., Aguilar, A., Gonzalvo, J. and Fernández-Contreras, M. 2004 Bottlenose dolphin abundance in the NW Mediterranean: addressing heterogeneity in distribution Marine Ecology Progress Series 275:275-287  DOI  
Abstract: Line-transect estimators were developed to assess abundance of coastal dolphins Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba encountered in low densities during aerial sighting surveys. The analysis improved on conventional approaches by objectively combining data from different species, survey areas and other covariates affecting dolphin detectability. Model selection and multimodel inference allowed robust estimates of precision in accounting for covariate selection uncertainty. These methods were used to estimate bottlenose dolphin abundance in NE Mediterranean waters that included a putative subpopulation in the Balearic Islands. Total abundance was estimated as 7654 (coefficient of variation, CV = 0.47; 95 % CI = 1608 to 15 766) and the abundance in inshore waters of the Balearic Islands varied from 727 (CV = 0.47; 95 % CI = 149 to 1481) dolphins in spring 2002 to 1333 (CV = 0.44; 95 % CI = 419 to 2617) dolphins in autumn 2002, with an average estimate of 1030 (CV = 0.35; 95 % CI = 415 to 1849). The results do not support an exclusively coastal Balearic Island subpopulation, but they strongly indicate that the islands contain critical habitats required for the conservation of the species. Given the observed decline of the species during the last few decades, conservation-oriented management should focus on reducing or eliminating adverse fishing interactions while key areas are protected from encroachment produced by human development.
BibTeX:
@article{Foretal04,
  author = {Forcada, J. and Gazo, M. and Aguilar, A. and Gonzalvo, J. and Fernández-Contreras, M.},
  title = {Bottlenose dolphin abundance in the NW Mediterranean: addressing heterogeneity in distribution},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {275},
  pages = {275--287},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps275275}
}
Forcada, J., Disciara, G.N. and Fabbri, F. 1995 Abundance of fin whales and striped dolphins summering in the Corso-Ligurian basin Mammalia 59:127-140  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Foretal95,
  author = {Forcada, J. and Disciara, G. N. and Fabbri, F.},
  title = {Abundance of fin whales and striped dolphins summering in the Corso-Ligurian basin},
  journal = {Mammalia},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {127--140},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.1995.59.1.127}
}
Forcada, J. and Hammond, P. 1998 Geographical variation in abundance of striped and common dolphins of the western Mediterranean Journal of Sea Research 39:313-325  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ForHam98,
  author = {Forcada, J. and Hammond, P.},
  title = {Geographical variation in abundance of striped and common dolphins of the western Mediterranean},
  journal = {Journal of Sea Research},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {313--325},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S1385-1101(97)00063-4}
}
Fossette, S., Abrahms, B., Hazen, E.L., Bograd, S.J., Zilliacus, K.M., Calambokidis, J., Burrows, J.A., Goldbogen, J.A., Harvey, J.T., Marinovic, B., Tershy, B. and Croll, D.A. 2017 Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California current Ecology and Evolution 7(21):9085-9097  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fossette2017,
  author = {Fossette, Sabrina and Abrahms, Briana and Hazen, Elliott L. and Bograd, Steven J. and Zilliacus, Kelly M. and Calambokidis, John and Burrows, Julia A. and Goldbogen, Jeremy A. and Harvey, James T. and Marinovic, Baldo and Tershy, Bernie and Croll, Donald A.},
  title = {Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California current},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {7},
  number = {21},
  pages = {9085--9097},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3409}
}
Franzreb, K.E. 1976 Comparison of variable strip transect and spot-map methods for censusing avian populations in a mixed-coniferous forest Condor, The 78:260-262  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fra76,
  author = {Franzreb, K. E.},
  title = {Comparison of variable strip transect and spot-map methods for censusing avian populations in a mixed-coniferous forest},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {78},
  pages = {260--262},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1366864}
}
Franzreb, K.E. 1981 Determination of avian densities using the variable-strip and fixed-width transect surveying methods (6)Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds:139-145   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Fra81,
  author = {Franzreb, K. E.},
  title = {Determination of avian densities using the variable-strip and fixed-width transect surveying methods},
  booktitle = {Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds},
  publisher = {Cooper Ornithological Society},
  year = {1981},
  number = {6},
  pages = {139--145}
}
Franklin, A.B., Anderson, D.R. and Burnham, K.P. 2002 Estimation of long-term trends and variation in avian survival probabilities using random effects models Journal of Applied Statistics 29:267-287  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fraetal02,
  author = {Franklin, A. B. and Anderson, D. R. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {Estimation of long-term trends and variation in avian survival probabilities using random effects models},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Statistics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {267--287},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/02664760120108719}
}
Francksen, R.M., Whittingham, M.J., Ludwig, S.C., Roos, S. and Baines, D. 2017 Numerical and functional responses of common buzzards Buteo buteo to prey abundance on a Scottish grouse moor Ibis 159(3):541-553  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Francksen2017,
  author = {Francksen, Richard M. and Whittingham, Mark J. and Ludwig, Sonja C. and Roos, Staffan and Baines, David},
  title = {Numerical and functional responses of common buzzards Buteo buteo to prey abundance on a Scottish grouse moor},
  journal = {Ibis},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {159},
  number = {3},
  pages = {541--553},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12471}
}
Freed, L.A., Bodner, R.L. and Cann, G.R. 2008 Incipient extinction of a major population of the Hawaii akepa owing to introduced species Evolutionary Ecology Research 10(7):931-965   
BibTeX:
@article{Freed2008931,
  author = {Freed, L. A. and Bodner, R. L. and Cann, G. R.},
  title = {Incipient extinction of a major population of the Hawaii akepa owing to introduced species},
  journal = {Evolutionary Ecology Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {10},
  number = {7},
  pages = {931--965}
}
Freilich, J., Burnham, K.P., Collins, C.M. and Garry, C.A. 2000 Factors affecting population assessments of desert tortoises Conservation Biology 14:1479-1489  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Freetal00,
  author = {Freilich, J. and Burnham, K. P. and Collins, C. M. and Garry, C. A.},
  title = {Factors affecting population assessments of desert tortoises},
  journal = {Conservation Biology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {1479--1489},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.98360.x}
}
Freilich, J.E., Camp, R.J., Duda, J.J. and Karl, A.E. 2005 Problems with sampling desert tortoises: a simulation analysis based on field data Journal of Wildlife Management 69(1):45-56  DOI  
Abstract: The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) was listed as a U.S. threatened species in 1990 based largely on population declines inferred from mark-recapture surveys of 2.59-km2 (1-mi2) plots. Since then, several census methods have been proposed and tested, but all methods still pose logistical or statistical difficulties. We conducted computer simulations using actual tortoise location data from 2 1-mi2 plot surveys in southern California, USA, to identify strengths and weaknesses of current sampling strategies. We considered tortoise population estimates based on these plots as ``truth" and then tested various sampling methods based on sampling smaller plots or transect lines passing through the mile squares. Data were analyzed using Schnabel's mark-recapture estimate and program CAPTURE. Experimental subsampling with replacement of the 1-mi2 data using 1-km2 and 0.25-km2 plot boundaries produced data sets of smaller plot sizes, which we compared to estimates from the 1-mi 2 plots. We also tested distance sampling by saturating a 1-mi 2 site with computer simulated transect lines, once again evaluating bias in density estimates. Subsampling estimates from 1-km2 plots did not differ significantly from the estimates derived at 1-mi2. The 0.25-km2 subsamples significantly overestimated population sizes, chiefly because too few recaptures were made. Distance sampling simulations were biased 80% of the time and had high coefficient of variation to density ratios. Furthermore, a prospective power analysis suggested limited ability to detect population declines as high as 50%. We concluded that poor performance and bias of both sampling procedures was driven by insufficient sample size, suggesting that all efforts must be directed to increasing numbers found in order to produce reliable results. Our results suggest that present methods may not be capable of accurately estimating desert tortoise populations.
BibTeX:
@article{Freilich2005,
  author = {Freilich, J. E. and Camp, R. J. and Duda, J. J. and Karl, A. E.},
  title = {Problems with sampling desert tortoises: a simulation analysis based on field data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {69},
  number = {1},
  pages = {45--56},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/0022-541X(2005)069%3C0045:PWSDTA%3E2.0.CO;2}
}
Fuller, R.J. and Langslow, D.R. 1984 Estimating numbers of birds by point counts: how long should counts last? Bird Study 31:195-202  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{FulLan84,
  author = {Fuller, R. J. and Langslow, D. R.},
  title = {Estimating numbers of birds by point counts: how long should counts last?},
  journal = {Bird Study},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {195--202},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/00063658409476841}
}
Fulling, G.L., Thorson, P.H. and Rivers, J. 2011 Distribution and abundance estimates for cetaceans in the waters off Guam and the commonwealth of the northern Mariana islands Pacific Science 65:321-343  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Fullinginpress,
  author = {Fulling, G. L. and Thorson, P. H. and Rivers, J.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance estimates for cetaceans in the waters off Guam and the commonwealth of the northern Mariana islands},
  journal = {Pacific Science},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {321--343},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2984/65.3.321}
}
Funk, W.C., Almeida-Reinoso, D., Nogales-Sornosa, F. and Bustamante, M.R. 2003 Monitoring population trends of Eleutherodactylus frogs Journal of Herpetology 37(2):245-256  DOI  
Abstract: Like many Neotropical frogs, a number in the genus Eleutherodactylus have declined or gone extinct in the past two decades. However, the extent of Eleutherodactylus population declines is unknown. Our objective was to identify a good method for monitoring the density of Eleutherodactylus populations to assess the extent of declines. We did this in two ways. First, we compared two methods of directly estimating density, closed population capture-recapture analysis and distance sampling, and one method of indirectly estimating density, visual encounter surveys, for multiple Eleutherodactylus species at three sites in Ecuador. We then conducted a power analysis to estimate the power of our current sampling design to detect declines. Distance sampling estimates of density were biased low compared to capture-recapture estimates. When we corrected this bias, distance sampling estimates became imprecise. Estimates of density from visual encounter surveys were also imprecise. In contrast, capture-recapture estimates were fairly precise and most likely unbiased. Moreover, capture-recapture analysis had the most power to detect declines, although even with capture-recapture analysis, power was low with only five years of sampling. We conclude that capture-recapture analysis is a good method for monitoring Eleutherodactylus density over time, but the sampling area and/or the number of sampling occasions should be increased from the area and number of occasions used here in order to increase sample sizes and therefore power.
BibTeX:
@article{Funk2003,
  author = {Funk, W. C. and Almeida-Reinoso, D. and Nogales-Sornosa, F. and Bustamante, M. R.},
  title = {Monitoring population trends of Eleutherodactylus frogs},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {37},
  number = {2},
  pages = {245--256},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1670/0022-1511(2003)037%5B0245:MPTOEF%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Gabelli, F.M., Fernández, G.J., Ferretti, V., Posse, G., Coconier, E., Gavieiro, H.J., Llambías, P.E., Peláez, P.I., Vallés, M.L. and Tubaro, P.L. 2004 Range contraction in the pampas meadowlark Sturnella defilippii in the southern pampas grasslands of argentina ORYX 38(2):164-170  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gabelli2004,
  author = {Gabelli, F. M. and Fernández, G. J. and Ferretti, V. and Posse, G. and Coconier, E. and Gavieiro, H. J. and Llambías, P. E. and Peláez, P. I. and Vallés, M. L. and Tubaro, P. L.},
  title = {Range contraction in the pampas meadowlark Sturnella defilippii in the southern pampas grasslands of argentina},
  journal = {ORYX},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {38},
  number = {2},
  pages = {164--170},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605304000304}
}
Gadimang, P. and Masunga, G.S. 2017 Ground survey of red lechwe in the linyanti swamps and chobe floodplains, northern Botswana Koedoe 59:a1413  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gadimang2017,
  author = {Gadimang, P. and Masunga, G. S.},
  title = {Ground survey of red lechwe in the linyanti swamps and chobe floodplains, northern Botswana},
  journal = {Koedoe},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {a1413},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i2.1413}
}
Gaillard, J.M., Boutin, J.-M. and Van Laere, G. 1993 The use of line transects for estimating the population density of roe deer — a feasibility study Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie 48:73-85   
BibTeX:
@article{Gaietal93,
  author = {Gaillard, J. M. and Boutin, J.-M. and Van Laere, G.},
  title = {The use of line transects for estimating the population density of roe deer — a feasibility study},
  journal = {Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {73--85}
}
Gale, G.A. and Thongaree, S. 2006 Density estimates of nine hornbill species in a lowland forest site in southern Thailand Bird Conservation International 16(1):57-69  DOI  
Abstract: Hornbills are useful indicators of forest condition and human disturbance because they require large tracts of unfragmented forest with large fruiting trees for feeding and nesting. They are relatively large-bodied, which makes them targets for hunting. Density estimates of such species are critical for population monitoring and serve as a baseline against which future changes can be measured. In this study we used variable-width line transect surveys to estimate the densities of nine hornbill species in the Bala portion of the Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary on the Thai-Malaysia border, one of the few remaining areas of lowland forest in Thailand. The hornbill species were: Rhinoceros (Buceros rhinoceros), Great (B. bicornis), Helmeted (B. vigil), Black (Anthracoceros malayanus), Bushy-crested (Anorrhinus galeritus), White-crowned (Aceros comatus), Wrinkled (A. corrugatus), Wreathed (A. undulatus) and Plain-pouched (A. subruficollis). Between January 2001 and April 2002, 11 transects along trails, old logging roads and one paved road were surveyed once per month. A total of 1,261 observations of the nine species were made during the observation period. Estimates for Rhinoceros and Helmeted Hornbill were 2.69 and 1.21 individuals/ km2, respectively, and were similar or slightly higher than densities reported elsewhere. Estimates for Great (0.12), Bushy-crested (0.64), Wrinkled (0.08), White-crowned (0.08) and Wreathed Hornbills (0.69) were generally lower than estimates from other areas in the region. It was not possible to obtain density estimates using distance sampling for Black and Plain-pouched Hornbills due to the small number of observations, but our data did suggest that their densities were also low (¿ 0.10 individuals/km2). Potential reasons for differences between this and other areas include a scarcity of lowland habitat, habitat isolation, lower abundance of specific fruit resources and interspecific competition, but these factors require further investigation. Standardization of survey techniques among studies would significantly improve assessments of habitat requirements as well as of the effects of human disturbance on Asian hornbills, most of which are globally threatened. Our study specifically underscores the need for additional research on the Plain-pouched Hornbill, the most threatened of the species studied, as density estimates from elsewhere in its range are lacking, while more generally it highlights the need to investigate the underlying causes of the often substantial variation in hornbill densities among species and sites. textcopyright BirdLife International 2006.
BibTeX:
@article{Gale2006,
  author = {Gale, G. A. and Thongaree, S.},
  title = {Density estimates of nine hornbill species in a lowland forest site in southern Thailand},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {16},
  number = {1},
  pages = {57--69},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270906000037}
}
Gale, G.A., Round, P.D. and Pierce, A.J. 2009 A field test of distance sampling methods for a tropical forest bird community The Auk 126:439-448  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gale2009,
  author = {Gale, George A. and Round, Philip D. and Pierce, Andrew J.},
  title = {A field test of distance sampling methods for a tropical forest bird community},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {126},
  pages = {439--448},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2009.08087}
}
Galela, R.S. and Roscom, B.A. 2004 Distance sampling simulated for density estimation 9th National Convention on Statistics (Ncs)   
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Galela2004,
  author = {Galela, Rebecca S. and Roscom, Brigida A.},
  title = {Distance sampling simulated for density estimation},
  booktitle = {9th National Convention on Statistics (Ncs)},
  year = {2004}
}
Galindo, J.A., Serrano, A., Vázquez-Castán, L., González-Gándara, C. and López-Ortega, M. 2009 Cetacean diversity, distribution, and abundance in Northern Veracruz, Mexico Aquatic Mammals 35:12-18  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Galindo2009,
  author = {Galindo, José A. and Serrano, Arturo and Vázquez-Castán, Laura and González-Gándara, Carlos and López-Ortega, Marisela},
  title = {Cetacean diversity, distribution, and abundance in Northern Veracruz, Mexico},
  journal = {Aquatic Mammals},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {12--18},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.35.1.2009.12}
}
Gannier, A. 1997 Estimation of summer abundance of the fin whale BalaenopteraPhysaluss (Linne, 1758) in the Liguro-Provencal Basin (West Mediterranean) Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie 52:69-86   
BibTeX:
@article{Gan97,
  author = {Gannier, A.},
  title = {Estimation of summer abundance of the fin whale BalaenopteraPhysaluss (Linne, 1758) in the Liguro-Provencal Basin (West Mediterranean)},
  journal = {Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {69--86}
}
Gannier, A. 1998 Estimation of summer abundance of the striped dolphin StenellaCoeruleoalbaa (Meyen, 1833) in the future northwestern Mediterranean international marine sanctuary Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie 53:255-272   
BibTeX:
@article{Gan98,
  author = {Gannier, A.},
  title = {Estimation of summer abundance of the striped dolphin StenellaCoeruleoalbaa (Meyen, 1833) in the future northwestern Mediterranean international marine sanctuary},
  journal = {Revue d'Ecologie — la Terre et la Vie},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {255--272}
}
Gangadharan, A. 2005 Density estimation and time trend analysis of large herbivores in Nagarhole, India School: Mathematics and Statistics, St. Andrews University   
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Gangadharan2005,
  author = {Gangadharan, A.},
  title = {Density estimation and time trend analysis of large herbivores in Nagarhole, India},
  school = {Mathematics and Statistics, St. Andrews University},
  year = {2005}
}
Gannier, A. 2011 Using existing data and focused surveys to highlight Cuvier's beaked whales favourable areas: a case study in the central tyrrhenian sea Marine Pollution Bulletin 63(1-4):10-17  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gannier2011,
  author = {Gannier, Alexandre},
  title = {Using existing data and focused surveys to highlight Cuvier's beaked whales favourable areas: a case study in the central tyrrhenian sea},
  journal = {Marine Pollution Bulletin},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {63},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {10--17},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.03.037}
}
Gardner, C.J., Fanning, E., Thomas, H. and Kidney, D. 2009 The lemur diversity of the Fiherenana - Manombo complex, southwest Madagascar Madagascar Conservation & Development 4:38-43  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gardner2009,
  author = {Gardner, Charlie J. and Fanning, Eibleis and Thomas, Hannah and Kidney, Darren},
  title = {The lemur diversity of the Fiherenana - Manombo complex, southwest Madagascar},
  journal = {Madagascar Conservation & Development},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {38--43},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4314/mcd.v4i1.44011}
}
Garrett-Logan, N. and Smith, T. 1997 A hand-held pen-based computer system for marine mammal sighting surveys Marine Mammal Science 13:694-700  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GarSmi97,
  author = {Garrett-Logan, N. and Smith, T.},
  title = {A hand-held pen-based computer system for marine mammal sighting surveys},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {694--700},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1997.tb00092.x}
}
Gaston A. J., B.L.C. and Diamond, A.W. 1987 The `snapshot' count for estimating densities of flying seabirds during boat transects: a cautionary comment The Auk 104:336-8  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gasetal87,
  author = {Gaston, A. J., B. L. Collins and Diamond, A. W.},
  title = {The `snapshot' count for estimating densities of flying seabirds during boat transects: a cautionary comment},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {104},
  pages = {336--8},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/104.2.336}
}
Gasner, M.R., Jankowski, J.E., Ciecka, A.L., Kyle, K.O. and Rabenold, K.N. 2010 Projecting the local impacts of climate change on a Central American montane avian community Biological Conservation 143(5):1250-1258  DOI  
Abstract: Significant changes in the climates of Central America are expected over the next century. Lowland rainforests harbor high alpha diversity on local scales (¡ 1 km2), yet montane landscapes often support higher beta diversity on 10-100 km2 scales. Climate change will likely disrupt the altitudinal zonation of montane communities that produces such landscape diversity. Projections of biotic response to climate change have often used broad-scale modelling of geographical ranges, but understanding likely impacts on population viability is also necessary for anticipating local and global extinctions. We model species' abundances and estimate range shifts for birds in the Tilará n Mountains of Costa Rica, asking whether projected changes in temperature and rainfall could be sufficient to imperil high-elevation endemics and whether these variables will likely impact communities similarly. We find that nearly half of 77 forest bird species can be expected to decline in the next century. Almost half of species projected to decline are endemic to Central America, and seven of eight species projected to become locally extinct are endemic to the highlands of Costa Rica and PanamÃtextexclamdown. Logistic-regression modelling of distributions and similarity in projections produced by temperature and rainfall models suggest that changes in both variables will be important. Although these projections are probably conservative because they do not explicitly incorporate biological or climate variable interactions, they provide a starting point for incorporating more realistic biological complexity into community-change models. Prudent conservation planning for tropical mountains should focus on regions with room for altitudinal reorganization of communities comprised of ecological specialists.
BibTeX:
@article{Gasner2010,
  author = {Gasner, Matthew R. and Jankowski, Jill E. and Ciecka, Anna L. and Kyle, Keiller O. and Rabenold, Kerry N.},
  title = {Projecting the local impacts of climate change on a Central American montane avian community},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {143},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1250--1258},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.02.034}
}
Gates, C.E. 1969 Simulation study of estimators for the line transect sampling method Biometrics 25:317-328  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gat69,
  author = {Gates, C. E.},
  title = {Simulation study of estimators for the line transect sampling method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1969},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {317--328},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2528792}
}
Gates, C.E. 1979 Line transect and related issues Sampling Biological Populations:71-154   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Gat79,
  author = {Gates, C. E.},
  title = {Line transect and related issues},
  booktitle = {Sampling Biological Populations},
  publisher = {International Co-operative Publishing House},
  year = {1979},
  pages = {71--154}
}
Gates, C.E. 1980 LINETRAN, a general computer program for analyzing line transect data Journal of Wildlife Management 44:658-661  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gat80,
  author = {Gates, C. E.},
  title = {LINETRAN, a general computer program for analyzing line transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {658--661},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3808012}
}
Gates, C.E., Marshall, W.H. and Olson, D.P. 1968 Line transect method of estimating grouse population densities Biometrics 24:135-145  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gatetal68,
  author = {Gates, C. E. and Marshall, W. H. and Olson, D. P.},
  title = {Line transect method of estimating grouse population densities},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {135--145},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2528465}
}
Gates, C.E., Evans, W., Gober, D.R., Guthery, F.S. and Grant, W.E. 1985 Line transect estimation of animal densities from large data sets Game Harvest Management:37-50   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Gatetal85,
  author = {Gates, C. E. and Evans, W. and Gober, D. R. and Guthery, F. S. and Grant, W. E.},
  title = {Line transect estimation of animal densities from large data sets},
  booktitle = {Game Harvest Management},
  publisher = {Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&I University},
  year = {1985},
  pages = {37--50}
}
Gates, C.E. and Smith, P.W. 1980 An implementation of the Burnham-Anderson distribution free method of estimating wildlife densities from line transect data Biometrics 36:155-160  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GatSmi80,
  author = {Gates, C. E. and Smith, P. W.},
  title = {An implementation of the Burnham-Anderson distribution free method of estimating wildlife densities from line transect data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {155--160},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530506}
}
Geimsdell, J.J.R. and Westley, S.B.(e. 1979 Low-level aerial survey techniques    
BibTeX:
@book{GeiWes79,
  author = {Geimsdell, J. J. R. and Westley, S. B. (eds)},
  title = {Low-level aerial survey techniques},
  publisher = {International Livestock Centre for Africa},
  year = {1979}
}
Gelatt, T.S. and Siniff, D.B. 1999 Line transect survey of crabeater seals in the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas, 1994 Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:330-336  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{GelSin99,
  author = {Gelatt, T. S. and Siniff, D. B.},
  title = {Line transect survey of crabeater seals in the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas, 1994},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {330--336},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3783898}
}
Gerard, P.D. and Schucany, W.R. 2002 Combining population density estimates in line transect sampling using the kernel method Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 7(2):233-242  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gerard2002,
  author = {Gerard, P. D. and Schucany, W. R.},
  title = {Combining population density estimates in line transect sampling using the kernel method},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {7},
  number = {2},
  pages = {233--242},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1198/10857110260141265}
}
Gerdel, K. 2008 Leopard (Panthera pardus) prey prediction using line transect sampling in the western soutpansberg mountain range, limpopo province, south africa School: University of Tübingen   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Gerdel2008,
  author = {Gerdel, Katharina},
  title = {Leopard (Panthera pardus) prey prediction using line transect sampling in the western soutpansberg mountain range, limpopo province, south africa},
  school = {University of Tübingen},
  year = {2008}
}
Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J. 2005 Non-recovery of two spotted and spinner dolphin populations in the eastern tropical pacific ocean Marine Ecology Progress Series 291:1-21  DOI  
Abstract: Populations of northeastern offshore spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata attenuata and eastern spinner dolphins S. longirostris orientalis have been reduced because the dolphins are bycatch in the purse-seine fishery for yellowfin tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (the 'tuna-dolphin issue'). Abundance and trends of these dolphin stocks were assessed from 12 large-scale pelagic surveys carried out between 1979 and 2000. Estimates of abundance were based on a multivariate line-transect analysis, using covariates to model the detection process and group size. Current estimates of abundance are about 640 000 northeastern offshore spotted dolphins (CV = 0.17) and 450 000 eastern spinner dolphins (CV = 0.23). For the whole period from 1979 to 2000, annual estimates of abundance ranged from 494 000 to 954 000 for northeastern offshore spotted dolphins and from 271 000 to 734 000 for eastern spinner dolphins. Management actions by USA and international fishing agencies over 3 decades have successfully reduced dolphin bycatch by 2 orders of magnitude, yet neither stock is showing clear signs of recovery. Possible reasons include underreporting of dolphin bycatch, effects of chase and encirclement on dolphin survival and reproduction, long-term changes in the ecosystem, and effects of other species on spotted and spinner dolphin population dynamics. textcopyright Inter-Research 2005.
BibTeX:
@article{GerFor05,
  author = {Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J.},
  title = {Non-recovery of two spotted and spinner dolphin populations in the eastern tropical pacific ocean},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {291},
  pages = {1--21},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps291001}
}
Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J. 2002 Estimates of abundance of western/southern spotted, whitebelly spinner, striped and common dolphins, and pilot, sperm and bryde's whales in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean School: Southwest Fisheries Science Center   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gerrodette2002,
  author = {Gerrodette, T. and Forcada, J.},
  title = {Estimates of abundance of western/southern spotted, whitebelly spinner, striped and common dolphins, and pilot, sperm and bryde's whales in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean},
  school = {Southwest Fisheries Science Center},
  year = {2002}
}
Gerrodette, T., Watters, G., Perryman, W. and Ballance, L.T. 2008 Estimates of 2006 dolphin abundance in the eastern tropical Pacific, with revised estimates from 1986– 2003 School: U.S. Department of Commerce, Southwest Fisheries Science Center NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-422   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gerrodette2008,
  author = {Gerrodette, T. and Watters, G. and Perryman, W. and Ballance, L. T.},
  title = {Estimates of 2006 dolphin abundance in the eastern tropical Pacific, with revised estimates from 1986– 2003},
  school = {U.S. Department of Commerce, Southwest Fisheries Science Center NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-422},
  year = {2008}
}
Gerrodette, T., Taylor, B.L., Swift, R., Rankin, S., Jaramillo-Legorreta, A.M. and Rojas-Bracho, L. 2011 A combined visual and acoustic estimate of 2008 abundance, and change in abundance since 1997, for the vaquita, Phocoena sinus Marine Mammal Science 27:E79-E100  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gerrodette2011,
  author = {Gerrodette, Tim and Taylor, Barbara L. and Swift, René and Rankin, Shannon and Jaramillo-Legorreta, Armando M. and Rojas-Bracho, Lorenzo},
  title = {A combined visual and acoustic estimate of 2008 abundance, and change in abundance since 1997, for the vaquita, Phocoena sinus},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {E79--E100},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00438.x}
}
Gerrodette, T. and Eguchi, T. 2011 Precautionary design of a marine protected area based on a habitat model Endangered Species Research 15(2):159-166  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gerrodette2011159,
  author = {Gerrodette, T. and Eguchi, T.},
  title = {Precautionary design of a marine protected area based on a habitat model},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {15},
  number = {2},
  pages = {159--166},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00369}
}
Gerard, P.D. and Schucany, W.R. 1999 Local bandwidth selection for kernel estimation of population densities with line transect sampling Biometrics 55:769-773  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GerSch99,
  author = {Gerard, P. D. and Schucany, W. R.},
  title = {Local bandwidth selection for kernel estimation of population densities with line transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {769--773},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.1999.00769.x}
}
Ghoddousi, A., Soofi, M., Hamidi, A.K., Ashayeri, S., Egli, L., Ghoddousi, S., Speicher, J., Khorozyan, I., Kiabi, B.H. and Waltert, M. 2017 The decline of ungulate populations in Iranian protected areas calls for urgent action against poaching Oryx 53(1):151-158  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ghoddousi2017,
  author = {Ghoddousi, Arash and Soofi, Mahmood and Hamidi, Amirhossein Kh. and Ashayeri, Sheyda and Egli, Lukas and Ghoddousi, Siavash and Speicher, Julian and Khorozyan, Igor and Kiabi, Bahram H. and Waltert, Matthias},
  title = {The decline of ungulate populations in Iranian protected areas calls for urgent action against poaching},
  journal = {Oryx},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {53},
  number = {1},
  pages = {151--158},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S003060531600154X}
}
Gilbert, M., Buuveibaatar, B., Fine, A.E., Jambal, L. and Strindberg, S. 2016 Declining breeding populations of white-naped cranes in eastern Mongolia, a ten-year update Bird Conservation International 26(4):490-504  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gilbert2016,
  author = {Gilbert, Martin and Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar and Fine, Amanda E. and Jambal, Losolmaa and Strindberg, Samantha},
  title = {Declining breeding populations of white-naped cranes in eastern Mongolia, a ten-year update},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {26},
  number = {4},
  pages = {490--504},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270915000301}
}
Gilbert, D.W., Anderson, D.R., Ringelman, J.K. and Szymczak, M.R. 1996 Response of nesting ducks to habitat management on the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado Wildlife Monographs 131:1-44   
BibTeX:
@article{Giletal96,
  author = {Gilbert, D. W. and Anderson, D. R. and Ringelman, J. K. and Szymczak, M. R.},
  title = {Response of nesting ducks to habitat management on the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {131},
  pages = {1--44}
}
Gill, R.M.A., Thomas, M.L. and Stocker, D. 1997 The use of portable thermal imaging for estimating deer population density in forest habitats Journal of Applied Ecology 34(5):1273-1286  DOI  
Abstract: 1. The reliability of deer population management could be improved with good density estimates, but current methods are either labour-intensive or suffer from uncertainties regarding accuracy. 2. Visibility varies substantially in forests depending on stand type, age and understorey vegetation. In such conditions distance sampling would be an efficient estimation method, but observer disturbance often results in bias when the method is applied to deer. 3. The performance of thermal imaging for estimating deer density by distance sampling was assessed in seven forest deer populations. Thermal imaging equipment can detect the long-wave energy radiated by natural objects, clearly revealing warm-bodied animals even if partly obscured by vegetation. 4. Many more deer were detected at night using a thermal imager than along the same transect routes in daytime. Detection distances were correlated with visibility but were substantially longer than the average distances at which most animals were disturbed. Most deer were detected without causing prior disturbance. 5. Densities were estimated with a coefficient of variation ranging from 10.2-28.4%. Precision depended on sampling effort and sample sizes obtained. 6. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed a quadratic relationship between accuracy and visibility, with accuracy increasing with average visibility and a tendency for deer to select more open habitats within a forest. Under conditions that are likely to be typical of temperate forests (¡ 40% thicket and neutral selection, or ¡ 70% thicket if thicket is avoided), accuracy was generally good and changed relatively little in relation to visibility and habitat selection. 7. Likely sources of bias as well as alternatives to thermal imaging are discussed. It is concluded that the method would be suitable for estimating ungulate densities in forests with an adequate network of tracks.
BibTeX:
@article{Gill1997,
  author = {Gill, R. M. A. and Thomas, M. L. and Stocker, D.},
  title = {The use of portable thermal imaging for estimating deer population density in forest habitats},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {34},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1273--1286},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2405237}
}
Gilles, A., Scheidat, M. and Siebert, U. 2009 Seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and possible interference of offshore wind farms in the German North Sea Marine Ecology Progress Series 383:295-307  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gilles2009,
  author = {Gilles, Anita and Scheidat, Meike and Siebert, Ursula},
  title = {Seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and possible interference of offshore wind farms in the German North Sea},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {383},
  pages = {295--307},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08020}
}
Gilles, A., Adler, S., Kaschner, K., Scheidat, M. and Siebert, U. 2011 Modelling harbour porpoise seasonal density as a function of the german bight environment: implications for management Endangered Species Research 14:157-169  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gilles2011,
  author = {Gilles, A. and Adler, S. and Kaschner, K. and Scheidat, M. and Siebert, U.},
  title = {Modelling harbour porpoise seasonal density as a function of the german bight environment: implications for management},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {157--169},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00344}
}
Gillings, S., Fuller, R.J. and Henderson, A.C.B. 1998 Avian community composition and patterns of bird distribution within birch-heath mosaics in north-east Scotland Ornis Fennica 75(1):27-37   
Abstract: Territory mapping and transect counts were made in upland birch scrub (46 ha) in north-east Scotland to document the bird community and assess responses of birds to habitat variation. The bird community was species poor, supporting approximately 20 species. Richness and diversity were low compared with other British scrub habitats. The two dominant species were Willow Warbler (52% of territory mapping registra-tions) and Chaffinch (18% of registrations). Densities derived from territory mapping and transect counts (Distance sampling) were similar. Willow Warbler densities were high and comparable with preferred habitats in lowland England and Fennoscandia. Contour mapping, correlation and canonical correspondence analysis demonstrated that successional stage, represented by birch cover, was the single most important factor determining community composition and individual species' distributions. Meadow Pipits persisted at low densities in sparse birch; Tree Pipits occurred through-out the range of birch densities. Willow Warblers preferred areas of medium height birch at intermediate canopy cover. Wren, Great Tit and Long-tailed Tit occurred in older birch scrub. The relatively simple bird-habitat relationships reported are con-trasted with more complex patterns elsewhere. These findings are discussed in the context of scrub and woodland regeneration in upland Britain with particular reference to mosaics and maintenance of avian diversity.
BibTeX:
@article{Gillings1998,
  author = {Gillings, S. and Fuller, R. J. and Henderson, A. C. B.},
  title = {Avian community composition and patterns of bird distribution within birch-heath mosaics in north-east Scotland},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {75},
  number = {1},
  pages = {27--37}
}
Gil-Sánchez, J.M., Herrera-Sánchez, F.J., Álvarez, B., Arredondo, Á., Bautista, J., Cancio, I., Castillo, S., D\iaz-Portero, M.Á., de Lucas, J., McCain, E., Pérez, J., Rodr\iguez-Siles, J., Sáez, J.M., Mart\inez-Valderrama, J., Valenzuela, G., Qninba, A. and Virgós, E. 2016 Evaluating methods for surveying the Endangered Cuvier's gazelle Gazella cuvieri in arid landscapes Oryx 51(4):648-655  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gil-Sanchez2016,
  author = {Gil-Sánchez, Jose Mar\ia and Herrera-Sánchez, F. Javier and Álvarez, Begoña and Arredondo, Ángel and Bautista, Jesús and Cancio, Inmaculada and Castillo, Salvador and D\iaz-Portero, Miguel Ángel and de Lucas, Jesús and McCain, Emil and Pérez, Joaqu\in and Rodr\iguez-Siles, Javier and Sáez, Juan Manuel and Mart\inez-Valderrama, Jaime and Valenzuela, Gerardo and Qninba, Abdeljebbar and Virgós, Emilio},
  title = {Evaluating methods for surveying the Endangered Cuvier's gazelle Gazella cuvieri in arid landscapes},
  journal = {Oryx},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {51},
  number = {4},
  pages = {648--655},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/s0030605316000430}
}
Giunchi, D., Gaggini, V. and Baldaccini, N. 2007 Distance sampling as an effective method for monitoring feral pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) urban populations Urban Ecosystems 10:397-412  DOI  
Abstract: Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;Current methods for estimating feral pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) population size and for monitoring population trends are mainly based on indices, which according to the current literature on wildlife census methods often produce biased results. Distance Sampling techniques have never been used in this context, even though they could theoretically produce absolute abundance estimates at relatively low costs. The aim of this paper was to investigate the performance of Distance Sampling to census feral pigeons, and to compare these results with those obtained by using Quadrate Counts, a widespread method for monitoring these birds. Surveys were performed in Pisa (Italy) in two different periods of the year 2004 (end of January†``beginning of February, and November), which correspond to minimum (January†``February) and maximum (November) numbers for pigeon populations. We considered 40 line transects each about 250&nbsp;m long for Distance Sampling, and 40 250 ï{\frac{1}{2}}  250&nbsp;m cells for Quadrate Counts. In both cases, sampling units were randomized in a stratified design. In contrast to Quadrate Counts, Distance Sampling detected the predicted increase of abundance from January†``February to November with an acceptable precision and no increase of costs per survey. Even though the possible biases (due to the not rigorously random distribution of transects and to the spiked nature of collected distance data) should be further investigated, results suggest that Distance Sampling is a viable and efficient alternative to the traditional methods used to estimate feral pigeons population size and to monitor trends.
BibTeX:
@article{Giunchi2007,
  author = {Giunchi, Dimitri and Gaggini, Valentina and Baldaccini, N.},
  title = {Distance sampling as an effective method for monitoring feral pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) urban populations},
  journal = {Urban Ecosystems},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {397--412},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-007-0032-9}
}
Gladilina, E.V., Vishnyakova, K.A., Neprokin, O.O., Ivanchikova, Y.F., Derkacheva, T.A., Kryukova, A.A., Savenko, O.V. and Gol'din, P.E. 2017 Linear transect surveys of abundance and density of cetaceans in the area near the Dzharylgach Island in the north-western Black Sea Vestnik Zoologii 51(4):335-342  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gladilina2017,
  author = {E. V. Gladilina and K. A. Vishnyakova and O. O. Neprokin and Yu. F. Ivanchikova and T. A. Derkacheva and A. A. Kryukova and O. V. Savenko and P. E. Gol'din},
  title = {Linear transect surveys of abundance and density of cetaceans in the area near the Dzharylgach Island in the north-western Black Sea},
  journal = {Vestnik Zoologii},
  publisher = {Walter de Gruyter GmbH},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {51},
  number = {4},
  pages = {335--342},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/vzoo-2017-0038}
}
Glass, R., Forsyth, D.M., Coulson, G. and Festa-Bianchet, M. 2016 Precision, accuracy and bias of walked line-transect distance sampling to estimate eastern grey kangaroo population size Wildlife Research 42:633-641  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Glass2016,
  author = {Glass, Ruth and Forsyth, David M. and Coulson, Graeme and Festa-Bianchet, Marco},
  title = {Precision, accuracy and bias of walked line-transect distance sampling to estimate eastern grey kangaroo population size},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {633--641},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR15029}
}
Glennie, R., Buckland, S.T., Langrock, R., Gerrodette, T., Ballance, L.T., Chivers, S.J. and Scott, M.D. 2020 Incorporating animal movement into distance sampling Journal of the American Statistical Association 0(0):1-9  DOI  
Abstract: Distance sampling is a popular statistical method to estimate the density of wild animal populations. Conventional distance sampling represents animals as fixed points in space that are detected with an unknown probability that depends on the distance between the observer and the animal. Animal movement can cause substantial bias in density estimation. Methods to correct for responsive animal movement exist, but none account for nonresponsive movement independent of the observer. Here, an explicit animal movement model is incorporated into distance sampling, combining distance sampling survey data with animal telemetry data. Detection probability depends on the entire unobserved path the animal travels. The intractable integration over all possible animal paths is approximated by a hidden Markov model. A simulation study shows the method to be negligibly biased (<5%) in scenarios where conventional distance sampling overestimates abundance by up to 100%. The method is applied to line transect surveys (1999– 2006) of spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) in the eastern tropical Pacific where abundance is shown to be positively biased by 21% on average, which can have substantial impact on the population dynamics estimated from these abundance estimates and on the choice of statistical methodology applied to future surveys. Supplementary materials for this article, including a standardized description of the materials available for reproducing the work, are available as an online supplement.
BibTeX:
@article{glennie_incorporating_2020,
  author = {Glennie, R. and Buckland, S. T. and Langrock, R. and Gerrodette, T. and Ballance, L. T. and Chivers, S. J. and Scott, M. D.},
  title = {Incorporating animal movement into distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  publisher = {Taylor & Francis},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {0},
  number = {0},
  pages = {1--9},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.2020.1764362}
}
Gogan, P.J., Thompson, S.C., Pierce, W. and Barrett, R.H. 1986 Line-transect censuses of fallow and black-tailed deer on the Point Reyes Peninsula California Game and Fish 72:47-61   
BibTeX:
@article{Gogetal86,
  author = {Gogan, P. J. and Thompson, S. C. and Pierce, W. and Barrett, R. H.},
  title = {Line-transect censuses of fallow and black-tailed deer on the Point Reyes Peninsula},
  journal = {California Game and Fish},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {47--61}
}
Gogoi, K., Kumar, U., Banerjee, K. and Jhala, Y.V. 2020 Spatially explicit density and its determinants for Asiatic lions in the Gir forests PLOS ONE 15(2):e0228374  DOI  
Abstract: Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) are an icon of conservation success, yet their status is inferred from total counts that cannot account for detection bias and double counts. With an effort of 4,797 km in 725 km2 of western Gir Protected Area, India, we used polygon search based spatially explicit capture recapture framework to estimate lion density. Using vibrissae patterns and permanent body marks we identified 67 lions from 368 lion sightings. We conducted distance sampling on 35 transects with an effort of 101.5 km to estimate spatial prey density using generalized additive modeling (GAM). Subsequently, we modeled lion spatial density with prey, habitat characteristics, anthropogenic factors and distance to baiting sites. Lion density (>1-year-old lions) was estimated at 8.53 (SE 1.05) /100 km2 with lionesses having smaller movement parameter (σ = 2.55 km; SE 0.12) compared to males (σ = 5.32 km; SE 0.33). Detection corrected sex ratio (female:male lions) was 1.14 (SE 0.02). Chital (Axis axis) was the most abundant ungulate with a density of 63.29 (SE 10.14) as determined by conventional distance sampling (CDS) and 58.17 (SE 22.17)/km2 with density surface modeling (DSM), followed by sambar (Rusa unicolor) at 3.84 (SE 1.07) and 4.73 (SE 1.48)/km2 estimated by CDS and DSM respectively. Spatial lion density was best explained by proximity to baiting sites and flat valley habitat but not as much by prey density. We demonstrate a scientifically robust approach to estimate lion abundance, that due to its spatial context, can be useful for management of habitat and human-lion interface. We recommend this method for lion population assessment across their range. High lion densities in western Gir were correlated with baiting. The management practice of attracting lions for tourism can perturb natural lion densities, disrupt behavior, lion social dynamics and have detrimental effects on local prey densities.
BibTeX:
@article{gogoi_spatially_2020,
  author = {Gogoi, Keshab and Kumar, Ujjwal and Banerjee, Kausik and Jhala, Yadvendradev V.},
  title = {Spatially explicit density and its determinants for Asiatic lions in the Gir forests},
  journal = {PLOS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {15},
  number = {2},
  pages = {e0228374},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0228374}
}
Goldberg, C.S. and Schwalbe, C.R. 2004 Considerations for monitoring a rare anuran (Eleutherodactylus augusti) Southwestern Naturalist 49(4):442-448  DOI  
Abstract: Monitoring wildlife populations is a challenging task for scientists and resource managers. We assessed 4 methods for monitoring population size of barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in southern Arizona: mark-recapture, distance sampling, call counts, and visual encounter surveys. Because of the ecology and behavior of this species, all methods produced data that contained too much variability and bias to be useful for monitoring population size. For cryptic species such as barking frogs, monitoring programs might be more effective if they focus on parameters other than population size.
BibTeX:
@article{Goldberg2004,
  author = {Goldberg, C. S. and Schwalbe, C. R.},
  title = {Considerations for monitoring a rare anuran (Eleutherodactylus augusti)},
  journal = {Southwestern Naturalist},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {49},
  number = {4},
  pages = {442--448},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1894/0038-4909(2004)049%3C0442:CFMARA%3E2.0.CO;2}
}
Gómez De Segura, A., Tomás, J., Pedraza, S.N., Crespo, E.A. and Raga, J.A. 2003 Preliminary patterns of distribution and abundance of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, around columbretes islands marine reserve, spanish mediterranean Marine Biology 143(4):817-823  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gomez2003,
  author = {Gómez De Segura, A. and Tomás, J. and Pedraza, S. N. and Crespo, E. A. and Raga, J. A.},
  title = {Preliminary patterns of distribution and abundance of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, around columbretes islands marine reserve, spanish mediterranean},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {143},
  number = {4},
  pages = {817--823},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-003-1125-5}
}
Gong, R.-B., Ma, Y.-B. and Zhou, Y. 2009 Confident estimation for density of a biological population based on line transect sampling Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica 26(1):79-92  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gong200979,
  author = {Gong, R.-B. and Ma, Y.-B. and Zhou, Y.},
  title = {Confident estimation for density of a biological population based on line transect sampling},
  journal = {Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {26},
  number = {1},
  pages = {79--92},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10255-009-9008-2}
}
Gonzalez, R.P., Thomas, L. and Marques, T.A. 2017 Estimation bias under model selection for distance sampling detection functions Environmental and Ecological Statistics 24:399-414  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gonzalez2017,
  author = {Gonzalez, Rocio Prieto and Thomas, Len and Marques, Tiago A.},
  title = {Estimation bias under model selection for distance sampling detection functions},
  journal = {Environmental and Ecological Statistics},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {399--414},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10651-017-0376-0}
}
Good, E., R., Nielson, R.M., Sawyer, H.H. and McDonald, L.L. 2004 Population level survey of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the western United States School: Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. for the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Good2004,
  author = {Good and R., E. and Nielson, R. M. and Sawyer, H. H. and McDonald, L. L.},
  title = {Population level survey of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the western United States},
  school = {Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc. for the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service},
  year = {2004}
}
Gordon, J. 2001 Measuring the range to animals at sea from boats using photographic and video images Journal of Applied Ecology 38:879-887  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GOR01,
  author = {Gordon, J.},
  title = {Measuring the range to animals at sea from boats using photographic and video images},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {879--887},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2001.00615.x}
}
Gormezano, L.J. 2005 Exploring the variance components of distance sampling to simplify abundance estimation of white-tailed deer School: State University Of New York, Col. Of Environmental Science & Forestry   
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Gormezano2005,
  author = {Gormezano, Linda J.},
  title = {Exploring the variance components of distance sampling to simplify abundance estimation of white-tailed deer},
  school = {State University Of New York, Col. Of Environmental Science & Forestry},
  year = {2005}
}
Gosselin, J.-F. 2005 Abundance indices of belugas in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay in summer 2004 (2005/011)School: Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gosselin2005,
  author = {Gosselin, Jean-François},
  title = {Abundance indices of belugas in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay in summer 2004},
  school = {Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute},
  year = {2005},
  number = {2005/011}
}
Gotmark, F. and Post, P. 1996 Prey selection by sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus: relative predation risk for breeding passerine birds in relation to their size, ecology and behaviour Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 351:1559-1577  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GotPos96,
  author = {Gotmark, F. and Post, P.},
  title = {Prey selection by sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus: relative predation risk for breeding passerine birds in relation to their size, ecology and behaviour},
  journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {351},
  pages = {1559--1577},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1996.0141}
}
Gottschalk, T.K., Dittrich, R., DiekÃ, T., Sheridan, P., Wolters, V. and Ekschmitt, K. 2010 Modelling land-use sustainability using farmland birds as indicators Ecological Indicators 10(1):15-23  DOI  
Abstract: Biodiversity on farmland is declining due to agricultural intensification and occurs across many taxa such as plants, insects or birds. Here, we modelled population sizes of five farmland birds in central Germany as the German Sustainability Indicator for Species Diversity (SISD) is based on this taxon. We explored options for sustainable farmland management by generating land-use scenarios at the regional scale. For individual bird species, high SISD scores could be reached by changing environmental variables, such as landscape or crop diversity, percent cover of spring cereals or hedge density. However, contrasting species responses to these variables prevented from reaching high scores for all species simultaneously. We were able to improve the total SISD score from 0.77 at present to 0.94 by increasing landscape and crop diversity or to 0.87 by increasing hedge density and reducing spring cereals, respectively. An economic evaluation of the return losses associated with these changes revealed that annual costs of approx. 5.5Â [euro]/ha farmland would suffice for this latter increase by optimizing hedges and spring cereals towards high SISD. We conclude that balancing three levels of trade-offs, i.e. contrasting requirements of species, diverging responses in different landscapes, and alternative economic options, is difficult to achieve without systematic modelling. Yet, by accounting for differences in landscape structure and species distributions at a regional spatial scale and by focusing on clearly defined measures such as hedge density or the cover of spring cereals rather than composite indices like landscape or crop diversity it seems possible to develop realisable, affordable and sustainable management strategies.
BibTeX:
@article{Gottschalk2010,
  author = {Gottschalk, Thomas K. and Dittrich, Ralf and DiekÃ, Tim and Sheridan, Patrick and Wolters, Volkmar and Ekschmitt, Klemens},
  title = {Modelling land-use sustainability using farmland birds as indicators},
  journal = {Ecological Indicators},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1},
  pages = {15--23},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2009.05.008}
}
Gottschalk, T. and Huettmann, F. 2011 Comparison of distance sampling and territory mapping methods for birds in four different habitats Journal of Ornithology 152:421-429  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gottschalk2011,
  author = {Gottschalk, Thomas and Huettmann, Falk},
  title = {Comparison of distance sampling and territory mapping methods for birds in four different habitats},
  journal = {Journal of Ornithology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {152},
  pages = {421--429},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-010-0601-1}
}
Gowan, T.A. and Ortega-Ortiz, J.G. 2014 Wintering habitat model for the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) in the southeastern United States PLoS ONE 9(4):e95126  DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ The coastal waters off the southeastern United States (SEUS) are a primary wintering ground for the endangered North Atlantic right whale (¡ italic¿ Eubalaena glacialis/italic¿ ), used by calving females along with other adult and juvenile whales. Management actions implemented in this area for the recovery of the right whale population rely on accurate habitat characterization and the ability to predict whale distribution over time. We developed a temporally dynamic habitat model to predict wintering right whale distribution in the SEUS using a generalized additive model framework and aerial survey data from 2003/2004 through 2012/2013. We built upon previous habitat models for right whales in the SEUS and include data from new aerial surveys that extend the spatial coverage of the analysis, particularly in the northern portion of this wintering ground. We summarized whale sightings, survey effort corrected for probability of whale detection, and environmental data at a semimonthly resolution. Consistent with previous studies, sea surface temperature (SST), water depth, and survey year were significant predictors of right whale relative abundance. Additionally, distance to shore, distance to the 22Âtextdegree C SST isotherm, and an interaction between time of year and latitude (to account for the latitudinal migration of whales) were also selected in the analysis presented here. Predictions from the model revealed that the location of preferred habitat differs within and between years in correspondence with variation in environmental conditions. Although cow-calf pairs were rarely sighted in the company of other whales, there was minimal evidence that the preferred habitat of cow-calf pairs was different than that of whale groups without calves at the scale of this study. The results of this updated habitat model can be used to inform management decisions for a migratory species in a dynamic oceanic environment./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Gowan2014,
  author = {Timothy A. Gowan and Joel G. Ortega-Ortiz},
  title = {Wintering habitat model for the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) in the southeastern United States},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {9},
  number = {4},
  pages = {e95126},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095126}
}
Granholm, S.L. 1983 Bias in density estimates due to movement of birds Condor, The 85:243-248  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gra83,
  author = {Granholm, S. L.},
  title = {Bias in density estimates due to movement of birds},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {243--248},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1367261}
}
Graham, A. and Bell, R. 1989 Investigating observer bias in aerial survey by simultaneous double-counts Journal of Wildlife Management 53:1009-1016  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GraBel89,
  author = {Graham, A. and Bell, R.},
  title = {Investigating observer bias in aerial survey by simultaneous double-counts},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {1009--1016},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3809603}
}
Granjon, L., Cosson, J.F., Judas, J. and Ringuet, S. 1996 Influence of tropical rainforest fragmentation on mammal communities in French Guiana: short-term effects. Acta Oecologica 17:673-684   
BibTeX:
@article{Graetal96,
  author = {Granjon, L. and Cosson, J. F. and Judas, J. and Ringuet, S.},
  title = {Influence of tropical rainforest fragmentation on mammal communities in French Guiana: short-term effects.},
  journal = {Acta Oecologica},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {673--684}
}
Greene, T. Distance sampling populations of New Zealand birds - estimating kaka and kereru abundance    
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Greene,
  author = {Greene, Terry},
  title = {Distance sampling populations of New Zealand birds - estimating kaka and kereru abundance}
}
Greene, T., Jones, A., Dennis, G. and Sachtleben, T. 2010 Distance sampling to determine kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) density within Waipapa Ecological Area, Pureora New Zealand Journal of Ecology 34:297-305  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Greene2010,
  author = {Greene, Terry and Jones, Alan and Dennis, Gillian and Sachtleben, Thalia},
  title = {Distance sampling to determine kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) density within Waipapa Ecological Area, Pureora},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {297--305},
  url = {https://newzealandecology.org/nzje/2935}
}
Greene, K., Bell, D., Kioko, J. and Kiffner, C. 2017 Performance of ground-based and aerial survey methods for monitoring wildlife assemblages in a conservation area of northern Tanzania European Journal of Wildlife Research 63(5):77  DOI  
Abstract: Validating and improving field-sampling techniques for estimating wildlife community composition and population size is essential for wildlife management and conservation. We conducted ground distance sampling surveys along line transects and block counts from a small aircraft in Manyara Ranch in Northern Tanzania and contrasted estimates of species richness and species-specific densities from both sampling techniques. We used regression analyses (logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models) and model selection to investigate whether a species' body size, group size, body color, as well as vegetation cover explained the variation in species presence/absence and relative density differences in aerial vs. ground-based sampling. Ground surveys detected significantly more species than aerial surveys. However, aerial surveys detected three species that were missed by ground surveys (African lions, African buffalo, and spotted hyena). Model selection suggested that species with smaller body mass and small group sizes were more likely to be missed in aerial surveys. Densities estimated from the aerial surveys were generally but non-significantly lower than the densities estimated from the ground surveys, with the exception of density estimates for African elephants which were slightly higher from aerial surveys. Density differences between the two methods were greater for species with small group size, light body color, and in areas with denser vegetation cover; these variables explained 75% of the variation in density differences between the two survey methods. Albeit being similar in operational costs in our relatively small study area, ground surveys yielded (1) more complete information with respect to wildlife community composition and (2) density estimates were mostly higher and (3) more precise and (4) appear more feasible to be implemented in community-based conservation schemes.
BibTeX:
@article{Greene2017,
  author = {Greene, Kathryn and Bell, Damian and Kioko, John and Kiffner, Christian},
  title = {Performance of ground-based and aerial survey methods for monitoring wildlife assemblages in a conservation area of northern Tanzania},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {63},
  number = {5},
  pages = {77},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-017-1133-2}
}
Gregory, R.D. and Baillie, S.R. 1998 Large-scale habitat use of some declining British birds Journal of Applied Ecology 35(5):785-799  DOI  
Abstract: 1. Large-scale habitat use of eight species of breeding birds was considered using data collected across Britain. The species were skylark Alauda arvensis (L.), dunnock Prunella modularis (L.), blackbird Turdus merula (L.), song thrush Turdus philomelos (L.), starling Sturnus vulgaris (L.), linnet Carduelis cannabina (L.), bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula (L.) and reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus (L.). All are linked by roughly synchronous population declines over the last 25 years in southern Britain (and mostly in farmland landscapes). Discussion is limited to the conservation status of these species. 2. Breeding densities were estimated for broad habitat types and these were used to estimate population sizes within habitat types. Confidence limits on the estimates were derived using a bootstrap procedure. 3. For most species considered, farmland holds a high proportion of their population (in excess of 50% for four species), reflecting the predominance of this land use across Britain. This suggests that sympathetic changes in farming practices are likely to provide the best mechanism for improving the status of these species. 4. Substantial proportions of particular species occur outside farmland, but different species occur in different habitats. A considerable proportion of skylarks occur on upland moor, bullfinches in wooded habitats, and reed buntings in riparian habitats. Conservation of this group of species thus requires appropriate management of the wider countryside, including their main habitats. 5. Habitats associated with human habitation hold ¿ 20% of the British populations of blackbird, song thrush and starling, and considerable numbers of other species. The management of parks, gardens and other 'green space' may have an important impact on their populations and should not be neglected by conservationists.
BibTeX:
@article{Gregory1998,
  author = {Gregory, R. D. and Baillie, S. R.},
  title = {Large-scale habitat use of some declining British birds},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {35},
  number = {5},
  pages = {785--799},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.1998.355349.x}
}
Gregory, S.K. 2005 Comparison of density estimators for white-tailed deer using aerial thermal infrared videography School: University of Arkansas   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Gregory2005,
  author = {Gregory, S. K.},
  title = {Comparison of density estimators for white-tailed deer using aerial thermal infrared videography},
  school = {University of Arkansas},
  year = {2005}
}
Gregory, C.J., Dinsmore, S.J., Powell, L.A. and Jorgensen, J.G. 2012 Estimating the abundance of long-billed curlews in Nebraska Journal of Field Ornithology 83:122-129  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gregory2012,
  author = {Gregory, Cory J. and Dinsmore, Stephen J. and Powell, Larkin A. and Jorgensen, Joel G.},
  title = {Estimating the abundance of long-billed curlews in Nebraska},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {83},
  pages = {122--129},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1557-9263.2012.00362.x}
}
Grigg, G.C., Pople, A.R. and Beard, L.A. 1997 Application of an ultralight aircraft to aerial surveys of kangaroos on grazing properties Wildlife Research 24:359-372  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Grietal97,
  author = {Grigg, G. C. and Pople, A. R. and Beard, L. A.},
  title = {Application of an ultralight aircraft to aerial surveys of kangaroos on grazing properties},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {359--372},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR96047}
}
Gross, J.E., Stoddart, L.C. and Wagner, F.H. 1974 Demographic analysis of a northern Utah jackrabbit population Wildlife Monographs 40:1-68   
BibTeX:
@article{Groetal74,
  author = {Gross, J. E. and Stoddart, L. C. and Wagner, F. H.},
  title = {Demographic analysis of a northern Utah jackrabbit population},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {1--68}
}
Groom, J.D., McKinney, L.B., Ball, L.C. and Winchell, C.S. 2007 Quantifying off-highway vehicle impacts on density and survival of a threatened dune-endemic plant Biological Conservation 135(1):119-134  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Groom2007119,
  author = {Groom, Jeremiah D. and McKinney, Lloyd B. and Ball, Lianne C. and Winchell, Clark S.},
  title = {Quantifying off-highway vehicle impacts on density and survival of a threatened dune-endemic plant},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {135},
  number = {1},
  pages = {119--134},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.10.005}
}
Guenzel, R.J. 1997 Estimating pronghorn abundance using aerial line transect sampling School: Wyoming Game and Fish Dept.  URL 
BibTeX:
@techreport{Gue97,
  author = {Guenzel, R. J.},
  title = {Estimating pronghorn abundance using aerial line transect sampling},
  school = {Wyoming Game and Fish Dept.},
  year = {1997},
  url = {https://u.pcloud.link/publink/show?code=XZ9d3r7ZJkMhsYntVJX6T12F6YamEQtzkHfX}
}
Guix, J.C., Martín, M. and Manõsa, S. 1999 Conservation status of parrot populations in an Atlantic rainforest area of southeastern Brazil Biodiversity and Conservation 8(8):1079-1088  DOI  
Abstract: A census of four species of syntopic parrots was carried out using distance sampling methods on Sao Sebastiao island, SE Brazil. Most of the 33 593 ha island is covered by mature and secondary Atlantic rainforest. Almost 80% of these forests are within the Ilhabela Park. Although the species counted have marked differences in size and weight, density (individuals/km2) and estimated population size in 23 500 ha of well-preserved forests were similar: Amazona farinosa (13.82 ± 5.94; 3247 ± 1395), Pionus maximiliani (15.79 ± 7.04; 3712 ± 1654), Brotogeris tirica (15.05 ± 4.87; 3537 ± 1143) and Pyrrhura frontalis (13.06 ± 5.53; 3068 ± 1298). Encounter rates of Forpus crassirostris and Pionopsitta pileata were very low, which suggests that there is only a small population of these species on the island. The Sao Sebastiao forests still support healthy populations of parrots. Although woodpecker population estimates on the island are large enough to provide nesting sites for parrots, competition for holes with other secondary cavity nesters such as toucans, flycatchers and tytiras, and the selective cutting of dead trees for canoe construction, which is a common practice on the island, may limit hole availability for parrots.
BibTeX:
@article{Guix1999,
  author = {Guix, J. C. and Martín, M. and Manõsa, S.},
  title = {Conservation status of parrot populations in an Atlantic rainforest area of southeastern Brazil},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {8},
  number = {8},
  pages = {1079--1088},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008851215269}
}
Gunnlaugsson, T., Víkingsson, G.A. and Pike, D.G. 2009 Combined line-transect and cue-count estimate of sperm whale abundance in the north Atlantic, from Icelandic NASS-2001 shipboard survey NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 7:73-80  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Gunnlaugsson2009,
  author = {Gunnlaugsson, Th. and Víkingsson, G. A. and Pike, D. G.},
  title = {Combined line-transect and cue-count estimate of sperm whale abundance in the north Atlantic, from Icelandic NASS-2001 shipboard survey},
  journal = {NAMMCO Sci. Publ.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {73--80},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.2706}
}
Gunnlaugsson, T. and Sigurjónsson, J. 1990 NASS-87: estimation of whale abundance based on observations made on board Icelandic and Faroese survey vessels Report of the International Whaling Commission 40:571-580   
BibTeX:
@article{GunSig90,
  author = {Gunnlaugsson, Th. and Sigurjónsson, J.},
  title = {NASS-87: estimation of whale abundance based on observations made on board Icelandic and Faroese survey vessels},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {571--580}
}
Guthery, F.S. 1988 Line transect sampling of bobwhite density on rangeland: evaluation and recommendations Wildlife Society Bulletin 16:193-203  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Gut88,
  author = {Guthery, F. S.},
  title = {Line transect sampling of bobwhite density on rangeland: evaluation and recommendations},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {193--203},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782189}
}
Guthery, F.S. and Mecozzi, G.E. 2008 Developing the concept of estimating bobwhite density with pointing dogs Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1175-1180  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Guthery2008,
  author = {Guthery, Fred S. and Mecozzi, Grant E.},
  title = {Developing the concept of estimating bobwhite density with pointing dogs},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {1175--1180},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/2007-379}
}
Gutzwiller, K.J. and Marcum, H.A. 1997 Bird reactions to observer clothing color: implications for distance-sampling techniques Journal of Wildlife Management 61(3):935-947  DOI  
Abstract: The species-confidence hypothesis asserts that birds prefer mates whose colors match those of their species and avoid potential mates whose colors are atypical of conspecifics. Earlier point-count research indicated this mate-choice hypothesis also may explain avian reactions to observer clothing color. In central Texas, during January and February 1993, we tested further whether the species-confidence hypothesis holds for reactions to observer clothing color by determining how close an investigator could get to individuals before they flushed (approach distance) and how long individuals remained visible near their initial flush point (detectability period). The same investigator experimentally wore or did not wear a hunter-orange vest, which some wildlife biologists wear as a safety precaution during hunting-season field studies. The vest did not affect approach distance for species with red or orange on their bodies (American robin [Turdus migratorius], P = 0.247; northern cardinal [Cardinalis cardinalis], P = 0.196: ruby-crowned kinglet [Regulus calendula], P = 0.434; red-bellied woodpecker [Melanerpes carolinus], P = 0.113). In contrast, approach distances for species without red or orange were longer when the vest was worn than when it was not worn (Carolina chickadee [Parus carolinensis], P = 0.032; northern mockingbird [Mimus polyglottos], P = 0.033; yellow-rumped warbler [Dendroica coronata], P = 0.001). Differences in detectability period between vest conditions depended on air temperature for American robins (P = 0.003) and on the variation in visibility within habitats for northern cardinals (P ¡ 0.001). Detectability period was shorter when the vest was worn than when it was not worn for Carolina chickadees (P = 0.057) and yellow-rumped warblers (P = 0.060). Thus, for several species this matechoice hypothesis seems to apply to garment color as well. Some species' reactions demonstrated that, if birds respond significantly to clothing color, important assumptions of distance-sampling techniques used to estimate avian richness, density, and abundance will be violated, and these parameters will be underestimated. Wildlife scientists will be more likely to draw valid inferences and recommend effective management practices from avian data gathered via distance-sampling methods if reactions to clothing color are precluded.
BibTeX:
@article{Gutzwiller1997,
  author = {Gutzwiller, K. J. and Marcum, H. A.},
  title = {Bird reactions to observer clothing color: implications for distance-sampling techniques},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {61},
  number = {3},
  pages = {935--947},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802203}
}
Haakonsson, J.E., Harvey, J. and Rivera-Milán, F.F. 2017 Conservation status of grand cayman (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis) and cayman brac (Amazona leucocephala hesterna) parrots The Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 30:33-38   
BibTeX:
@article{Haakonsson2017,
  author = {Haakonsson, Jane Ebert and Harvey, Jessica and Rivera-Milán, Frank F.},
  title = {Conservation status of grand cayman (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis) and cayman brac (Amazona leucocephala hesterna) parrots},
  journal = {The Journal of Caribbean Ornithology},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {33--38}
}
Hagen, G. and Schweder, T. 1995 Point clustering of minke whales in the northeastern Atlantic Whales, Seals, Fish and Man:27-33   
BibTeX:
@incollection{HagSch95,
  author = {Hagen, G. and Schweder, T.},
  title = {Point clustering of minke whales in the northeastern Atlantic},
  booktitle = {Whales, Seals, Fish and Man},
  publisher = {Elsevier Science B. V.},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {27--33}
}
Hain, J.H.W., Ellis, S.L., Kenney, R.D. and Slay, C.K. 1999 Sightability of right whales in coastal waters of the southeastern United States with implications for the aerial monitoring program Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods:191-207   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Haietal99,
  author = {Hain, J. H. W. and Ellis, S. L. and Kenney, R. D. and Slay, C. K.},
  title = {Sightability of right whales in coastal waters of the southeastern United States with implications for the aerial monitoring program},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {191--207}
}
Hakamada, T., Matsuoka, K. and Nishiwaki, S. 2005 An update of Antarctic minke whales abundance estimate based on JARPA data including comparison to IDCR/SOWER estimates (JA/J05/JR 4)   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hakamada2005,
  author = {Hakamada, T. and Matsuoka, K. and Nishiwaki, S.},
  title = {An update of Antarctic minke whales abundance estimate based on JARPA data including comparison to IDCR/SOWER estimates},
  year = {2005},
  number = {JA/J05/JR 4}
}
Hall, A.M. 2004 Seasonal abundance, distribution and prey species of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in southern Vancouver Island waters School: University of British Columbia   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Hall2004,
  author = {Hall, A. M.},
  title = {Seasonal abundance, distribution and prey species of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in southern Vancouver Island waters},
  school = {University of British Columbia},
  year = {2004}
}
Hamel, P.B. 1984 Comparison of variable circular-plot and spot-map censusing methods in temperate forest Ornis Scandinavica 15:266-274  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ham84,
  author = {Hamel, P. B.},
  title = {Comparison of variable circular-plot and spot-map censusing methods in temperate forest},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {266--274},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3675936}
}
Hamel, P.B. 1990 Response to Tomiatojc and Verner The Auk 107:451-453  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ham90,
  author = {Hamel, P. B.},
  title = {Response to Tomiatojc and Verner},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {107},
  pages = {451--453},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/4087641}
}
Hamel, P.B., Smith, W.P. and Wahl, J.W. 1993 Wintering bird populations of fragmented forest habitat in the Central Basin, Tennessee Biological Conservation 66:107-115  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hametal93,
  author = {Hamel, P. B. and Smith, W. P. and Wahl, J. W.},
  title = {Wintering bird populations of fragmented forest habitat in the Central Basin, Tennessee},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {107--115},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(93)90141-M}
}
Hammond, P.S. and Laake, J.L. 1983 Trends in estimates of abundance of dolphins (Stenella spp. and Delphinus delphis) involved in the purse-seine fishery for tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean Report of the International Whaling Commission 33:565-588   
BibTeX:
@article{HamLaa83,
  author = {Hammond, P. S. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Trends in estimates of abundance of dolphins (Stenella spp. and Delphinus delphis) involved in the purse-seine fishery for tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {565--588}
}
Hammond, P.S. and Laake, J.L. 1984 Estimates of sperm whale density in the eastern tropical Pacific, 1974– 1982 Report of the International Whaling Commission 34:255-258   
BibTeX:
@article{HamLaa84,
  author = {Hammond, P. S. and Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Estimates of sperm whale density in the eastern tropical Pacific, 1974– 1982},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {255--258}
}
Hammond, P.S. 1984 An investigation into the effects of different techniques of smearing the IWC/IDCR minke whale sighting data and the use of different models to estimate density of schools Report of the International Whaling Commission 34:301-307   
BibTeX:
@article{Hamm84,
  author = {Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {An investigation into the effects of different techniques of smearing the IWC/IDCR minke whale sighting data and the use of different models to estimate density of schools},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {301--307}
}
Hammill, M.O., Lesage, V., Gosselin, J.-F., Bourdages, H., March, B.G.E.D. and Kingsley, M.C.S. 2004 Evidence for a decline in northern Quebec (Nunavik) belugas Arctic 57:183-195  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hammill2004,
  author = {Hammill, M. O. and Lesage, V. and Gosselin, J.-F. and Bourdages, H. and March, B. G. E. De and Kingsley, M. C. S.},
  title = {Evidence for a decline in northern Quebec (Nunavik) belugas},
  journal = {Arctic},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {57},
  pages = {183--195},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic494}
}
Hammond, P.S., Berggren, P., Benke, H., Borchers, D.L., Collet, A., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Heimlich, S., Hiby, A.R., Leopold, M.F. and Øien, N. 2002 Abundance of harbour porpoise and other cetaceans in the North Sea and adjacent waters The Journal of Applied Ecology 39:361-376  DOI  
Abstract: 1. The status of small cetaceans in the North Sea and adjacent waters has been of concern for many years. Shipboard and aerial line transect surveys were conducted to provide accurate and precise estimates of abundance as a basis for conservation strategy in European waters. 2. The survey, known as SCANS (Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea), was conducted in summer 1994 and designed to generate precise and unbiased abundance estimates. Thus the intensity of survey was high, and data collection and analysis methods allowed for the probability of detection of animals on the transect line being less than unity and, for shipboard surveys, also allowed for animal movement in response to the survey platform. 3. Shipboard transects covered 20 000 km in an area of 890 000 km^2. Aerial transects covered 7000 km in an area of 150 000 km^2. 4. Three species dominated the data. Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena were encountered throughout the survey area except in the Channel and the southern North Sea. Whitebeaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata were found mainly in the north-western North Sea. 5. Phocoena phocoena abundance for the entire survey area was estimated as 341 366 [coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 260 000-449 000]. The estimated number of B. acutorostrata was 8445 (CV = 0.24; 95% CI 5000-13 500). The estimate for L. albirostris based on confirmed sightings of this species was 7856 (CV = 0.30; 95% CI = 4000-13 000). When Atlantic whitesided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus and Lagenorhynchus spp. sightings were included, this estimate increased to 11 760 (CV = 0.26; 95% CI 5900-18 500). 6. Shortbeaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis were found almost exclusively in the Celtic Sea. Abundance was estimated as 75 450 (CV = 0.67; 95% CI = 23 000-149 000). 7. Current assessments and recommendations by international fora concerning the impact on P. phocoena of bycatch in gillnet fisheries in the North Sea and adjacent waters are based on these estimates.
BibTeX:
@article{Hammond2002,
  author = {Hammond, P. S. and Berggren, P. and Benke, H. and Borchers, D. L. and Collet, A. and Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Heimlich, S. and Hiby, A. R. and Leopold, M. F. and Øien, N.},
  title = {Abundance of harbour porpoise and other cetaceans in the North Sea and adjacent waters},
  journal = {The Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {361--376},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00713.x}
}
Hammond, P.S., Macleod, K., Berggren, P., Borchers, D.L., Burt, L., Cañadas, A., Desportes, G., Donovan, G.P., Gilles, A., Gillespie, D., Gordon, J., Hiby, L., Kuklik, I., Leaper, R., Lehnert, K., Leopold, M., Lovell, P., Øien, N., Paxton, C.G.M., Ridoux, V., Rogan, E., Samarra, F., Scheidat, M., Sequeira, M., Siebert, U., Skov, H., Swift, R., Tasker, M.L., Teilmann, J., Canneyt, O.V. and Vázquez, J.A. 2013 Cetacean abundance and distribution in European Atlantic shelf waters to inform conservation and management Biological Conservation 164:107-122  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hammond2013107,
  author = {Hammond, Philip S. and Macleod, Kelly and Berggren, Per and Borchers, David L. and Burt, Louise and Cañadas, Ana and Desportes, Geneviève and Donovan, Greg P. and Gilles, Anita and Gillespie, Douglas and Gordon, Jonathan and Hiby, Lex and Kuklik, Iwona and Leaper, Russell and Lehnert, Kristina and Leopold, Mardik and Lovell, Phil and Øien, Nils and Paxton, Charles G. M. and Ridoux, Vincent and Rogan, Emer and Samarra, Filipa and Scheidat, Meike and Sequeira, Marina and Siebert, Ursula and Skov, Henrik and Swift, René and Tasker, Mark L. and Teilmann, Jonas and Canneyt, Olivier Van and Vázquez, José Antonio},
  title = {Cetacean abundance and distribution in European Atlantic shelf waters to inform conservation and management},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {164},
  pages = {107--122},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.04.010}
}
Hamrick, R.G., Pirgalioglu, T., Gunduz, S. and Carroll, J.P. 2005 Feral donkey Equus asinus populations on the karpaz peninsula, cyprus European Journal of Wildlife Research 51(2):108-116  DOI  
Abstract: Numerous researchers have documented the adverse effects of feral donkeys Equus asinus introduced to semi-arid ecosystems. With the release of feral donkeys and potential increasing populations in natural habitats in northern Cyprus, there is concern for negative impacts on vegetation and native species. In the north of the island, there has been only one published study of feral donkey populations, and population estimators were relatively subjective. We estimated feral donkey populations on the Karpaz Peninsula using line transect surveys and quantitative distance sampling estimators. We stratified the sampling by using 11 sample units within the study area. We evaluated potential biases associated with habitat, topography, and perpendicular distance from the transect line and found that these variables did not bias donkey detections during our surveys. Using program DISTANCE, we found that a hazard rate cosine model was the best model that described our distance data based on model selection criterion (Akaike's Information Criteria adjusted for small sample bias). Estimated effective strip width was 280.19 m and detection probability was 0.47 with this model. Estimated donkey density was 6.7 donkeys/km 2, and estimated total abundance was 800 donkeys for the entire 132.5 km2 study area. Of 95 donkey groups detected: 16% were detected in agricultural habitats with flat topography, 9% were detected in agricultural habitats with sloped topography, 24% were detected in shrub/forest habitats with flat topography, and 51% were detected in shrub/forest habitats with sloped topography. Of 102 behavioral observations recorded (multiple behaviors were detected in groups), frequencies of behaviors were 1% bedded, 70% standing, 22% grazing, 6% moving, and 2% other. Our estimated donkey population density in the Karpaz Peninsula was ¿ 2 times densities reported in arid regions of the United States and Australia, but slightly lower than earlier density estimates reported for the Karpaz region. These estimates of feral donkey populations in the Karpaz Peninsula provide a quantitative baseline from which to make population management decisions. textcopyright Springer-Verlag 2005.
BibTeX:
@article{Hamrick2005,
  author = {Hamrick, R. G. and Pirgalioglu, T. and Gunduz, S. and Carroll, J. P.},
  title = {Feral donkey Equus asinus populations on the karpaz peninsula, cyprus},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {51},
  number = {2},
  pages = {108--116},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-005-0085-0}
}
Handel, C., Tibbetts, L., Cady, M., Ruthrauff, D. and Thompson, B. Quantifying and correcting measurement error in point transect counts    
BibTeX:
@article{Handel,
  author = {Handel, Colleen and Tibbetts, Lee and Cady, Melissa and Ruthrauff, Dan and Thompson, Bill},
  title = {Quantifying and correcting measurement error in point transect counts}
}
Hanowski, J.M., Niemi, G.J. and Blake, J.G. 1990 Statistical perspectives and experimental design when counting birds on line transects Condor, The 92:326-335  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hanetal90,
  author = {Hanowski, J. M. and Niemi, G. J. and Blake, J. G.},
  title = {Statistical perspectives and experimental design when counting birds on line transects},
  journal = {Condor, The},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {92},
  pages = {326--335},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1368230}
}
Hanni, D. 2005 Sand creek massacre national historic site inventory and monitoring: final report School: Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hanni2005,
  author = {Hanni, David},
  title = {Sand creek massacre national historic site inventory and monitoring: final report},
  school = {Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory},
  year = {2005}
}
Hanowski, J.M. and Niemi, G.J. 1995 Experimental design considerations for establishing an off-road, habitat-specific bird monitoring program using point-counts (PSW-GTR-149)School: USDA Forest Service   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hanowski1995,
  author = {Hanowski, JoAnn M. and Niemi, Gerald J.},
  title = {Experimental design considerations for establishing an off-road, habitat-specific bird monitoring program using point-counts},
  school = {USDA Forest Service},
  year = {1995},
  number = {PSW-GTR-149}
}
Hansen, R.G., Pike, D., Thorgilsson, B., Gunnlaugsson, T. and Lawson, J. 2019 The Geometer: a new device for recording angles in visual surveys NAMMCO Scientific Publications 11  DOI  
Abstract: The Geometer is a new handheld USB device that facilitates a relatively accurate measurement of the declination to a target with instantaneous recording of this and other data. The Geometer offers several advantages over traditional clinometers used in aerial surveys, including easier target pinpointing and tracking, more consistent angle measurements, and integration with software data collection packages. In this note we provide technical specifications for the device and its associated software, and describe a new aerial survey data collection programme that takes full advantage of the features of the Geometer. We have tested this device extensively during aerial surveys and highlight the utility of the hardware as well as ways in which the technology could be improved.
BibTeX:
@article{hansen_geometer_2019,
  author = {Hansen, Rikke Guldborg and Pike, Daniel and Thorgilsson, Baldur and Gunnlaugsson, Thorvaldur and Lawson, Jack},
  title = {The Geometer: a new device for recording angles in visual surveys},
  journal = {NAMMCO Scientific Publications},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {11},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.5585}
}
Hansen, S.J.K., Frair, J.L., Underwood, H.B. and Gibbs, J.P. 2015 Pairing call-response surveys and distance sampling for a mammalian carnivore The Journal of Wildlife Management 79:662-671  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hansen2015,
  author = {Hansen, Sara J. K. and Frair, Jacqueline L. and Underwood, H. Brian and Gibbs, James P.},
  title = {Pairing call-response surveys and distance sampling for a mammalian carnivore},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {79},
  pages = {662--671},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.865}
}
Hansen, R.G., Boye, T.K., Larsen, R.S., Nielsen, N.H., Tervo, O., Nielsen, R.D., Rasmussen, M.H., Sinding, M.H.S. and Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. 2019 Abundance of whales in west and east Greenland in summer 2015 NAMMCO Scientific Publications 11  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hansen2019,
  author = {Hansen, Rikke Guldborg and Boye, Tenna K. and Larsen, Rasmus S. and Nielsen, Nynne H. and Tervo, Outi and Nielsen, Rasmus D. and Rasmussen, Marianne H. and Sinding, Mikkel H. S. and Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter},
  title = {Abundance of whales in west and east Greenland in summer 2015},
  journal = {NAMMCO Scientific Publications},
  publisher = {UiT The Arctic University of Norway},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {11},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.4689}
}
Harris, R.B. 1986 Reliability of trend lines obtained from variable counts Journal of Wildlife Management 50:165-171  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Har86,
  author = {Harris, R. B.},
  title = {Reliability of trend lines obtained from variable counts},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {165--171},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801508}
}
Harmata, A.R., Podruzny, K.M., Zelenak, J.R. and Morrison, M.L. 1999 Using marine surveillance radar to study bird movements and impact assessment Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:44-52  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{HAR99,
  author = {Harmata, A. R. and Podruzny, K. M. and Zelenak, J. R. and Morrison, M. L.},
  title = {Using marine surveillance radar to study bird movements and impact assessment},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {44--52},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3783939}
}
Hardy, P.C. and Morrison, M.L. 2001 Nest site selection by elf owls in the Sonoran desert Wilson Bulletin 113(1):23-32  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hardy2001,
  author = {Hardy, P. C. and Morrison, M. L.},
  title = {Nest site selection by elf owls in the Sonoran desert},
  journal = {Wilson Bulletin},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {113},
  number = {1},
  pages = {23--32},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1676/0043-5643(2001)113%5B0023:NSSBEO%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Harmata, A.R., Podruzny, K.M., Zelenak, J.R. and Morrison, M.L. 2000 Passage rates and timing of bird migration in Montana American Midland Naturalist 143:30-40  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Haretal00,
  author = {Harmata, A. R. and Podruzny, K. M. and Zelenak, J. R. and Morrison, M. L.},
  title = {Passage rates and timing of bird migration in Montana},
  journal = {American Midland Naturalist},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {143},
  pages = {30--40},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1674/0003-0031(2000)143%5B0030:PRATOB%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Harden R. H., R.J.M. and Milledge, D.R. 1986 An evaluation of the strip transect method for censusing bird communities in forests Australian Wildlife Research 13:203-211  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Haretal86,
  author = {Harden, R. H., R. J. Muir and Milledge, D. R.},
  title = {An evaluation of the strip transect method for censusing bird communities in forests},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {203--211},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9860203}
}
Harihar, A., Pandav, B. and Goyal, S.P. 2009 Responses of tiger (Panthera tigris) and their prey to removal of anthropogenic influences in Rajaji National Park, India European Journal of Wildlife Research 55:97-105  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Harihar2009,
  author = {Harihar, Abishek and Pandav, Bivash and Goyal, Surendra P.},
  title = {Responses of tiger (Panthera tigris) and their prey to removal of anthropogenic influences in Rajaji National Park, India},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {97--105},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-008-0219-2}
}
Harris, G.M., Butler, M.J., Stewart, D.R., Rominger, E.M. and Ruhl, C.Q. 2020 Accurate population estimation of Caprinae using camera traps and distance sampling Scientific Reports 10(1):17729  DOI  
Abstract: With most of the world's Caprinae taxa threatened with extinction, the IUCN appeals to the development of simple and affordable sampling methods that will produce credible abundance and distribution data for helping conserve these species inhabiting remote areas. Traditional sampling approaches, like aerial sampling or mark-capture-recapture, can generate bias by failing to meet sampling assumptions, or by incurring too much cost and logistical burden for most projects to address them. Therefore, we met the IUCN's challenge by testing a sampling technique that leverages imagery from camera traps with conventional distance sampling, validating its operability in mountainous topography by comparing results to known abundances. Our project occurred within a captive facility housing a wild population of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the Chihuahuan desert of New Mexico, which is censused yearly. True abundance was always within our 90% confidence bounds, and the mean abundance estimates were within 4.9 individuals (average) of the census values. By demonstrating the veracity of this straightforward and inexpensive sampling method, we provide confidence in its operability, urging its use to fill conservation voids for Caprinae and other data-deficient species inhabiting rugged or heavily vegetated terrain.
BibTeX:
@article{harris_accurate_2020,
  author = {Harris, Grant M. and Butler, Matthew J. and Stewart, David R. and Rominger, Eric M. and Ruhl, Caitlin Q.},
  title = {Accurate population estimation of Caprinae using camera traps and distance sampling},
  journal = {Scientific Reports},
  publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1},
  pages = {17729},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73893-5}
}
Harris, R.B. and Burnham, K.P. 2002 On estimating wildlife densities from line transect data Acta Zoological Sinica 48:812-818   
BibTeX:
@article{Harris2002,
  author = {Harris, R. B. and Burnham, K. P.},
  title = {On estimating wildlife densities from line transect data},
  journal = {Acta Zoological Sinica},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {812--818}
}
Harris, D., Matias, L., Thomas, L., Harwood, J. and Geissler, W.H. 2013 Applying distance sampling to fin whale calls recorded by single seismic instruments in the northeast Atlantic The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 134(5):3522-3535  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Harris2013a,
  author = {Harris, Danielle and Matias, Luis and Thomas, Len and Harwood, John and Geissler, Wolfram H.},
  title = {Applying distance sampling to fin whale calls recorded by single seismic instruments in the northeast Atlantic},
  journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {134},
  number = {5},
  pages = {3522--3535},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4821207}
}
Harwood, L.A., Innes, S., Norton, P. and Kingsley, M.C.S. 1998 Distribution and abundance of beluga whales in the Mackenzie estuary, southeast Beaufort Sea, and west Amundsen Gulf during late july 1992 Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53:2262-2273  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Harwood1998,
  author = {Harwood, Lois A. and Innes, Stuart and Norton, Pamela and Kingsley, Michael C. S.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of beluga whales in the Mackenzie estuary, southeast Beaufort Sea, and west Amundsen Gulf during late july 1992},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {2262--2273},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/f96-180}
}
Hashimoto, C. 1995 Population census of the chimpanzees in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda — comparison between methods with nest counts Primates 36:477-488  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Has95,
  author = {Hashimoto, C.},
  title = {Population census of the chimpanzees in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda — comparison between methods with nest counts},
  journal = {Primates},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {477--488},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02382870}
}
Hastie, G.D., Swift, R.J., Gordon, J.C.D., Slesser, G. and Turrell, W.R. 2003 Sperm whale distribution and seasonal density in the Faroe Shetland Channel Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5:247-252   
Abstract: Results from previous surveys suggest that an area of the northeast Atlantic, the Faroe Shetland Channel, is important for cetaceans. This study utilised passive acoustic survey techniques to evaluate the density of sperm whales in the Channel. Two-week surveys were carried out during oceanographic cruises in May and October 2001, and May 2002. A two hydrophone array was towed behind the vessel throughout the majority of the survey routes and was monitored by a two-person team and by software designed to automatically detect and measure bearings to whales. Distances of individual sperm whales from the trackline were determined using target motion analysis. Standard line transect techniques were applied to calculate the density of whales during surveys. The effects of sea conditions and survey vessel on the ability to detect whales were tested; the encounter rate and effective stripwidth (esw) were estimated independently for each sea state and for each of the vessels. A total of 79 individual whales were detected, and their distances from the trackline were calculated. As a probable result of insufficient sample size and a small effects size, neither the esw nor the encounter rates varied significantly with sea state or between the two survey vessels. The density of sperm whales during each of the surveys was estimated to be 2.05, 0.52 and 1.75 whales per 1,000km2 for the May 2001, October 2001 and May 2002 surveys respectively. Sperm whales were distributed across the majority of the Faroe Shetland Channel. This study has provided the basis for meaningful hypothesis generation in future studies and to gain a better understanding of the factors underlying the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of sperm whales in this area; data on oceanographic, biological and anthropogenic determinants should now be examined.
BibTeX:
@article{Hastie2003,
  author = {Hastie, Gordon D. and Swift, René J. and Gordon, Jonathan C. D. and Slesser, George and Turrell, William R.},
  title = {Sperm whale distribution and seasonal density in the Faroe Shetland Channel},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {247--252}
}
Haukioja, E. 1968 Reliability of the line survey method in bird census with reference to reed bunting and sedge warbler Ornis Fennica 45:105-113   
BibTeX:
@article{Hau68,
  author = {Haukioja, E.},
  title = {Reliability of the line survey method in bird census with reference to reed bunting and sedge warbler},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {105--113}
}
Hausser, Y., Tagand, R., Vimercati, E., Mermod, S. and Fischer, C. 2016 Comparing survey methods to assess the conservation value of a community-managed protected area in western Tanzania African Journal of Ecology 55(1):1-11  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hausser2016,
  author = {Hausser, Yves and Tagand, Romain and Vimercati, Eric and Mermod, Sandy and Fischer, Claude},
  title = {Comparing survey methods to assess the conservation value of a community-managed protected area in western Tanzania},
  journal = {African Journal of Ecology},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {55},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--11},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12301}
}
Hayne, D.W. 1949 An examination of the strip census method for estimating animal populations Journal of Wildlife Management 13:145-157  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hay49,
  author = {Hayne, D. W.},
  title = {An examination of the strip census method for estimating animal populations},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1949},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {145--157},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3796084}
}
Hayes, R.J. 1977 A critical review of line transect methods School: University of Edinburgh   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Hay77,
  author = {Hayes, R. J.},
  title = {A critical review of line transect methods},
  school = {University of Edinburgh},
  year = {1977}
}
Hayes, R.J. and Buckland, S.T. 1983 Radial-distance models for the line-transect method Biometrics 39:29-42  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HayBuc83,
  author = {Hayes, R. J. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Radial-distance models for the line-transect method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {29--42},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2530804}
}
Healy, W.M. and Welsh, C.J.E. 1992 Evaluating line transects to monitor gray squirrel populations Wildlife Society Bulletin 20:83-90  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{HeaWel92,
  author = {Healy, W. M. and Welsh, C. J. E.},
  title = {Evaluating line transects to monitor gray squirrel populations},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {83--90},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782764}
}
Heckman, N. and Rice, J. 1997 Line transects of two-dimensional random fields: estimation and design Canadian Journal of Statistics 25:481-501  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HecRic97,
  author = {Heckman, N. and Rice, J.},
  title = {Line transects of two-dimensional random fields: estimation and design},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Statistics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {481--501},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3315343}
}
Hedley, S.L. 2000 Modelling heterogeneity in cetacean surveys School: University of St Andrews   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{HED00,
  author = {Hedley, S. L.},
  title = {Modelling heterogeneity in cetacean surveys},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2000}
}
Hedley, S.L., Buckland, S.T. and Borchers, D.L. 1999 Spatial modelling from line transect data Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 1:255-264   
BibTeX:
@article{HED99,
  author = {Hedley, S. L. and Buckland, S. T. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Spatial modelling from line transect data},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {255--264}
}
Hedges, S., Tyson, M.J., Sitompul, A.F., Kinnaird, M.F., Gunaryadi, D. and Aslan 2005 Distribution, status, and conservation needs of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Lampung province, Sumatra, Indonesia Biological Conservation 124(1):35-48  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hedges2005,
  author = {Hedges, S. and Tyson, M. J. and Sitompul, A. F. and Kinnaird, M. F. and Gunaryadi, D. and Aslan},
  title = {Distribution, status, and conservation needs of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Lampung province, Sumatra, Indonesia},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {124},
  number = {1},
  pages = {35--48},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.01.004}
}
Hedley, S., Reilly, S., Borberg, J., Holland, R., Hewitt, R., Watkins, J., Naganobu, M. and Sushin, V. Modelling whale distribution: a preliminary analysis of data collected on the CCAML-IWC krill synoptic survey, 2000 (SC/53/E9)   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Hedley,
  author = {Hedley, S. and Reilly, S. and Borberg, J. and Holland, R. and Hewitt, R. and Watkins, J. and Naganobu, M. and Sushin, V.},
  title = {Modelling whale distribution: a preliminary analysis of data collected on the CCAML-IWC krill synoptic survey, 2000},
  number = {SC/53/E9}
}
Hedley, S.L. and Buckland, S.T. 2004 Spatial models for line transect sampling Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 9(2):181-199  DOI  
Abstract: This article develops methods for fitting spatial models to line transect data. These allow animal density to be related to topographical, environmental, habitat, and other spatial variables, helping wildlife managers to identify the factors that affect abundance. They also enable estimation of abundance for any subarea of interest within the surveyed region, and potentially yield estimates of abundance from sightings surveys for which the survey design could not be randomized, such as surveys conducted from platforms of opportunity. The methods are illustrated through analyses of data from a shipboard sightings survey of minke whales in the Antarctic. textcopyright 2004 American Statistical Association and the International Biometric Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Hedley2004,
  author = {Hedley, S. L. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Spatial models for line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {9},
  number = {2},
  pages = {181--199},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1198/1085711043578}
}
van Heezik, Y., Smyth, A., Adams, A. and Gordon, J. 2010 Do domestic cats impose an unsustainable harvest on urban bird populations? Biological Conservation 143(1):121-130  DOI  
Abstract: We assessed the impact of domestic cats on population persistence of native and exotic urban bird populations using a model adjusted for habitat-specific catch rates, cat ownership and hunting activity data. GPS-derived home ranges of 32 cats and resource selection indices demonstrated the degree of penetration and preference for native vegetation fragments. Owners reported on prey brought back by 144 domestic cats in Dunedin, New Zealand, during 12 months. One third of cats never brought back prey, and 21% returned more than one item/month. Cats brought back a mean of 13.4 prey items/year (median = 4), with cats aged ¡ 1 year returning more prey than older cats. Birds were the most common prey, followed by rodents. Although cats penetrated adjacent vegetation fragments they did not catch more birds and preferred garden habitat, suggesting that predation pressure may be reduced in fragments. Cat home range size appears to be constrained by cat density while the number of birds caught depends on the density of available prey. Estimates of city-wide catch for six bird species were either more than total urban population size estimates or close to lower confidence intervals. Modelling of three species indicated low likelihood of population persistence with cat predation. The observed persistence of these prey species suggests a meta-population structure with urban populations acting as sinks with source populations located on the city fringe.
BibTeX:
@article{Heezik2010,
  author = {van Heezik, Yolanda and Smyth, Amber and Adams, Amy and Gordon, Joanna},
  title = {Do domestic cats impose an unsustainable harvest on urban bird populations?},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {143},
  number = {1},
  pages = {121--130},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.09.013}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. and Acquarone, M. 2002 Size and trends of the bowhead whale, beluga and narwhal stocks wintering off West Greenland NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 4:191-210  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HeiAcq02,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Acquarone, M.},
  title = {Size and trends of the bowhead whale, beluga and narwhal stocks wintering off West Greenland},
  journal = {NAMMCO Sci. Publ.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {191--210},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.2844}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Simon, M.J. and Laidre, K.L. 2007 Estimates of large whale abundance in greenland in September 2005 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 9:95-104   
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Simon, M. J. and Laidre, K. L.},
  title = {Estimates of large whale abundance in greenland in September 2005},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {95--104}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Lassen, H., Teilmann, J. and Davis, R.A. 1993 An index of the relative abundance of wintering belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, and narwhals, Monodon monoceros, off West Greenland Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50:2323-2335  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen1993,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Lassen, H. and Teilmann, J. and Davis, R. A.},
  title = {An index of the relative abundance of wintering belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, and narwhals, Monodon monoceros, off West Greenland},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {2323--2335},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/f93-257}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laidre, K., Borchers, D., Samarra, F. and Stern, H. 2007 Increasing abundance of bowhead whales in west Greenland Biology Letters 3:277-280  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen2007,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter and Laidre, Kristin and Borchers, David and Samarra, Filipa and Stern, Harry},
  title = {Increasing abundance of bowhead whales in west Greenland},
  journal = {Biology Letters},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {277--280},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2007.0310}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Borchers, D.L., Witting, L., Simon, M.J., Laidre, K.L., Rosing-Asvid, A. and Pike, D. 2008 Estimates of large whale abundance in west Greenland waters from an aerial survey in 2005 Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 10:119-129   
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen2008a,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Borchers, D. L. and Witting, L. and Simon, M. J. and Laidre, K. L. and Rosing-Asvid, A. and Pike, D.},
  title = {Estimates of large whale abundance in west Greenland waters from an aerial survey in 2005},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {119--129}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laidre, K.L., Borchers, D., Marques, T.A., Stern, H. and Simon, M. 2010 The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland Polar Research 29:198-208  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensen2010,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Laidre, K. L. and Borchers, D. and Marques, T. A. and Stern, H. and Simon, M.},
  title = {The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland},
  journal = {Polar Research},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {198--208},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-8369.2009.00142.x}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laidre, K.L., Burt, M.L., Borchers, D.L., Marques, T.A., Hansen, R.G., Rasmussen, M. and Fossette, S. 2010 Abundance of narwhals (Monodon Monoceros) on the hunting grounds in Greenland Journal of Mammalogy 91:1135-1151  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Joergensena,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Laidre, K. L. and Burt, M. L. and Borchers, D. L. and Marques, T. A. and Hansen, R. G. and Rasmussen, M. and Fossette, S.},
  title = {Abundance of narwhals (Monodon Monoceros) on the hunting grounds in Greenland},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {91},
  pages = {1135--1151},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1644/09-MAMM-A-198.1}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. and Reeves, R.R. 1996 Evidence of a decline in beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, abundance off west Greenland ICES Journal of Marine Science 53:61-7220  DOI  
Abstract: ¡ P¿ Aerial surveys of belugas, or white whales, Delphinapterus leucas , were conducted off West Greenland in March 1993 and 1994. These surveys were designed to permit comparisons with similar surveys in 1981, 1982, and 1991. Differences in methods between the surveys in the early 1980s and those in the 1990s should mean that the 1990s surveys were, if anything, more efficient than the 1980s surveys. Weighted linear regressions of strip-census estimates of the relative abundance of belugas showed a significant decline from 1981 to 1994. While annual variability in ice conditions and other unknown factors may have had some local or small-scale effects on the movements and distribution of belugas off West Greenland, it is unlikely that these effects would account for the apparent decline in relative abundance. The most reasonable conclusion is that the stock size has declined considerably during the past 13 years, perhaps by as much as 62%./P¿
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Jorgensen1996,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Reeves, R. R.},
  title = {Evidence of a decline in beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, abundance off west Greenland},
  journal = {ICES Journal of Marine Science},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {61--7220},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1996.0006}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Sinding, M.-H.S., Nielsen, N.H., Rosing-Asvid, A. and Hansen, R.G. 2016 Large numbers of marine mammals winter in the north water polynya Polar Biology 39(9):1605-1614  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heide-Jorgensen2016,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Sinding, M.-H. S. and Nielsen, N. H. and Rosing-Asvid, A. and Hansen, R. G.},
  title = {Large numbers of marine mammals winter in the north water polynya},
  journal = {Polar Biology},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {39},
  number = {9},
  pages = {1605--1614},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-015-1885-7}
}
Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Mosbech, A., Teilmann, J., Benke, H. and Schultz, W. 1992 Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) densities obtained from aerial surveys north of Fyn and in the Bay of Kiel Ophelia 35:133-146  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heietal92,
  author = {Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Mosbech, A. and Teilmann, J. and Benke, H. and Schultz, W.},
  title = {Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) densities obtained from aerial surveys north of Fyn and in the Bay of Kiel},
  journal = {Ophelia},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {133--146},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/00785326.1992.10429975}
}
Heinänen, S., Žydelis, R., Dorsch, M., Nehls, G. and Skov, H. 2017 High-resolution sea duck distribution modeling: relating aerial and ship survey data to food resources, anthropogenic pressures, and topographic variables The Condor 119:175-190  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Heinaenen2017,
  author = {Heinänen, Stefan and Žydelis, Ram?nas and Dorsch, Monika and Nehls, Georg and Skov, Henrik},
  title = {High-resolution sea duck distribution modeling: relating aerial and ship survey data to food resources, anthropogenic pressures, and topographic variables},
  journal = {The Condor},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {175--190},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1650/CONDOR-16-57.1}
}
Hemingway, P. 1971 Field trials of the line transect method of sampling large populations of herbivores The Scientific Management of Animal and Plant Communities for Conservation:405-411   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Hem71,
  author = {Hemingway, P.},
  title = {Field trials of the line transect method of sampling large populations of herbivores},
  booktitle = {The Scientific Management of Animal and Plant Communities for Conservation},
  publisher = {Blackwell Scientific Publications},
  year = {1971},
  pages = {405--411}
}
Henrys, P. 2005 Spatial distance sampling modeling of cetaceans observed from platforms of opportunity School: St Andrews University   
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Henrys2005,
  author = {Henrys, P.},
  title = {Spatial distance sampling modeling of cetaceans observed from platforms of opportunity},
  school = {St Andrews University},
  year = {2005}
}
Herr, H., Scheidat, M., Lehnert, K. and Siebert, U. 2009 Seals at sea: modelling seal distribution in the German bight based on aerial survey data Marine Biology 156:811-820  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Herr2009,
  author = {Herr, Helena and Scheidat, M. and Lehnert, K. and Siebert, U.},
  title = {Seals at sea: modelling seal distribution in the German bight based on aerial survey data},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {156},
  pages = {811--820},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-008-1105-x}
}
Herr, H., Fock, H.O. and Siebert, U. 2009 Spatio-temporal associations between harbour porpoise phocoena phocoena and specific fisheries in the German bight Biological Conservation 142(12):2962-2972  DOI  
Abstract: Interactions between cetaceans and fisheries are a major concern of cetacean conservation and fisheries management, as by-catch and resource competition occur as a result. To assess potential interaction between porpoises and fisheries in the German Bight, high-resolution spatial and temporal data were analysed in order to reveal association patterns between cetaceans and fisheries in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea. To facilitate interpretation of resulting patterns, additionally, relationships of fish assemblages were analysed. Vessel monitoring system (VMS) data from 2006 and fisheries surveillance data from 2002 to 2006 were acquired to calculate fishing effort, aerial survey data from 2002 to 2006 to evaluate porpoise distribution, and trawl survey data from 2000 to 2007 to assess fish assemblage. Relationships were analysed in terms of seasonal association and overlap. Results showed that porpoise distribution was positively associated with sandeel fisheries in all seasons and with gillnet fisheries in summer. Overlaps for sandeel and gillnet fisheries were high in summer, while negligible in spring and autumn. In spring, high overlap was found for large beam trawlers targeting sole and plaice. In parallel, porpoise distribution was positively linked to fish assemblage components representing sandeel and poor cod in summer and flatfish in spring. Our results suggest that, especially in summer, resource competition between porpoises and industrial sandeel fisheries is likely and the risk of by-catch in gillnets is increased. In spring, interference with sole and plaice fisheries is to be expected.
BibTeX:
@article{Herr2009a,
  author = {Herr, Helena and Fock, Heino O. and Siebert, Ursula},
  title = {Spatio-temporal associations between harbour porpoise phocoena phocoena and specific fisheries in the German bight},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {142},
  number = {12},
  pages = {2962--2972},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.07.025}
}
Herr, H., Kelly, N., Dorschel, B., Huntemann, M., Kock, K.-H., Lehnert, L.S., Siebert, U., Viquerat, S., Williams, R. and Scheidat, M. 2019 Aerial surveys for Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) reveal sea ice dependent distribution patterns Ecology and Evolution 9(10):5664-5682  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Herr2019,
  author = {Herr, Helena and Kelly, Natalie and Dorschel, Boris and Huntemann, Marcus and Kock, Karl-Hermann and Lehnert, Linn Sophia and Siebert, Ursula and Viquerat, Sacha and Williams, Rob and Scheidat, Meike},
  title = {Aerial surveys for Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) reveal sea ice dependent distribution patterns},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {9},
  number = {10},
  pages = {5664--5682},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5149}
}
Herrero, J., García-serrano, A., Prada, C. and Fernández-Arberas, O. 2011 Using block counts and distance sampling to estimate populations of chamois Pirineos. Revista de Ecología de Montaña 166:123-133  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Herrero2011,
  author = {Herrero, J. and García-serrano, A. and Prada, C. and Fernández-Arberas, O.},
  title = {Using block counts and distance sampling to estimate populations of chamois},
  journal = {Pirineos. Revista de Ecología de Montaña},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {166},
  pages = {123--133},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3989/Pirineos.2011.166006}
}
Herrero, J., Fernández, O., Prada, C. and García-Serrano, A. 2013 Size and density of a feral goat Capra hircus population in a protected area in the Pyrenees Wildlife Biology in Practice 9(3)  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Herrero2013,
  author = {Herrero, J. and Fernández, O. and Prada, C. and García-Serrano, A.},
  title = {Size and density of a feral goat Capra hircus population in a protected area in the Pyrenees},
  journal = {Wildlife Biology in Practice},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {9},
  number = {3},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2461/wbp.2013.ibeun.1}
}
Heydon, M.J. and Bulloh, P. 1997 Mousedeer densities in a tropical rainforest: the impact of selective logging Journal of Applied Ecology 34:484-496  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HeyBul97,
  author = {Heydon, M. J. and Bulloh, P.},
  title = {Mousedeer densities in a tropical rainforest: the impact of selective logging},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {484--496},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2404892}
}
Heydon, M.J., Reynolds, J.C. and Short, M.J. 2000 Variation in abundance of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) between three regions of rural Britain, in relation to landscape and other variables Journal of Zoology 251(2):253-264  DOI  
Abstract: Spotlight transect surveys with distance sampling were used to estimate spring (pre-breeding) and autumn (post-production) fox Vulpes vulpes densities in three contrasting rural areas of Britain during 1995-97. This was the first attempt in Britain to measure and compare fox densities over large geographical areas (630-1460 km2). Mean post-production fox abundance was estimated to be 0.90/km2, 2.62/km2, and 0.59/km2 in mid-Wales, the east Midlands and East Anglia, falling to pre-breeding levels of 0.41/km2, 1.17/km2, and 0.16/km2 in spring. As relative measures of regional density, these estimates are strongly supported by independent indices of fox abundance, and by the simultaneous survey of two sympatric species, the badger Meles meles and brown hare Lepus europaeus, which demonstrate the absence of any terrain-related bias. Absolute abundance is less easy to verify, but estimates of spring density based on breeding earth censuses support the transect surveys. For two of the three regions, fox density was close to levels predicted by extrapolation on the basis of landscape, but in the third region (East Anglia), fox density was substantially below prediction. Thus, results failed to support a hypothesis that fox abundance can be predicted solely on the basis of landscape and its close correlates. Rather, they favoured a competing hypothesis that an independent factor determines fox abundance in some regions. A likely factor is culling by man.
BibTeX:
@article{Heydon2000,
  author = {Heydon, M. J. and Reynolds, J. C. and Short, M. J.},
  title = {Variation in abundance of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) between three regions of rural Britain, in relation to landscape and other variables},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {251},
  number = {2},
  pages = {253--264},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00608.x}
}
Hiby, A.R. 1982 Using average number of whales in view to estimate population density Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:562-565   
BibTeX:
@article{Hib82,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {Using average number of whales in view to estimate population density},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {562--565}
}
Hiby, A.R. 1985 An approach to estimating population densities of great whales from sighting surveys IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine and Biology 2:201-220  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hib85,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {An approach to estimating population densities of great whales from sighting surveys},
  journal = {IMA Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine and Biology},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {201--220},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/imammb/2.3.201}
}
Hiby, A.R. 1986 Results of a hazard rate model relevant to experiments on the 1984/85 IDCR minke whale assessment cruise Report of the International Whaling Commission 36:497-498   
BibTeX:
@article{Hib86,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {Results of a hazard rate model relevant to experiments on the 1984/85 IDCR minke whale assessment cruise},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {497--498}
}
Hiby, L., Ward, A. and Lovell, P. 1989 Analysis of the North Atlantic sightings survey 1987: aerial survey results Report of the International Whaling Commission 39:447-455   
BibTeX:
@article{HIB89,
  author = {Hiby, L. and Ward, A. and Lovell, P.},
  title = {Analysis of the North Atlantic sightings survey 1987: aerial survey results},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {447--455}
}
Hiby, L. 1999 The objective identification of duplicate sightings in aerial survey for porpoise Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods:179-189   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Hib99,
  author = {Hiby, L.},
  title = {The objective identification of duplicate sightings in aerial survey for porpoise},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {179--189}
}
Hiby, A.R., Martin, A.R. and Fairfield, F. 1984 IDCR cruise/aerial survey in the north Atlantic 1982: aerial survey Report of the International Whaling Commission 34:633-644   
BibTeX:
@article{Hibetal84,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Martin, A. R. and Fairfield, F.},
  title = {IDCR cruise/aerial survey in the north Atlantic 1982: aerial survey},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {633--644}
}
Hiby, A.R. and Hammond, P.S. 1989 Survey techniques for estimating abundance of cetaceans The Comprehensive Assessment of Whale Stocks: The Early Years:47-80   
BibTeX:
@incollection{HibHam89,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Hammond, P. S.},
  title = {Survey techniques for estimating abundance of cetaceans},
  booktitle = {The Comprehensive Assessment of Whale Stocks: The Early Years},
  publisher = {International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1989},
  pages = {47--80}
}
Hiby, L. and Lovell, P. 1998 Using aircraft in tandem formation to estimate abundance of harbour porpoise Biometrics 54:1280-1289  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HibLov98,
  author = {Hiby, L. and Lovell, P.},
  title = {Using aircraft in tandem formation to estimate abundance of harbour porpoise},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {1280--1289},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533658}
}
Hiby, A.R. and Ward, A.J. 1986 Simulation trials of a cue-counting technique for censusing whale populations Report of the International Whaling Commission 36:471-472   
BibTeX:
@article{HibWar86,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Ward, A. J.},
  title = {Simulation trials of a cue-counting technique for censusing whale populations},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {471--472}
}
Hiby, A.R. 1982 The effect of random whale movement on density estimates obtained from whale sighting surveys Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:791-793   
BibTeX:
@article{Hiby1982,
  author = {Hiby, A. R.},
  title = {The effect of random whale movement on density estimates obtained from whale sighting surveys},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {791--793}
}
Hiby, L. and Krishna, M.B. 2001 Line transect sampling from a curving path Biometrics 57(3):727-731  DOI  
Abstract: Cutting straight line transects through dense forest is time consuming and expensive when large areas need to be surveyed for rare or highly clustered species. We argue that existing paths or game trails may be suitable as transects for line transect sampling even though they will not, in general, run straight. Formulas and software currently used to estimate local density using perpendicular distance data can be used with closest approach distances measured from curving transects. Suitable paths or trails are those for which the minimum radius of curvature is rarely less than the width of the shoulder in the detection probability function. The use of existing paths carries the risk of bias resulting from unrepresentative sampling of available habitats, and this must be weighed against the increase in coverage available.
BibTeX:
@article{Hiby2001,
  author = {Hiby, L. and Krishna, M. B.},
  title = {Line transect sampling from a curving path},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {57},
  number = {3},
  pages = {727--731},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2001.00727.x}
}
Hidinger, L.A. 1996 Measuring the impacts of ecotourism on animal populations: a case study of Tikal National Park, Guatemala Yale F&ES Bulletin 99:49-59   
BibTeX:
@article{Hidinger1996,
  author = {Hidinger, L. A.},
  title = {Measuring the impacts of ecotourism on animal populations: a case study of Tikal National Park, Guatemala},
  journal = {Yale F&ES Bulletin},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {99},
  pages = {49--59}
}
Hilário, R.R., Rodrigues, F.H.G., Chiarello, A.G. and Mourthé, Í. 2012 Can roads be used as transects for primate population surveys? Folia Primatologica 83:47-55  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hilario2012,
  author = {Hilário, R. R. and Rodrigues, F. H. G. and Chiarello, A. G. and Mourthé, Ítalo},
  title = {Can roads be used as transects for primate population surveys?},
  journal = {Folia Primatologica},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {83},
  pages = {47--55},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1159/000339805}
}
Hill, K., Padwe, J., Bejyvagi, C., Bepurangi, A., Jakugi, F., Tykuarangi, R. and Tykuarangi, T. 1997 Impact of hunting on large vertebrates in the Mbaracayu reserve, Paraguay Conservation Biology 11:1339-1353  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hiletal97,
  author = {Hill, K. and Padwe, J. and Bejyvagi, C. and Bepurangi, A. and Jakugi, F. and Tykuarangi, R. and Tykuarangi, T.},
  title = {Impact of hunting on large vertebrates in the Mbaracayu reserve, Paraguay},
  journal = {Conservation Biology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {1339--1353},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96048.x}
}
Hilden, O. and Järvinen, A. 1989 Efficiency of the line-transect method in mountain birch forest Annales Zoologici Fennici 26:185-190   
BibTeX:
@article{HilJAr89,
  author = {Hilden, O. and Järvinen, A.},
  title = {Efficiency of the line-transect method in mountain birch forest},
  journal = {Annales Zoologici Fennici},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {185--190}
}
Hines, E.M., Adulyanukosol, K. and Duffus, D.A. 2005 Dugong (Dugong dugon) abundance along the andaman coast of thailand Marine Mammal Science 21:536-549  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hines2005,
  author = {Hines, Ellen M. and Adulyanukosol, Kanjana and Duffus, David A.},
  title = {Dugong (Dugong dugon) abundance along the andaman coast of thailand},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {536--549},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2005.tb01247.x}
}
Hines, E., Strindberg, S., Junchompoo, C., Ponnampalam, L.S., Ilangakoon, A.D., Jackson-Ricketts, J. and Mananunsap, S. 2015 Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf coast of Thailand. Frontiers in Marine Science 2(63)  DOI  
Abstract: Effective conservation of coastal marine mammals is largely dependent on reliable knowledge of their abundance, as well as the ecological and human factors driving their distribution. In developing countries, lack of resources and capacity frequently impedes research needed to estimate abundance and to determine the ecological requirements of coastal marine mammals and the impact of threats related to coastal development and fisheries. Over the course of 5 years, we developed practical research methods and trained local scientists in Thailand to use accepted line transect distance sampling methods for abundance assessment. The study focused on a little-known coastal and freshwater species found throughout Southeast Asia, namely the Irrawaddy dolphin, which has been sighted regularly along the coast of the eastern Gulf of Thailand. During 5 years of line transect boat surveys in Trat Province, the eastern-most province in Thailand, we found an average of 423 dolphins distributed within 12 km of the coast. Compared to other abundance estimates of coastal Irrawaddy dolphins in Southeast Asia, this is a relatively large number. This population could extend into the northern coast of Cambodia, where surveys are currently being planned. The Thai government has begun talks with Cambodia about a transboundary marine protected area that would include areas in both countries where coastal Irrawaddy dolphins are found. Collaboration between scientists in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam is further needed to determine dolphin movement and habitat use across borders.
BibTeX:
@article{Hines2015,
  author = {Hines, Ellen and Strindberg, Samantha and Junchompoo, Chalatip and Ponnampalam, Lousa Shobhini and Ilangakoon, Anoukchika D. and Jackson-Ricketts, Justine and Mananunsap, Somchai},
  title = {Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf coast of Thailand.},
  journal = {Frontiers in Marine Science},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {2},
  number = {63},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2015.00063}
}
Hiby, A.R. and Ward, A.J. 1986 Analysis of cue-counting and blow rate estimation experiments carried out during the 1984/85 IDCR minke whale assessment cruise Report of the International Whaling Commission 36:473-476   
BibTeX:
@article{HiWar86b,
  author = {Hiby, A. R. and Ward, A. J.},
  title = {Analysis of cue-counting and blow rate estimation experiments carried out during the 1984/85 IDCR minke whale assessment cruise},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {473--476}
}
Hobson, K.A., Rempel, R.S., Greenwood, H., Turnbull, B. and Van Wilgenburg, S.L. 2002 Acoustic surveys of birds using electronic recordings: new potential from an omnidirectional microphone system Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:709-720  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Hobetal02,
  author = {Hobson, K. A. and Rempel, R. S. and Greenwood, H. and Turnbull, B. and Van Wilgenburg, S. L.},
  title = {Acoustic surveys of birds using electronic recordings: new potential from an omnidirectional microphone system},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {709--720},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784223}
}
Högmander, H. 1991 A random field approach to transect counts of wildlife populations Biometrical Journal 33:1013-1023  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hog91,
  author = {Högmander, H.},
  title = {A random field approach to transect counts of wildlife populations},
  journal = {Biometrical Journal},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {1013--1023},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.4710330813}
}
Högmander, H. 1995 Methods of spatial statistics in monitoring wildlife populations School: University of Jyväskylä   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Hog95,
  author = {Högmander, H.},
  title = {Methods of spatial statistics in monitoring wildlife populations},
  school = {University of Jyväskylä},
  year = {1995}
}
Holt, R.S. and Cologne, J. 1987 Factors affecting line transect estimates of dolphin school density Journal of Wildlife Management 51:836-843  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HolCol87,
  author = {Holt, R. S. and Cologne, J.},
  title = {Factors affecting line transect estimates of dolphin school density},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {836--843},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801749}
}
Holmes, A.L. and Geupel, G.R. 2005 Effects of trail width on the densities of four species of breeding birds in Chaparral (Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191)School: USDA Forest Service   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Holmes2005,
  author = {Holmes, Aaron L. and Geupel, Geoffrey R.},
  title = {Effects of trail width on the densities of four species of breeding birds in Chaparral},
  school = {USDA Forest Service},
  year = {2005},
  number = {Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191}
}
Holt, R.S. and Powers, J.E. 1982 Abundance estimation of dolphin stocks involved in the eastern tropical pacific yellowfin tuna fishery determined from aerial and ship surveys to 1979 School: United States Department of Commerce   
BibTeX:
@techreport{HolPow82,
  author = {Holt, R. S. and Powers, J. E.},
  title = {Abundance estimation of dolphin stocks involved in the eastern tropical pacific yellowfin tuna fishery determined from aerial and ship surveys to 1979},
  school = {United States Department of Commerce},
  year = {1982}
}
Hone, J. 1986 Accuracy of the multiple regression method for estimating density in transect counts Australian Wildlife Research 13:121-126  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hon86,
  author = {Hone, J.},
  title = {Accuracy of the multiple regression method for estimating density in transect counts},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {121--126},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9860121}
}
Hone, J. 1988 A test of the accuracy of line and strip transect estimators in aerial survey Australian Wildlife Research 15:493-497  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hon88,
  author = {Hone, J.},
  title = {A test of the accuracy of line and strip transect estimators in aerial survey},
  journal = {Australian Wildlife Research},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {493--497},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9880493}
}
Hosein, A., Narang, D.S., Rostant, L. and Hailey, A. 2017 The abundance of red-bellied macaws (Orthopsittaca manilata) and orange-winged parrots (Amazona amazonica) in relation to fruiting moriche palms (Mauritia flexuosa) at the aripo savannas, Trinidad Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25:40-46  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hosein2017,
  author = {Hosein, Aliya and Narang, Darshanjit Singh and Rostant, Luke and Hailey, Adrian},
  title = {The abundance of red-bellied macaws (Orthopsittaca manilata) and orange-winged parrots (Amazona amazonica) in relation to fruiting moriche palms (Mauritia flexuosa) at the aripo savannas, Trinidad},
  journal = {Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {40--46},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03544375}
}
Hounsome, T.D., Young, R.P., Davison, J., Yarnell, R.W., Trewby, I.D., Garnett, B.T., Delahay, R.J. and Wilson, G.J. 2005 An evaluation of distance sampling to estimate badger (Meles meles) abundance Journal of Zoology 266(1):81-87  DOI  
Abstract: Distance sampling is a common and increasingly used method of estimating animal abundance in conservation and management programmes. The precision of a distance sampling survey can be estimated from the field data, but accuracy can only be evaluated by comparison with the true population size. For wild mammal populations, such opportunities are rare. The high-density badger Meles meles population at Woodchester Park in Gloucestershire, U.K. has been routinely and intensively live-trapped for the past 30 years. The estimates of abundance based on mark-recapture analyses of the live-trapping data provided a reliable baseline against which to evaluate distance sampling for a badger population. A distance sampling survey was carried out in autumn 2002 by using spotlighting along line transects. Owing to the impractical nature of spotlighting in closed habitats, such as woodland, surveys were conducted in open habitat only. A radio-tracking study provided behavioural data that were used to estimate the proportion of the population available for sampling in open habitats. This was incorporated as a multiplier into the DISTANCE analysis. The estimate of abundance from distance sampling was 76 badgers (% CV = 42.2), using a multiplier based on radio-tracking data from autumn only. When the multiplier was derived from radio-tracking data from across the whole year, based on a larger sample of tracked badgers, the distance sampling abundance estimate was 77 badgers (% CV = 25.9). These compared favourably to the mark-recapture estimate of 68 badgers (% CV = 7.4). The lack of precision in the distance sampling density estimate was largely owing to the inclusion of the multiplier. Distance sampling combined with data on habitat use can produce reliable estimates of badger abundance in areas of medium to high density, particularly in landscapes of primarily open habitat. textcopyright 2005 The Zoological Society of London.
BibTeX:
@article{Hounsome2005,
  author = {Hounsome, T. D. and Young, R. P. and Davison, J. and Yarnell, R. W. and Trewby, I. D. and Garnett, B. T. and Delahay, R. J. and Wilson, G. J.},
  title = {An evaluation of distance sampling to estimate badger (Meles meles)  abundance},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {266},
  number = {1},
  pages = {81--87},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836905006606}
}
Howe, E.J., Buckland, S.T., Després-Einspenner, M.-L. and Kühl, H.S. 2017 Distance sampling with camera traps Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8(11):1558-1565  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Howe2017,
  author = {Howe, Eric J. and Buckland, Stephen T. and Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne and Kühl, Hjalmar S.},
  title = {Distance sampling with camera traps},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {8},
  number = {11},
  pages = {1558--1565},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12790}
}
Howe, E.J., Buckland, S.T., Després-Einspenner, M.-L. and Kühl, H.S. 2018 Model selection with overdispersed distance sampling data Methods in Ecology and Evolution 10(1):38-47  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Howe2018,
  author = {Howe, Eric J. and Buckland, Stephen T. and Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne and Kühl, Hjalmar S.},
  title = {Model selection with overdispersed distance sampling data},
  journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1},
  pages = {38--47},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.13082}
}
Hudgins, R., Norment, C. and Schlesinger, M. 2012 Assessing detectability for monitoring of rare species: a case study of the cobblestone tiger beetle (Cicindela marginipennis dejean) Journal of Insect Conservation 16(3):447-455  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hudgins2012,
  author = {Hudgins, Rhonda and Norment, Christopher and Schlesinger, Matthew},
  title = {Assessing detectability for monitoring of rare species: a case study of the cobblestone tiger beetle (Cicindela marginipennis dejean)},
  journal = {Journal of Insect Conservation},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {16},
  number = {3},
  pages = {447--455},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-011-9432-5}
}
Hutto, R.L., Pletschet, S.M. and Hendricks, P. 1986 A fixed radius point count method for nonbreeding and breeding season use The Auk 103:593-602  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hutetal86,
  author = {Hutto, R. L. and Pletschet, S. M. and Hendricks, P.},
  title = {A fixed radius point count method for nonbreeding and breeding season use},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {103},
  pages = {593--602},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/103.3.593}
}
Hüttmann, F. 2002 The first international distance sampling conference at the University of St. Andrews, scotland, july 30 to August 3, 2001 Zeitschrift fur Jagdwissenschaft 48(1):66-67   
BibTeX:
@article{Huttmann2002,
  author = {Hüttmann, F.},
  title = {The first international distance sampling conference at the University of St. Andrews, scotland, july 30 to August 3, 2001},
  journal = {Zeitschrift fur Jagdwissenschaft},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {48},
  number = {1},
  pages = {66--67}
}
Hutto, R.L. and Young, J.S. 2003 On the design of monitoring programs and the use of population indices: a reply to Ellingson and Lukacs Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:903-910  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Hutto2003,
  author = {Hutto, R. L. and Young, J. S.},
  title = {On the design of monitoring programs and the use of population indices: a reply to Ellingson and Lukacs},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {903--910},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784617}
}
Hutto, R.L. 2016 Should scientists be required to use a model-based solution to adjust for possible distance-based detectability bias? Ecological Applications 26(5):1287-1294  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Hutto2016,
  author = {Hutto, Richard L.},
  title = {Should scientists be required to use a model-based solution to adjust for possible distance-based detectability bias?},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {26},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1287--1294},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.1385}
}
Hutto, R.L. and Young, J.S. 2002 Regional landbird monitoring: perspectives from the Northern Rocky Mountains Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:738-750  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{HutYou02,
  author = {Hutto, R. L. and Young, J. S.},
  title = {Regional landbird monitoring: perspectives from the Northern Rocky Mountains},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {738--750},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784226}
}
Hyrenbach, K.D., Baduini, C.L. and Hunt Jr., G.L. 2001 Line transect estimates of short-tailed shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris mortality in the south-eastern Bering Sea, 1997-1999 Marine Ornithology 29(1):11-18   
Abstract: During 1997, hundreds of thousands of Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris starved to death in the Bering Sea. We surveyed the distribution and abundance of floating carcasses during a cruise between 27 August-12 September, and estimated that over 95 000 carcasses were afloat within three survey grids covering approximately 52 400 km2. We repeatedly surveyed the same areas during two subsequent cruises in 1998 and 1999, and used standard population sampling techniques to evaluate the background levels of shearwater mortality during additional years when a die-off did not occur. The mortality event we observed in 1997 was unusual due to its extent and magnitude. During the die-off, dead shearwaters were sighted within all three survey grids. Conversely, we only encountered carcasses at one of these sites in 1998. Moreover, carcass densities in 1997 were at least one order of magnitude higher than those recorded during the following year. Surveys of seabird mortality at sea can account for floating carcasses before they are lost through advection and scavenging. Therefore, vessel-based surveys are likely to improve the accuracy of seabird mortality estimates based solely on counts of beach-cast carcasses. Here we describe the use of line transects to estimate seabird mortality at sea, and offer suggestions to standardize future surveys. Standardized surveys will improve our ability to compare the frequency, extent, and magnitude of seabird die-offs over time.
BibTeX:
@article{Hyrenbach2001,
  author = {Hyrenbach, K. D. and Baduini, C. L. and Hunt Jr., G. L.},
  title = {Line transect estimates of short-tailed shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris mortality in the south-eastern Bering Sea, 1997-1999},
  journal = {Marine Ornithology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {29},
  number = {1},
  pages = {11--18}
}
Hyrenbach, K.D., Henry, M.F., Morgan, K.H., Welch, D.W. and Sydeman, W.J. 2007 Optimizing the width of strip transects for seabird surveys from vessels of opportunity Marine Ornithology 35:29-37   
BibTeX:
@article{Hyrenbach2007,
  author = {Hyrenbach, K. David and Henry, Mike F. and Morgan, Ken H. and Welch, David W. and Sydeman, William J.},
  title = {Optimizing the width of strip transects for seabird surveys from vessels of opportunity},
  journal = {Marine Ornithology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {29--37}
}
Ickes, K. 2001 Hyper-abundance of native wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in a lowland dipterocarp rain forest of peninsular Malaysia Biotropica 33(4):682-690  DOI  
Abstract: This study reports extraordinarily high density estimates for the wild pig (Sus scrofa) from an aseasonal tropical forest site within the species' native range. At Pasoh Forest Reserve, a 2500 ha area of lowland dipterocarp rain forest in Peninsular Malaysia, line transects were used to estimate pig density from May to October in 1996 and 1998. In 1996, 44 sightings of S. scrofa consisting of 166 individuals were recorded along 81 km of transects. In 1998, 39 sightings documented 129 individuals along 79.9 km of transects. Estimated population density was $47.0 pigs/kmtextasciicircum 2$ in 1996 and $27.0 pigs/kmtextasciicircum 2$ in 1998. Sus scrofa biomass in this forest was estimated at $1837 kg/kmtextasciicircum 2$ and $1346 kg/kmtextasciicircum 2$ in 1996 and 1998, respectively. Differences between years were attributed to changes in the density of young pigs, coincident with a mast-seeding year of dipterocarp trees in 1996. Pig densities at Pasoh Forest Reserve were much higher than at other forest locations within the species' native range in Europe and Asia. Because Pasoh Forest Reserve is a forest fragment, two factors likely account for the extremely high pig densities: (1) local extinction of natural predators (mainly tigers and leopards) and (2) an abundant year-round food supply of African oil palm fruits from extensive plantations bordering the reserve.
BibTeX:
@article{IckesBiotropica2001,
  author = {Ickes, Kalan},
  title = {Hyper-abundance of native wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in a lowland dipterocarp rain forest of peninsular Malaysia},
  journal = {Biotropica},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {33},
  number = {4},
  pages = {682--690},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1646/0006-3606(2001)033%5B0682:HAONWP%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Inman, R.D., Nussear, K.E. and Tracy, C.R. 2010 Detecting trends in desert tortoise population growth: elusive behavior inflates variance in estimates of population density Endangered Species Research 10:294-304  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Inman2010,
  author = {Inman, Richard D. and Nussear, Kenneth E. and Tracy, C. Richard},
  title = {Detecting trends in desert tortoise population growth: elusive behavior inflates variance in estimates of population density},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {294--304},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00214}
}
Innes, S., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Laake, J.L., Laidre, K.L., Cleator, H.J., Richard, P. and Stewart, R.E.A. 2002 Surveys of belugas and narwhals in the Canadian High Arctic in 1996 NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 4:169-190  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Innetal02,
  author = {Innes, S. and Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Laake, J. L. and Laidre, K. L. and Cleator, H. J. and Richard, P. and Stewart, R. E. A.},
  title = {Surveys of belugas and narwhals in the Canadian High Arctic in 1996},
  journal = {NAMMCO Sci. Publ.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {169--190},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.7557/3.2843}
}
Jachmann, H. 2002 Comparison of aerial counts with ground counts for large African herbivores Journal of Applied Ecology 39(5):841-852  DOI  
Abstract: 1. Over the past 50 years, aerial counts have been widely used in African wildlife management; however, the accuracy of the resulting estimates has rarely been questioned. The reliability of aerial counts of large African herbivores was examined by comparing the results of a series of systematic aerial sample counts with those from a series of line transect foot counts conducted in the Lupande Game Management Area in Zambia. 2. For most large herbivore species, the estimates from the aerial counts were considerably lower than those from the ground counts. The data pointed to undercounting as a major problem of aerial surveys. During the aerial counts, significant numbers of animals were missed on the transects, first due to the low probability of spotting single animals, small groups of animals and less conspicuous ones (sighting probability bias), and secondly because part of the population was concealed by obstructions and therefore not visible to the observers (visibility bias). 3. The main factors that influence visibility of large herbivores from the air are the animals' reactions to an over-flying aircraft, dispersion, body size and colour. Animals that move in response to an aircraft are more likely to be seen than static ones; dark-coloured animals are easier to spot than light-coloured ones against a light background; large herds are easier to detect than small ones; and large animals are more easily seen than small ones. Body size is important while trying to spot grazers and mixed feeders from the air, while colour is important for spotting browsers. This is mainly due to the differences in habitat use, with browsers being confined to the thicker habitat. 4. To minimize undercounting bias, both conventional aerial counts and aerial line transect counts should be restricted to large conspicuous grazers and mixed feeders in medium to large group sizes, such as elephant Loxodonta africana africana, buffalo Sincerus caffer, zebra Equus burchell, wildebeest Connochaetes and lechwe Kobus leche. Operational factors, such as height, speed and strip width, should be kept within reasonable limits for conventional aerial counts. Only one species should be counted at a time, always applying the double-count technique. For aerial line transect counts, the use of a helicopter is a prerequisite to obtaining accurate estimates. Other important considerations are observer experience and flight duration.
BibTeX:
@article{JachmannJAE2002,
  author = {Jachmann, H.},
  title = {Comparison of aerial counts with ground counts for large African herbivores},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {39},
  number = {5},
  pages = {841--852},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00752.x}
}
Järvinen, O. 1976 Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. II. comparison between two methods Ornis Scandinavica 7:43-48  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jar76,
  author = {Järvinen, O.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. II. comparison between two methods},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {43--48},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3676173}
}
Järvinen, O. 1978 Estimating relative densities of land birds by point counts Annales Zoologici Fennici 15:290-293   
BibTeX:
@article{Jar78,
  author = {Järvinen, O.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of land birds by point counts},
  journal = {Annales Zoologici Fennici},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {290--293}
}
Järvinen, O. 1978 Species-specific efficiency in line transects Ornis Scandinavica 9:164-167  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jar78b,
  author = {Järvinen, O.},
  title = {Species-specific efficiency in line transects},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {164--167},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3675877}
}
Järvinen, O., Väisänen, R.A. and Haila, Y. 1976 Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. III. temporal constancy of the proportion of main belt observations Ornis Fennica 53:40-45   
BibTeX:
@article{Jaretal76,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A. and Haila, Y.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. III. temporal constancy of the proportion of main belt observations},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {40--45}
}
Jaramillo-Legorreta, A.M., Rojas-Bracho, L. and Gerrodette, T. 1999 A new abundance estimate for vaquitas: first step for recovery Marine Mammal Science 15:957-973  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jaretal99,
  author = {Jaramillo-Legorreta, A. M. and Rojas-Bracho, L. and Gerrodette, T.},
  title = {A new abundance estimate for vaquitas: first step for recovery},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {957--973},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1999.tb00872.x}
}
Jarvis, A.M. and Robertson, A. 1999 Predicting population sizes and priority conservation areas for 10 endemic Namibian bird species Biological Conservation 88:121-131  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JarRob99,
  author = {Jarvis, A. M. and Robertson, A.},
  title = {Predicting population sizes and priority conservation areas for 10 endemic Namibian bird species},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {121--131},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00060-3}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. 1975 Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method Oikos 26:316-322  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai75,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method},
  journal = {Oikos},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {316--322},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3543502}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. 1976 Between-year component of diversity in communities of breeding land birds Oikos 27:34-39  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai76,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Between-year component of diversity in communities of breeding land birds},
  journal = {Oikos},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {34--39},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3543428}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. 1976 Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. IV. geographical constancy of the proportion of main belt observations Ornis Fennica 53:87-90   
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai76b,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Estimating relative densities of breeding birds by the line transect method. IV. geographical constancy of the proportion of main belt observations},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {87--90}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. 1976 Finnish line transect censuses Ornis Fennica 53:115-118   
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai76c,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Finnish line transect censuses},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {115--118}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. 1983 Confidence limits for estimates of population density in line transects Ornis Scandinavica 14:129-134  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai83a,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Confidence limits for estimates of population density in line transects},
  journal = {Ornis Scandinavica},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {129--134},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3676016}
}
Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R.A. 1983 Correction coefficients for line transect censuses of breeding birds Ornis Fennica 60:97-104   
BibTeX:
@article{JarVai83b,
  author = {Järvinen, O. and Väisänen, R. A.},
  title = {Correction coefficients for line transect censuses of breeding birds},
  journal = {Ornis Fennica},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {60},
  pages = {97--104}
}
Jathanna, D., Karanth, K.U., Kumar, N.S., Goswami, V.R., Vasudev, D. and Karanth, K. 2015 Reliable monitoring of elephant populations in the forests of India: analytical and practical considerations Biological Conservation 187:212-220  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jathanna15,
  author = {Jathanna, D. and Karanth, K. U. and Kumar, N. S. and Goswami, V. R. and Vasudev, D. and Karanth, K.},
  title = {Reliable monitoring of elephant populations in the forests of India: analytical and practical considerations},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {187},
  pages = {212--220},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.04.030}
}
Jathanna, D., Karanth, K.U. and Johnsingh, A.J.T. 2003 Estimation of large herbivore densities in the tropical forests of southern India using distance sampling Journal of Zoology 261(3):285-290  DOI  
Abstract: Ecological densities of large herbivores were estimated using the line transect method in the tropical moist forests of Bhadra Tiger Reserve, southern India, during November 2000. The species of interest were chital Axis axis, sambar Cervus unicolor, muntjac Muntiacus muntjak, gaur Bos gaurus and Hanuman langur Presbytes entellus. Six permanent transects, ranging from 2.6 to 3.6 km (totalling 18.2 km) were each walked 26 times. A total of 473 km was walked during the surveys. Numbers of detections were generally low (51, 25, 68, 17 and 302 for chital, sambar, muntjac, gaur and langur, respectively). Mean estimated densities of different species were [D (± SE)]: 4.51 (± 1.05) chital km-2, 0.89 (± 0.23) sambar km -2, 3.64 (± 0.63) muntjac km-2, 1.48 (± 0.63) gaur km-2 and 22.62 (± 2.64) langur km-2. Possible shortcomings of our estimates are considered and suggestions made for improving future surveys. A comparison with densities estimated for these species in other well-protected parks showed that the chital, gaur and sambar densities in Bhadra were extremely low. The main causal factors for these low densities seem to be poaching and livestock grazing.
BibTeX:
@article{Jathanna2003,
  author = {Jathanna, D. and Karanth, K. U. and Johnsingh, A. J. T.},
  title = {Estimation of large herbivore densities in the tropical forests of southern India using distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {261},
  number = {3},
  pages = {285--290},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836903004278}
}
Jathanna, D., Kumar, N.S. and Karanth, K.U. 2008 Measuring Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) abundance in southern India using distance sampling Current Science 95:885-888   
BibTeX:
@article{Jathanna2008,
  author = {Jathanna, Devcharan and Kumar, N. Samba and Karanth, K. Ullas},
  title = {Measuring Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) abundance in southern India using distance sampling},
  journal = {Current Science},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {95},
  pages = {885--888}
}
Jefferson, T.A. 1996 Estimates of abundance of cetaceans in offshore waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 1992– 1993 Southwest Naturalist 41:279-287   
BibTeX:
@article{Jef96,
  author = {Jefferson, T. A.},
  title = {Estimates of abundance of cetaceans in offshore waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, 1992– 1993},
  journal = {Southwest Naturalist},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {279--287}
}
Jefferson, T.A. 2000 Population biology of the Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin in Hong Kong waters Wildlife Monographs(144):1-65   
Abstract: The Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin (Sousa chinensis Osbeck, 1765) is found throughout the western Pacific and Indian oceans, from southern China and northern Australia in the east to South Africa in the west. Throughout most of its range it has not been well studied, and in southern China very little is known of its biology. The goal of the present study was to provide scientific information needed for the longterm conservation and management of the population that occurs in Hong Kong waters. From September 1995 to November 1998, 38,105 km of systematic line transect surveys were conducted throughout marine waters of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and adjacent waters to provide data on distribution and abundance. Photo-identification of individual dolphins allowed for examination of movement patterns, home ranges, and social organization. Collection of stranded dolphin carcasses and detailed necropsies provided information on causes of death as well as samples for life history studies, such as feeding habits, growth and reproduction, ecotoxicology, and stock structure. The dolphin population appears to be centered around the Pearl River Estuary, and Hong Kong waters represent the eastern portion of the range, which extends far into mainland Chinese waters (Lingding Bay) and covers at least 1,800 km^2. Within Hong Kong, dolphins only occur in western waters around Lantau Island. The area north of Lantau Island is heavily used throughout the year and represents by far the most important habitat in Hong Kong. Line transect analyses indicate that between 88 (spring) and 145 (summer) dolphins occur in Hong Kong. Based on 27,600 photographs taken, 213 individual dolphins were identified. The total size of the Pearl River breeding population is unknown, but is estimated to consist of at least 1,028 dolphins, based on line transect analysis. An apparent decline in the number of dolphins in the North Lantau area over the period from 1996-1998 was not statistically significant. Individual dolphins have overlapping home ranges of about 30-400 km^2 in different sections of the population's overall range. Groups of dolphins in Hong Kong number up to 23 animals, with an average group size of 3.8 +- s.d. 3.63 animals. There is no significant seasonal variation in group size, but groups feeding behind pair trawl fishing vessels (mean = 9.6 +- s.d. 5.37) are significantly larger than other groups, and groups in Lingding Bay, in Chinese waters west of Hong Kong (mean = 8.3 +- s.d. 7.84) are significantly larger than those in Hong Kong. Groups are very fluid and change composition frequently, with association indices ranging from 0-0.333. Behavioral patterns are similar to those of other coastal dolphins, but Hong Kong hump-backed dolphins only rarely ride bow waves. Following pair trawlers represents an important feeding strategy for some individuals. Construction work on an airport fuel facility in the dolphins' main habitat appears to have caused some disturbance (indicated by increased swimming speeds) and possibly temporary evacuation of the surrounding area. There is a great deal of developmental variation in the color pattern of southern Chinese hump-backed dolphins, with a general lightening from newborn to adult stages. Males appear to retain more spots in adulthood than females. Length at birth appears to be about 100 cm, and postnatal development is characterized by rapid growth in the first year and a levelling-off of the growth curve after reaching adulthood. Asymptotic length is reached at around 243 cm. Length and weight are related exponentially, with the maximum weight about 250 kg. Calving occurs throughout the year, but most young are born from January through August, with a peak in spring/summer. Scant evidence suggests that sexual maturity in females is reached at about 9-10 years of age. Dolphins feed mainly on several demersal and pelagic fish species that are often associated with estuaries. There is a lack of evidence for long-distance movements (on the order of hundreds of linear kilometers), and this presumably results in isolation of groups around major Chinese river mouths. Thus it appears that there may be at least 8 separate populations of hump-backed dolphins along the coast of southern China. The Pearl River Estuary, including Hong Kong, is apparently inhabited by one of these populations, although preliminary genetic work has shown only equivocal evidence of population separation from dolphins in the Xiamen area. Human-related causes of mortality include entanglement in fishing nets and vessel collisions. Some environmental contaminants (especially the heavy metal mercury and the pesticide DDT) were found in high levels in some dolphins, and preliminary evidence suggests that these may be affecting the health of the animals. A series of recommendations for management and for further research have been made to aid in the conservation of these animals. Principles for the conservation of wild living resources should be followed, and information from both the natural and social sciences are needed for proper management. Research and longterm monitoring of the population must continue for management strategies to be evaluated and refined. Overall, the population of hump-backed dolphins that occurs in Hong Kong waters appears to be viable and should be able to survive with appropriate conservation efforts.
BibTeX:
@article{Jefferson2000,
  author = {Jefferson, Thomas A.},
  title = {Population biology of the Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin in Hong Kong waters},
  journal = {Wildlife Monographs},
  year = {2000},
  number = {144},
  pages = {1--65}
}
Jensen, A.L. 1996 Subsampling with line transects for estimation of animal abundance Environmetrics 7:283-289  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jen96,
  author = {Jensen, A. L.},
  title = {Subsampling with line transects for estimation of animal abundance},
  journal = {Environmetrics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {283--289},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-095X(199605)7:3%3C283::AID-ENV212%3E3.0.CO;2-C}
}
Jenkins, R.K.B., Brady, L.D., Huston, K., Kauffmann, J.L.D., Rabearivony, J., Raveloson, G. and Rowcliffe, J.M. 1999 The population status of chameleons within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, and recommendations for future monitoring Oryx 33:38-46  DOI  
Abstract: Malagasy chameleons are threatened by the relentless pace of habitat destruction. Their great popularity amongst herpetoculturalists has also resulted in collection for international animal markets. Most previous fieldwork has focused on the compilation of much needed species inventories, but little attention has been given to estimating chameleon population densities. This lack of information prevents a reliable assessment of the effects of habitat loss and direct exploitation on wild populations. A simple and repeatable methodology for the monitoring of chameleon populations is therefore urgently required. The present study developed survey techniques based on distance sampling within an area of relatively undisturbed rain forest at Ranomafana National Park. In total 394 individuals from six species were recorded and population densities (±SE) of 27.2 ± 5.4/ha Brookesia spp. and 21.4±4.0/ha Calumma spp. were estimated using the computer program DISTANCE. The authors propose that monitoring of chameleons in areas subject to different threats should begin immediately using the methods outlined in this paper.
BibTeX:
@article{Jenkins1999,
  author = {Jenkins, R. K. B. and Brady, L. D. and Huston, K. and Kauffmann, J. L. D. and Rabearivony, J. and Raveloson, G. and Rowcliffe, J. M.},
  title = {The population status of chameleons within Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, and recommendations for future monitoring},
  journal = {Oryx},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {38--46},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3008.1999.00034.x}
}
Jensen, A. and Meilby, H. 2012 Assessing the population status of a tree species using distance sampling: Aquilaria crassna (thymelaeaceae) in northern Laos International Journal of Forestry Research 2012  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jensen2012,
  author = {Jensen, Anders and Meilby, Henrik},
  title = {Assessing the population status of a tree species using distance sampling: Aquilaria crassna (thymelaeaceae) in northern Laos},
  journal = {International Journal of Forestry Research},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {2012},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/265831}
}
Jepson, P., Brickle, N. and Chayadin, Y. 2001 The conservation status of tanimbar corella and blue-streaked lory on the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia: results of a rapid contextual survey Oryx 35(3):224-233  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jepson2001,
  author = {Paul Jepson and Nick Brickle and Yusup Chayadin},
  title = {The conservation status of tanimbar corella and blue-streaked lory on the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia: results of a rapid contextual survey},
  journal = {Oryx},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {35},
  number = {3},
  pages = {224--233},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3008.2001.00179.x}
}
Jessop, T.S., Forsyth, D.M., Purwandana, D., Imansyah, J., Opat, D.S. and McDonald-Madden, E. 0 Monitoring the ungulate prey of komodo dragons Varanus komodoensis using faecal counts    
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Jessop,
  author = {Jessop, T. S. and Forsyth, D. M. and Purwandana, D. and Imansyah, J. and Opat, D. S. and McDonald-Madden, E.},
  title = {Monitoring the ungulate prey of komodo dragons Varanus komodoensis using faecal counts},
  year = {0}
}
Jett, D.A. and Nichols, J.D. 1987 A field comparison of nested grid and trapping web density estimators Journal of Mammalogy 68:888-892  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JetNic87,
  author = {Jett, D. A. and Nichols, J. D.},
  title = {A field comparison of nested grid and trapping web density estimators},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {68},
  pages = {888--892},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1381576}
}
Jewell, R., Thomas, L., Harris, C.M., Kaschner, K., Wiff, R., Hammond, P.S. and Quick., N.J. 2012 Global analysis of cetacean line-transect surveys: detecting trends in cetacean density Marine Ecology Progress Series. 453:227-240  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jewell2012,
  author = {Jewell, R. and Thomas, L. and Harris, C. M. and Kaschner, K. and Wiff, R. and Hammond, P. S. and Quick., N. J.},
  title = {Global analysis of cetacean line-transect surveys: detecting trends in cetacean density},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {453},
  pages = {227--240},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09636}
}
Jimenez, I., Londono, G.A. and Cadena, C.D. 2003 Efficiency, bias, and consistency of visual and aural surveys of curassows (Cracidae) in tropical forests Journal of Field Ornithology 74:210-216  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JIM03,
  author = {Jimenez, I. and Londono, G. A. and Cadena, C. D.},
  title = {Efficiency, bias, and consistency of visual and aural surveys of curassows (Cracidae) in tropical forests},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {74},
  pages = {210--216},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1648/0273-8570-74.3.210}
}
Jocqué, R., Samu, F. and Bird, T. 2005 Density of spiders (araneae: ctenidae) in Ivory Coast rainforests Journal of Zoology 266:105-110  DOI  
Abstract: To monitor the biodiversity quality of rainforest fragments in the eastern region of the Ivory Coast, the density of at least one important invertebrate group needs to be determined. This has been possible for nocturnal hunting spiders from the family Ctenidae using a novel combination of sampling and census techniques. The reflective characteristics of the eyes of these spiders meant that individuals were readily located using headlamps. Collections were made along transects (total length 5.5 km), adopting a distance sampling protocol. Density was estimated using distance sampling models. More than 2600 ctenids (15 species) were captured and identified. Seven of these species were present in sufficient numbers for density assessment. The combined density of these seven most common species in degraded forest fragments (0.124 m -2) was only half that in less disturbed forest (0.240 m -2). Ctenidae are a promising candidate for future monitoring of invertebrate groups in the rainforest. textcopyright 2005 The Zoological Society of London.
BibTeX:
@article{Jocque2005,
  author = {Jocqué, R. and Samu, F. and Bird, T.},
  title = {Density of spiders (araneae: ctenidae) in Ivory Coast rainforests},
  journal = {Journal of Zoology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {266},
  pages = {105--110},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836905006746}
}
Peak, R.G. 2011 A field test of the distance sampling method using golden-cheeked warblers Journal of Field Ornithology 82(3):311-319  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JOFO:JOFO334,
  author = {Peak, Rebecca G.},
  title = {A field test of the distance sampling method using golden-cheeked warblers},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Inc},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {82},
  number = {3},
  pages = {311--319},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1557-9263.2011.00334.x}
}
Johnson, F.A., Pollock, K.H. and Montalbano, F. 1989 Visibility bias in aerial surveys of mottled ducks Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:222-227  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Johetal89,
  author = {Johnson, F. A. and Pollock, K. H. and Montalbano, F.},
  title = {Visibility bias in aerial surveys of mottled ducks},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {222--227},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782373}
}
Johnson, B.K., Lindzey, F.G. and Guenzel, R.J. 1991 Use of aerial line transect surveys to estimate pronghorn populations in Wyoming Wildlife Society Bulletin 19:315-321  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Johetal91,
  author = {Johnson, B. K. and Lindzey, F. G. and Guenzel, R. J.},
  title = {Use of aerial line transect surveys to estimate pronghorn populations in Wyoming},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {315--321},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782522}
}
Johnsingh, A.J.T. and Joshua, J. 1994 Avifauna in 3 vegetation types on Mundanthurai Plateau, south India Journal of Tropical Ecology 10:323-335  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JohJos94,
  author = {Johnsingh, A. J. T. and Joshua, J.},
  title = {Avifauna in 3 vegetation types on Mundanthurai Plateau, south India},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {323--335},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400007999}
}
Johnson, A.E., Knott, C.D., Pamungkas, B., Pasaribu, M. and Marshall, A.J. 2005 A survey of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) population in and around Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia based on nest counts Biological Conservation 121(4):495-507  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Johnson2005,
  author = {Johnson, A. E. and Knott, C. D. and Pamungkas, B. and Pasaribu, M. and Marshall, A. J.},
  title = {A survey of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) population in and around Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia based on nest counts},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {121},
  number = {4},
  pages = {495--507},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.06.002}
}
Johnson, D.H. 2008 In defense of indices: the case of bird surveys Journal of Wildlife Management 72(4):857-868  DOI  
Abstract: Indices to population size have come under increasing criticism in recent years, on the grounds that indices might not faithfully represent the entire population. Most criticisms involve surveys of birds, particularly those based on point counts, which is my focus here. A variety of quantitative methods have been developed to reduce the bias of point counts, such as distance sampling, multiple-observer surveys, and time-of-detection methods. I argue that these developments are valuable, in that they enhance understanding of the detection process, but that their practical application may well be limited, likely to intensive studies focusing on a small number of species. These quantitative methods are not generally applicable to extensive, multiple-species surveys. Although criticism of the thoughtless use of indices is welcome, their wholesale rejection is not.
BibTeX:
@article{Johnson2008,
  author = {Douglas H. Johnson},
  title = {In defense of indices: the case of bird surveys},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {72},
  number = {4},
  pages = {857--868},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/2007-294}
}
Johnson, D., Laake, J.L. and Ver Hoef, J.M. 2009 Package DSpat    
BibTeX:
@techreport{Johnson2009a,
  author = {Johnson, Devin and Laake, Jeff L. and Ver Hoef, Jay M.},
  title = {Package DSpat},
  year = {2009}
}
Johnson, D.S., Laake, J.L. and Ver Hoef, J.M. 2010 A model-based approach for making ecological inference from distance sampling data Biometrics 66:310-318  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Johnson2010a,
  author = {Johnson, Devin S. and Laake, Jeffrey L. and Ver Hoef, Jay M.},
  title = {A model-based approach for making ecological inference from distance sampling data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {310--318},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2009.01265.x}
}
Johnson, E.G. and Routledge, R.D. 1985 The line transect method: a nonparametric estimator based on shape restrictions Biometrics 41:669-679  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JohRou85,
  author = {Johnson, E. G. and Routledge, R. D.},
  title = {The line transect method: a nonparametric estimator based on shape restrictions},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {669--679},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2531287}
}
Jones, M.J., Sullivan, M.S., Marsden, S.J. and Linsley, M.D. 2001 Correlates of extinction risk of birds from two Indonesian islands Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 73:65-79  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jones2001,
  author = {Jones, M. J. and Sullivan, M. S. and Marsden, S. J. and Linsley, M. D.},
  title = {Correlates of extinction risk of birds from two Indonesian islands},
  journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {65--79},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2001.tb01347.x}
}
Jones, A.R., Hosegood, P., Wynna, R.B., Boer, M.N.D., Butler-Cowdry, S. and Embling, C.B. 2014 Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot Progress in Oceanography 128:30-48  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jones2014,
  author = {Jones, A. R. and Hosegood, P. and Wynna, R. B. and Boer, M. N. De and Butler-Cowdry, S. and Embling, C. B.},
  title = {Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot},
  journal = {Progress in Oceanography},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {128},
  pages = {30--48},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2014.08.002}
}
Jones, J., McLeish, W.J. and Robertson, R.J. 2000 Density influences census technique accuracy for Cerulean Warblers in eastern Ontario Journal of Field Ornithology 71:46-56  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Jonetal00,
  author = {Jones, J. and McLeish, W. J. and Robertson, R. J.},
  title = {Density influences census technique accuracy for Cerulean Warblers in eastern Ontario},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {46--56},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1648/0273-8570-71.1.46}
}
Banks-Leite, C., Pardini, R., Boscolo, D., Cassano, C.R., Puttker, T., Barros, C.S. and Barlow, J. 2014 Assessing the utility of statistical adjustments for imperfect detection in tropical conservation science Journal of Applied Ecology 51:849-859  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JPE:JPE12272,
  author = {Banks-Leite, Cristina and Pardini, Renata and Boscolo, Danilo and Cassano, Camila Righetto and Puttker, Thomas and Barros, Camila Santos and Barlow, Jos},
  title = {Assessing the utility of statistical adjustments for imperfect detection in tropical conservation science},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {849--859},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12272}
}
Zylstra, E.R., Steidl, R.J. and Swann, D.E. 2010 Evaluating survey methods for monitoring a rare vertebrate, the Sonoran desert tortoise The Journal of Wildlife Management 74(6):1311-1318  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JWMG:JWMG1252,
  author = {Zylstra, Erin R. and Steidl, Robert J. and Swann, Don E.},
  title = {Evaluating survey methods for monitoring a rare vertebrate, the Sonoran desert tortoise},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {74},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1311--1318},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1937-2817.2010.tb01252.x}
}
Timmer, J.M., Butler, M.J., Ballard, W.B., Boal, C.W. and Whitlaw, H.A. 2014 Spatially explicit modeling of lesser prairie-chicken lek density in Texas The Journal of Wildlife Management 78(1):142-152  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JWMG:JWMG646,
  author = {Timmer, Jennifer M. and Butler, Matthew J. and Ballard, Warren B. and Boal, Clint W. and Whitlaw, Heather A.},
  title = {Spatially explicit modeling of lesser prairie-chicken lek density in Texas},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {78},
  number = {1},
  pages = {142--152},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.646}
}
Franceschi, S., Nelli, L., Pisani, C., Franzoi, A., Fattorini, L. and Meriggi, A. 2014 A Monte Carlo appraisal of plot and distance sampling for surveys of black grouse and rock ptarmigan populations in alpine protected areas The Journal of Wildlife Management 78(2):359-368  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JWMG:JWMG661,
  author = {Franceschi, Sara and Nelli, Luca and Pisani, Caterina and Franzoi, Alessandro and Fattorini, Lorenzo and Meriggi, Alberto},
  title = {A Monte Carlo appraisal of plot and distance sampling for surveys of black grouse and rock ptarmigan populations in alpine protected areas},
  journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {78},
  number = {2},
  pages = {359--368},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.661}
}
Kaiser, L. 1983 Unbiased estimation in line-intercept sampling Biometrics 39:965-976  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kai83,
  author = {Kaiser, L.},
  title = {Unbiased estimation in line-intercept sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {965--976},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2531331}
}
Kanaji, Y., Okazaki, M. and Miyashita, T. 2017 Spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and species diversity of small Odontocetes estimated using density surface modeling with line transect sampling Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 140:151-162  DOI  
Abstract: Spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and species diversity of small odontocetes including species in the Delphinidae and Phocoenidae families were investigated using long-term dedicated sighting survey data collected between 1983 and 2006 in the North Pacific. Species diversity indices were calculated from abundance estimated using density surface modeling of line-transect data. The estimated abundance ranged from 19,521 individuals in killer whale to 1,886,022 in pantropical spotted dolphin. The predicted density maps showed that the habitats of small odontocetes corresponded well with distinct oceanic domains. Species richness was estimated to be highest between 30 and 40textdegree N where warm- and cold-water currents converge. Simpson׳s Diversity Index showed latitudinal diversity gradients of decreasing species numbers toward the poles. Higher diversity was also estimated in the coastal areas and the zonal areas around 35– 42textdegree N. Coastal– offshore gradients and latitudinal gradients are known for many taxa. The zonal areas around 35textdegree N and 40textdegree N coincide with the Kuroshio Current and its extension and the subarctic boundary, respectively. These results suggest that the species diversity of small odontocetes primarily follows general patterns of latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, while the confluence of faunas originating in distinct water masses increases species diversify in frontal waters around 30– 40textdegree N. Population densities tended to be higher for the species inhabiting higher latitudes, but were highest for intermediate latitudes at approximately 35– 40textdegree N. According to latitudinal gradients in water temperature and biological productivity, the costs for thermoregulation will decrease in warmer low latitudes, while feeding efficiency will increase in colder high latitudes. These trade-offs could optimize population density in intermediate latitudes.
BibTeX:
@article{kanaji_spatial_2017,
  author = {Kanaji, Yu and Okazaki, Makoto and Miyashita, Tomio},
  title = {Spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and species diversity of small Odontocetes estimated using density surface modeling with line transect sampling},
  journal = {Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {140},
  pages = {151--162},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2016.05.014}
}
Kanamori, T., Kuze, N., Bernard, H., Malim, T.P. and Kohshima, S. 2016 Fluctuations of population density in Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) related to fruit availability in the Danum valley, Sabah, Malaysia: a 10-year record including two mast fruitings and three other peak fruitings Primates 58(1):225-235  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kanamori2016,
  author = {Kanamori, Tomoko and Kuze, Noko and Bernard, Henry and Malim, Titol Peter and Kohshima, Shiro},
  title = {Fluctuations of population density in Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) related to fruit availability in the Danum valley, Sabah, Malaysia: a 10-year record including two mast fruitings and three other peak fruitings},
  journal = {Primates},
  publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {58},
  number = {1},
  pages = {225--235},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-016-0584-5}
}
Karanth, K.U. and Nichols, J.D. 2002 Monitoring tigers and their prey - a manual for researchers, managers and conservationists in tropical asia    
BibTeX:
@book{Karanth2002,
  author = {Karanth, K. U. and Nichols, J. D.},
  title = {Monitoring tigers and their prey - a manual for researchers, managers and conservationists in tropical asia},
  publisher = {Centre for Wildlife Studies},
  year = {2002}
}
Karunamuni, R.J. and Quinn, T.J. 1995 Bayesian estimation of animal abundance for the line transects sampling Biometrics 51:1325-37  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KarQui95,
  author = {Karunamuni, R. J. and Quinn, T. J.},
  title = {Bayesian estimation of animal abundance for the line transects sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {1325--37},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533263}
}
Karanth, K.U. and Sunquist, M.E. 1992 Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in the tropical forests of Nagarahole, India Journal of Tropical Ecology 8:21-35  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KarSun92,
  author = {Karanth, K. U. and Sunquist, M. E.},
  title = {Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in the tropical forests of Nagarahole, India},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {21--35},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400006040}
}
Karanth, K.U. and Sunquist, M.E. 1995 Prey selection by tiger, leopard and dhole in tropical forests Journal of Animal Ecology 64:439-450  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KarSun95,
  author = {Karanth, K. U. and Sunquist, M. E.},
  title = {Prey selection by tiger, leopard and dhole in tropical forests},
  journal = {Journal of Animal Ecology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {64},
  pages = {439--450},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/5647}
}
Kaschner, K., Quick, N.J., Jewell, R., Williams, R. and Harris, C.M. 2012 Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges PLoS ONE 7:e44075  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kaschner2012,
  author = {Kaschner, Kristin and Quick, Nicola J. and Jewell, Rebecca and Williams, Rob and Harris, Catriona M.},
  title = {Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {e44075},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044075}
}
Kasamatsu, F. and Joyce, G.G. 1995 Current status of odontocetes in the Antarctic Antarctic Science 7:365-379  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KasJoy95,
  author = {Kasamatsu, F. and Joyce, G. G.},
  title = {Current status of odontocetes in the Antarctic},
  journal = {Antarctic Science},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {365--379},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102095000514}
}
Kastdalen, L., Pedersen, H.C. and Fjone G.and Andreassen, H.P. Combining resource selection functions and distance sampling: an example with willow ptarmigan Proceedings of the First International Conference on Resource Selection   
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kastdalen,
  author = {Kastdalen, L. and Pedersen, H. C. and Fjone, G.and Andreassen, H. P.},
  title = {Combining resource selection functions and distance sampling: an example with willow ptarmigan},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the First International Conference on Resource Selection}
}
Katsanevakis, S. 2005 Abundance and spatial distribution of the Mediterranean scallop, Pecten jacobaeus, in a marine lake Fisheries Research 76(3):417-429  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kat05,
  author = {Katsanevakis, Stelios},
  title = {Abundance and spatial distribution of the Mediterranean scallop, Pecten jacobaeus, in a marine lake},
  journal = {Fisheries Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {76},
  number = {3},
  pages = {417--429},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2005.07.004}
}
Katsanevakis, S. 2005 Population ecology of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis in a marine lake Endangered Species Research 1:1-9  DOI  
Abstract: A substantial population of the endangered Mediterranean bivalve Pinna nobilis exists in the marine Lake Vouliagmeni (Korinthiakos Gulf, Greece). The population density of P. nobilis was estimated in the lake with line transect sampling. Individuals of the youngest age class (small) had peak densities in the 1 to 3 m bathymetric zone and their densities were higher in poorly sorted sediments. Older (large) individuals (belonging to all age classes except the first one, 9 to 11 mo) had peak densities in the 11 to 13 m bathymetric zone. No P. nobilis was found deeper than 22 m. The absence of large individuals in shallow waters may partly be explained by illegal fishing. There are several hypotheses proposed to explain the lack of small individuals in deeper areas, but no definitive explanation is offered. In Lake Vouliagmeni, P. nobilis densities were high, although marine seagrass was completely absent. Thus, P. nobilis does not actually require seagrass meadows, as stated by many authors, and it may exist in large numbers in bare soft-sediment areas as well. P. nobilis grew fast, mostly during the first 3 yr of life, and may live beyond 15 yr. By recording the exact location of each P. nobilis individual within 800 m2 transects, as a pair of coordinates, the exact spatial distribution was defined and aggregation indices were calculated. P. nobilis had an aggregated dispersion, but no evidence for preferential settlement near adults or previously-settled individuals was found. The aggregated dispersion of P. nobilis probably relates to the patchiness of the local environment. The size of P. nobilis population in Lake Vouliagmeni was estimated to be 8501 ± 4395 (mean ± 1 SD) individuals, of which 4355 ± 3460 belonged to the first age class and 4146 ± 1405 belonged to all other age classes.
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2005,
  author = {Katsanevakis, S.},
  title = {Population ecology of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis in a marine lake},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {1--9},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/ESR001051}
}
Katsanevakis, S. 2007 Density surface modelling with line transect sampling as a tool for abundance estimation of marine benthic species: the Pinna nobilis example in a marine lake Marine Biology 152:77-85  DOI  
Abstract: Density estimation of marine benthic fauna is most often conducted with fishery surveys using dredges or trawls. These estimates are often unreliable due to low and variable efficiency and are inappropriate when dealing with rare or endangered species. In the marine Lake Vouliagmeni, a density surface modelling (DSM) approach using survey data from line transects, integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS), was used to estimate the population density of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis. This is the first time that such an approach has been applied for a marine benthic species. DSM was beneficial in relation to traditional distance sampling. Apart from providing a more precise total abundance estimate, it related the density of the species to spatial covariates of interest, gave a depiction of the species dispersion in the study area, and provided abundance estimates in any subregion of the study area. In Lake Vouliagmeni, a marked zonation of P. nobilis distribution was revealed, with the species being restricted in the shallow peripheral zone at depths ¡ 22 m. Two density peaks were observed, a major peak at depths between 12 and 13 m and a secondary peak at 4 m. A main hotspot of high density was also observed in the northeastern part of the lake. Total abundance of the species was estimated to be 6,770 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 5,460– 8,393 individuals.
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2007,
  author = {Katsanevakis, Stelios},
  title = {Density surface modelling with line transect sampling as a tool for abundance estimation of marine benthic species: the Pinna nobilis example in a marine lake},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {152},
  pages = {77--85},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-007-0659-3}
}
Katsanevakis, S. and Thessalou-Legaki, M. 2007 First record of Alicia mirabilis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Aegean Sea and density assessment with distance sampling in a site of high abundance Marine Biology Research 3:468-472  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2007a,
  author = {Katsanevakis, S. and Thessalou-Legaki, M.},
  title = {First record of Alicia mirabilis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Aegean Sea and density assessment with distance sampling in a site of high abundance},
  journal = {Marine Biology Research},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {468--472},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/17451000701695379}
}
Katsanevakis, S. and Thessalou-Legaki, M. 2009 Spatial distribution, abundance and habitat use of the protected fan mussel Pinna nobilis in Souda Bay, Crete Aquatic Biology 8:45-54  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Katsanevakis2009,
  author = {Katsanevakis, Stelios and Thessalou-Legaki, Maria},
  title = {Spatial distribution, abundance and habitat use of the protected fan mussel Pinna nobilis in Souda Bay, Crete},
  journal = {Aquatic Biology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {45--54},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/ab00204}
}
Katsanevakis, S., Weber, A., Pipitone, C., Leopold, M., Cronin, M., Scheidat, M., Doyle, T.K., Buhl-Mortensen, L., Buhl-Mortensen, P., D'Anna, G., de Boois, I., Dalpadado, P., Damalas, D., Fiorentino, F., Garofalo, G., Giacalone, V.M., Hawley, K.L., Issaris, Y., Jansen, J., Knight, C.M., Knittweis, L., Kröncke, I., Mirto, S., Muxika, I., Reiss, H., Skjoldal, H.R. and Vöge, S. 2012 Monitoring marine populations and communities: methods dealing with imperfect detectability Aquatic Biology 16:31-52  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KatsanevakisS2012,
  author = {Katsanevakis, S. and Weber, A. and Pipitone, C. and Leopold, M. and Cronin, M. and Scheidat, M. and Doyle, T. K. and Buhl-Mortensen, L. and Buhl-Mortensen, P. and D'Anna, G. and de Boois, I. and Dalpadado, P. and Damalas, D. and Fiorentino, F. and Garofalo, G. and Giacalone, V. M. and Hawley, K. L. and Issaris, Y. and Jansen, J. and Knight, C. M. and Knittweis, L. and Kröncke, I. and Mirto, S. and Muxika, I. and Reiss, H. and Skjoldal, H. R. and Vöge, S.},
  title = {Monitoring marine populations and communities: methods dealing with imperfect detectability},
  journal = {Aquatic Biology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {31--52},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/ab00426}
}
Keeping, D., Burger, J.H., Keitsile, A.O., Gielen, M.-C., Mudongo, E., Wallgren, M., Skarpe, C. and Foote, A.L. 2018 Can trackers count free-ranging wildlife as effectively and efficiently as conventional aerial survey and distance sampling? Implications for citizen science in the Kalahari, Botswana Biological Conservation 223:156-169  DOI  
Abstract: Estimating wildlife abundance is central to conservation. We compared two widely practiced standards for counting animals - aerial strip surveys and ground line transects - with interpreted counts of animal tracks. At equal sampling intensity in semiarid savanna with good visibility all three methods produced similar population estimates and precision for six large herbivores. This comparison adds empirical support for the use of track count data to estimate population density rather than being restricted to ambiguous indices of relative abundance. Although expected to capture more species than aerial surveys, we found line transects limiting because encounter rates by direct sightings were relatively low; a minimum threshold 40 observations was achieved for only 1/3 of antelope species in 648.4 km of transect. By contrast, animal track counts returned exceedingly high encounter rates that allowed estimation of abundance for the entire large predator-prey community and mapping density-distributions more completely. Unlike aerial surveys conducted by Botswana's wildlife authority, the track survey provided opportunity to involve local people in the research process. The track survey cost 40% less than the aerial survey, and could be reduced a further 3-fold if trackers collected data autonomously without motor vehicles. Counting animals by their tracks is ultimately constrained to regions with appropriate substrates. However, in suitable environments like the Kalahari, we suggest that a citizen science driven by expert local trackers could ultimately replace conventional wildlife counts, generating knock-on benefits to conservation beyond improved data.
BibTeX:
@article{keeping_can_2018,
  author = {Keeping, Derek and Burger, Julia H. and Keitsile, Amo O. and Gielen, Marie-Charlotte and Mudongo, Edwin and Wallgren, Martha and Skarpe, Christina and Foote, A. Lee},
  title = {Can trackers count free-ranging wildlife as effectively and efficiently as conventional aerial survey and distance sampling? Implications for citizen science in the Kalahari, Botswana},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {223},
  pages = {156--169},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.04.027}
}
Keeping, D. and Pelletier, R. 2014 Animal density and track counts: understanding the nature of observations based on animal movements PLoS ONE 9:e96598  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Keeping2014,
  author = {Keeping, D. and Pelletier, R.},
  title = {Animal density and track counts: understanding the nature of observations based on animal movements},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {e96598},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096598}
}
Kelker, G.H. 1945 Measurement and interpretation of forces that determine populations of managed deer School: University of Michigan   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kel45,
  author = {Kelker, G. H.},
  title = {Measurement and interpretation of forces that determine populations of managed deer},
  school = {University of Michigan},
  year = {1945}
}
Kelley, J.R. 1996 Line transect sampling for estimating breeding wood duck density in forested wetlands Wildlife Society Bulletin 24:32-36  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Kel96,
  author = {Kelley, J. R.},
  title = {Line transect sampling for estimating breeding wood duck density in forested wetlands},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {32--36},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782829}
}
Kellner, K.F. and Swihart, R.K. 2014 Accounting for imperfect detection in ecology: a quantitative review PLoS ONE 9(10):e111436  DOI  
Abstract: ¡ p¿ Detection in studies of species abundance and distribution is often imperfect. Assuming perfect detection introduces bias into estimation that can weaken inference upon which understanding and policy are based. Despite availability of numerous methods designed to address this assumption, many refereed papers in ecology fail to account for non-detection error. We conducted a quantitative literature review of 537 ecological articles to measure the degree to which studies of different taxa, at various scales, and over time have accounted for imperfect detection. Overall, just 23% of articles accounted for imperfect detection. The probability that an article incorporated imperfect detection increased with time and varied among taxa studied; studies of vertebrates were more likely to incorporate imperfect detection. Among articles that reported detection probability, 70% contained per-survey estimates of detection that were less than 0.5. For articles in which constancy of detection was tested, 86% reported significant variation. We hope that our findings prompt more ecologists to consider carefully the detection process when designing studies and analyzing results, especially for sub-disciplines where incorporation of imperfect detection in study design and analysis so far has been lacking./p¿
BibTeX:
@article{Kellner2014,
  author = {Kellner, Kenneth F. and Swihart, Robert K.},
  title = {Accounting for imperfect detection in ecology: a quantitative review},
  journal = {PLoS ONE},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {9},
  number = {10},
  pages = {e111436},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111436}
}
Kelt, D.A., Cofré, H., Cornelius, C., Engilis, A., Gutiérrez, J.R., Marquet, P.A., Medel, R., Meserve, P.L., Quirici, V., Samaniego, H. and Vásquez, R.A. 2016 The avifauna of Bosque Fray Jorge National Park and Chiles Norte Chico Journal of Arid Environments 126:23-36  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kelt2016,
  author = {Kelt, Douglas A. and Cofré, Hernán and Cornelius, Cintia and Engilis, Andrew and Gutiérrez, Julio R. and Marquet, Pablo A. and Medel, Rodrigo and Meserve, Peter L. and Quirici, Verónica and Samaniego, Horacio and Vásquez, Rodrigo A.},
  title = {The avifauna of Bosque Fray Jorge National Park and Chiles Norte Chico},
  journal = {Journal of Arid Environments},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {126},
  pages = {23--36},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.06.018}
}
Kenneth, B.H. 2001 Temporal variation in fall bird density at high elevation habitats in southern British Columbia: an analisys using distance sampling School: Forest Resources Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kenneth2001,
  author = {Kenneth, B. H.},
  title = {Temporal variation in fall bird density at high elevation habitats in southern British Columbia: an analisys using distance sampling},
  school = {Forest Resources Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia},
  year = {2001}
}
Kéry, M., Royle, J.A. and Schmid, H. 2005 Modeling avian abundance from replicated counts using binomial mixture models Ecological Applications 15(4):1450-1461  DOI  
Abstract: Abundance estimation in ecology is usually accomplished by capture-recapture, removal, or distance sampling methods. These may be hard to implement at large spatial scales. In contrast, binomial mixture models enable abundance estimation without individual identification, based simply on temporally and spatially replicated counts. Here, we evaluate mixture models using data from the national breeding bird monitoring program in Switzerland, where some 250 1-km2 quadrats are surveyed using the territory mapping method three times during each breeding season. We chose eight species with contrasting distribution (wide-narrow), abundance (high-low), and detectability (easy-difficult). Abundance was modeled as a random effect with a Poisson or negative binomial distribution, with mean affected by forest cover, elevation, and route length. Detectability was a logit-linear function of survey date, survey date-by-elevation, and sampling effort (time per transect unit). Resulting covariate effects and parameter estimates were consistent with expectations. Detectability per territory (for three surveys) ranged from 0.66 to 0.94 (mean 0.84) for easy species, and from 0.16 to 0.83 (mean 0.53) for difficult species, depended on survey effort for two easy and all four difficult species, and changed seasonally for three easy and three difficult species. Abundance was positively related to route length in three high-abundance and one low-abundance (one easy and three difficult) species, and increased with forest cover in five forest species, decreased for two nonforest species, and was unaffected for a generalist species. Abundance estimates under the most parsimonious mixture models were between 1.1 and 8.9 (median 1.8) times greater than estimates based on territory mapping; hence, three surveys were insufficient to detect all territories for each species. We conclude that binomial mixture models are an important new approach for estimating abundance corrected for detectability when only repeated-count data are available. Future developments envisioned include estimation of trend, occupancy, and total regional abundance. textcopyright 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.
BibTeX:
@article{Kery2005,
  author = {Kéry, M. and Royle, J. A. and Schmid, H.},
  title = {Modeling avian abundance from replicated counts using binomial mixture models},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {15},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1450--1461},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/04-1120}
}
Khan, J.A. 1995 Conservation and management of Gir Lion Sanctuary and National Park, Gujarat, India Biological Conservation 73:183-188  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kha95,
  author = {Khan, J. A.},
  title = {Conservation and management of Gir Lion Sanctuary and National Park, Gujarat, India},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {183--188},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(94)00107-2}
}
Kidney, D. 2009 Line transect sampling using triangulation: investigating the effect of bearing error on density estimation School: University of St Andrews   
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Kidney2009,
  author = {Kidney, Darren},
  title = {Line transect sampling using triangulation: investigating the effect of bearing error on density estimation},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2009}
}
Kie, J.G. and Boroski, B.B. 1995 Using spotlight counts to estimate mule deer population size and trends California Fish and Game 81:55-70   
BibTeX:
@article{KieBor95,
  author = {Kie, J. G. and Boroski, B. B.},
  title = {Using spotlight counts to estimate mule deer population size and trends},
  journal = {California Fish and Game},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {81},
  pages = {55--70}
}
Kiffner, C., Meyer, B., Muhlenberg, M. and Waltert, M. 2009 Plenty of prey, few predators: what limits lions Panthera leo in Katavi National Park, western Tanzania? Oryx 43:52-59  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kiffner2009,
  author = {Kiffner, Christian and Meyer, Britta and Muhlenberg, Michael and Waltert, Matthias},
  title = {Plenty of prey, few predators: what limits lions Panthera leo in Katavi National Park, western Tanzania?},
  journal = {Oryx},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {52--59},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605307002335}
}
Kinzey, D., Gerrodette, T. and Fink, D. 2002 Accuracy and precision of perpendicular distance measurements in shipboard line-transect sighting surveys (LJ-02-09)School: Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kinetal2002,
  author = {Kinzey, Douglas and Gerrodette, Tim and Fink, Daniel},
  title = {Accuracy and precision of perpendicular distance measurements in shipboard line-transect sighting surveys},
  school = {Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA},
  year = {2002},
  number = {LJ-02-09}
}
King, D.I., Chandler, R.B., Schlossberg, S. and Chandler, C.C. 2009 Habitat use and nest success of scrub-shrub birds in wildlife and silvicultural openings in western Massachusetts, USA Forest Ecology and Management 257(2):421-426  DOI  
Abstract: Many conservationists are concerned about reports of declining populations of scrub-shrub birds. Wildlife opening management, involving repeatedly burning or mechanically treating early-successional stands, is one strategy for creating habitat for these species, but this practice is costly. Some silvicultural treatments also create scrub-shrub habitat and have the advantage of potentially generating revenue, but the relative effectiveness of wildlife opening management and silviculture for creating bird habitat is not known. During 2004 and 2005, we compared scrub-shrub bird abundance, nest success, and habitat characteristics between wildlife and silvicultural openings in western Massachusetts to determine whether the habitats created by these practices are equivalent for birds. We recorded 1927 detections of 31 scrub-shrub bird species during the course of the study and monitored 368 nests. We found that although most species were present in both treatments, many differed in abundance between wildlife and silvicultural openings, including several species of high conservation concern. These differences were attributable to differences in habitat characteristics between treatments. The overall probability of a nest surviving to fledging was 0.43, and did not differ between wildlife and silvicultural openings. Our results indicate that the habitat quality of wildlife and silvicultural openings is not equivalent for scrub-shrub birds, but the two management approaches serve as complementary strategies for maintaining these declining species.
BibTeX:
@article{King2009a,
  author = {King, David I. and Chandler, Richard B. and Schlossberg, Scott and Chandler, Carlin C.},
  title = {Habitat use and nest success of scrub-shrub birds in wildlife and silvicultural openings in western Massachusetts, USA},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {257},
  number = {2},
  pages = {421--426},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.09.014}
}
Kingsley, M.C.S. and Reeves, R.R. 1998 Aerial surveys of cetaceans in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1995 and 1996 Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1529-1550  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KinRee98,
  author = {Kingsley, M. C. S. and Reeves, R. R.},
  title = {Aerial surveys of cetaceans in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1995 and 1996},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Zoology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {76},
  pages = {1529--1550},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/z98-054}
}
Kint, V., Robert, D.W. and Noël, L. 2004 Evaluation of sampling methods for the estimation of structural indices in forest stands Ecological Modelling 180(4):461-476  DOI  
Abstract: The paper is about the accurate (i.e. unbiased and precise) and efficient estimation of structural indices in forest stands. We present SIAFOR, a computer programme for the calculation of four nearest-neighbour indices, which describe the spatial arrangement of tree positions, the distribution pattern of species, and the size differentiation between trees. The study uses SIAFOR as a sampling simulator in eight completely stem-mapped forest stands of varying area and structural complexity. We statistically evaluate two sample types (distance and plot sampling), comparing sampling error, bias and minimum sample size for index estimation. We introduce the concepts of measurement expansion factor (MEF) and design expansion factor (DEF) for the technical evaluation of sample type efficiency (optimal sample type). Results indicate that sampling error can reach high levels and that minimum sample sizes for index estimation often amply exceed the limit of 20% of tree density or 20 trees per species per hectare, that we set as the highest feasible sample size in normal situations. We found clear feasibility limits (in terms of minimal tree densities and reachable accuracy levels) for the estimation of all investigated indices. Generally, equal or higher sample sizes are needed for plot sampling than for distance sampling to reach equal accuracy levels. Nevertheless, plot sampling resulted more efficient for the estimation of tree size differentiation at low to medium accuracy levels. For all other investigated indices distance sampling resulted more efficient than plot sampling. Minimum sample size increases with accuracy and is negatively correlated with tree density. At a given accuracy level minimum sample size is highest for the estimation of relative mingling and lowest for tree size differentiation; furthermore it is generally lower in large stands than in small ones. Because of the consistency of our conclusions in all of the investigated stands, we think they apply in most stands of similar area (between 1 and 10 ha) and species diversity (not more than four species). textcopyright 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Kint2004,
  author = {Kint, V. and Robert, D. W. and Noël, L.},
  title = {Evaluation of sampling methods for the estimation of structural indices in forest stands},
  journal = {Ecological Modelling},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {180},
  number = {4},
  pages = {461--476},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2004.04.032}
}
Kinzey, D., Olson, P. and Gerrodette, T. Marine mammal data collection procedures on research ship line-transect surveys School: Southwest Fisheries Science Center   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kinzey,
  author = {Kinzey, Douglas and Olson, Paula and Gerrodette, Tim},
  title = {Marine mammal data collection procedures on research ship line-transect surveys},
  school = {Southwest Fisheries Science Center}
}
Kinzey, D. and Gerrodette, T. 2003 Distance measurements using binoculars from ships at sea: accuracy, precision and effects of refraction Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5:159-171   
BibTeX:
@article{Kinzey2003,
  author = {Kinzey, Douglas and Gerrodette, Tim},
  title = {Distance measurements using binoculars from ships at sea: accuracy, precision and effects of refraction},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {159--171}
}
Kishino, H., Kasamatsu, F. and Toda, T. 1988 On the double line transect method Report of the International Whaling Commission 38:273-279   
BibTeX:
@article{Kisetal88,
  author = {Kishino, H. and Kasamatsu, F. and Toda, T.},
  title = {On the double line transect method},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {273--279}
}
Kishino, H., Kato, H., Kasamatsu, F. and Fujise, Y. 1991 Detection of heterogeneity and estimation of population characteristics from the field survey data: 1987/88 Japanese feasibility study of the Southern Hemisphere minke whales Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics 43:435-453  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kisetal91,
  author = {Kishino, H. and Kato, H. and Kasamatsu, F. and Fujise, Y.},
  title = {Detection of heterogeneity and estimation of population characteristics from the field survey data: 1987/88 Japanese feasibility study of the Southern Hemisphere minke whales},
  journal = {Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {435--453},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00053365}
}
Kissa, D.O. and Sheil, D. 2012 Visual detection based distance sampling offers efficient density estimation for distinctive low abundance tropical forest tree species in complex terrain Forest Ecology and Management 263:114-121  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kissa2012,
  author = {Kissa, D. O. and Sheil, D.},
  title = {Visual detection based distance sampling offers efficient density estimation for distinctive low abundance tropical forest tree species in complex terrain},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {263},
  pages = {114--121},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.09.020}
}
Kissling, M.L. and Garton, E.O. 2006 Estimating detection probability and density from point-count surveys: a combination of distance and double-observer sampling Auk, The 123(3):735-752  DOI  
Abstract: Point counts are the method most commonly used to estimate abundance of birds, but they often fail to account properly for incomplete and variable detection probabilities. We developed a technique that combines distance and double-observer sampling to estimate detection probabilities and effective area surveyed. We applied this paired-observer, variable circular-plot (POVCP) technique to point-count surveys (n = 753) conducted in closed-canopy forests of southeast Alaska. Distance data were analyzed for each species to model a detection probability for each observer and calculate an estimate of density. We then multiplied each observer's density estimates by a correction factor to adjust for detection probabilities ¡ 1 at plot center. We compared analytical results from four survey methods: single-observer fixed-radius (50-m) plot; single-observer, variable circular-plot (SOVCP); double-observer fixed-radius (50-m) plot; and POVCP. We examined differences in detection probabilities at plot center, effective area surveyed, and densities for five bird species: Pacific-slope Flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis), Winter Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes), Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa), Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus), and Townsend's Warbler (Dendroica townsendi). Average detection probabilities for paired observers increased ?8% (SE = 2.9) for all species once estimates were corrected for birds missed at plot center. Density estimators of fixed-radius survey methods were likely negatively biased, because the key assumption of perfect detection was not met. Density estimates generated using SOVCP and POVCP were similar, but standard errors were much lower for the POVCP survey method. We recommend using POVCP when study objectives require precise estimates of density. Failure to account for differences in detection probabilities and effective area surveyed results in biased population estimators and, therefore, faulty inferences about the population in question. textcopyright The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006.
BibTeX:
@article{Kissling2006,
  author = {Kissling, M. L. and Garton, E. O.},
  title = {Estimating detection probability and density from point-count surveys: a combination of distance and double-observer sampling},
  journal = {Auk, The},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {123},
  number = {3},
  pages = {735--752},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/123.3.735}
}
Kissling, M.L., Reid, M., Lukacs, P.M., Gende, S.M. and Lewis, S.B. 2007 Understanding abundance patterns of a declining seabird: implications for monitoring Ecological Applications 17:2164-2174  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kissling2007,
  author = {Kissling, Michelle L. and Reid, Mason and Lukacs, Paul M. and Gende, Scott M. and Lewis, Stephen B.},
  title = {Understanding abundance patterns of a declining seabird: implications for monitoring},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {2164--2174},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/06-1990.1}
}
Kitahara, M. and Fujii, K. 1994 Biodiversity and community structure of temperate butterfly species within a gradient of human disturbance — an analysis based on the concept of generalist vs specialist strategies Researches on Population Ecology 36:187-199  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KitFuj94,
  author = {Kitahara, M. and Fujii, K.},
  title = {Biodiversity and community structure of temperate butterfly species within a gradient of human disturbance — an analysis based on the concept of generalist vs specialist strategies},
  journal = {Researches on Population Ecology},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {187--199},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02514935}
}
Klavitter, J.L. 2000 Survey methodology, abundance and demography of the endangered Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted? School: University of Washington   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kla00,
  author = {Klavitter, J. L.},
  title = {Survey methodology, abundance and demography of the endangered Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted?},
  school = {University of Washington},
  year = {2000}
}
Klavitter, J.L., Marzluff, J.M. and Vekasy, M.S. 2003 Abundance and demography of the Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted? Journal of Wildlife Management 67:165-176  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Klaetal03,
  author = {Klavitter, J. L. and Marzluff, J. M. and Vekasy, M. S.},
  title = {Abundance and demography of the Hawaiian hawk: is delisting warranted?},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {67},
  pages = {165--176},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3803072}
}
Knopf, F.L. 1986 Changing landscapes and the cosmopolitism of the eastern Colorado avifauna Wildlife Society Bulletin 14:132-142  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Kno86,
  author = {Knopf, F. L.},
  title = {Changing landscapes and the cosmopolitism of the eastern Colorado avifauna},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {132--142},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782060}
}
Knopf, F.L., Sedgwick, J.A. and Cannon, R.W. 1988 Guild structure of a riparian avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing Journal of Wildlife Management 52:280-290  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Knoetal88,
  author = {Knopf, F. L. and Sedgwick, J. A. and Cannon, R. W.},
  title = {Guild structure of a riparian avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {280--290},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3801235}
}
Koenen, K.K.G., DeStefano, S. and Krausman, P.R. 2002 Using distance sampling to estimate seasonal densities of desert mule deer in a semidesert grassland Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(1):53-63  URL 
Abstract: Wildlife managers need to be able to assess density, distribution, and status of wildlife populations with reliable techniques. We used distance sampling from 971 point transects to estimate density and examine herd composition of desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) on the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Arizona during 4 seasons in 1996. We first conducted a pilot study to refine survey design and train observers. We also evaluated our ability to meet 4 major assumptions of distance sampling (random placement of points, objects on points always detected, objects detected at initial location, distances measured accurately). Densities varied from 0.9 (SE=0.3) deer/km2 in summer to 2.5 (1.3) in winter. Herd size varied from 1.5 (0.1) deer/group in summer to 9.7 (2.0) in winter. Density of females was greater than males (0.9 [0.3] and 0.03 [0.04], respectively) for all seasons combined. We found that placement of points, detecting deer at points, and not forcing deer to move from their initial location were interrelated and a function of mule deer behavior and how we approached points. Our ability to measure distances accurately was improved greatly by using distance test courses and calibration points throughout the refuge. Important considerations in using distance sampling include: 1) careful evaluation of study design; 2) establishment of permanent survey points to be used throughout time, which aids in field operations and analysis; 3) development and use of a distance test course and calibration points to train observers, practice measuring distances, and calibrate equipment; 4) development of standardized protocol to maintain consistent data collection among observers and over time; and 5) incorporation of a thorough understanding of the target species' behavior and ecology into the survey design.
BibTeX:
@article{Koenen2002,
  author = {Koenen, K. K. G. and DeStefano, S. and Krausman, P. R.},
  title = {Using distance sampling to estimate seasonal densities of desert mule deer in a semidesert grassland},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  number = {1},
  pages = {53--63},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784635}
}
Koopman, B.O. 1956 The theory of search II. Target detection Operations Research 4:503-531  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Koo56,
  author = {Koopman, B. O.},
  title = {The theory of search II. Target detection},
  journal = {Operations Research},
  year = {1956},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {503--531},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1287/opre.4.5.503}
}
Koster, S.H. 1985 An evaluation of line transect census methods in West African wooded savanna School: Michigan State University   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kos85,
  author = {Koster, S. H.},
  title = {An evaluation of line transect census methods in West African wooded savanna},
  school = {Michigan State University},
  year = {1985}
}
Kouakou, C.Y., Boesch, C. and Kuehl, H. 2009 Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: validating methods in Tai National Park American Journal of Primatology 71:447-457  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kouakou2009,
  author = {Kouakou, Celestin Yao and Boesch, Christophe and Kuehl, Hjalmar},
  title = {Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: validating methods in Tai National Park},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {447--457},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20673}
}
Kovner, J.L. and Patil, S.A. 1974 Properties of estimators of wildlife population density for the line transect method Biometrics 30(2):225-230  DOI  
Abstract: The variance of several estimators of the population density based on the line transect method of distance sampling are studied under exponential sighting probability. The estimator suggested by Gates [1969] is shown to be minimum variance unbiased estimator. Efficiency of other estimators is obtained with respect to this estimator.
BibTeX:
@article{Kovner1974,
  author = {Kovner, J. L. and Patil, S. A.},
  title = {Properties of estimators of wildlife population density for the line transect method},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {30},
  number = {2},
  pages = {225--230},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2529644}
}
Kraus, J. 1997 Counting furtive beasts by computer Communications of the ACM 40(6):20-23  DOI  
Abstract: Counting Furtive Beasts by Computer. Where have all the rhinos gone?
BibTeX:
@article{Kraus1997,
  author = {Kraus, J.},
  title = {Counting furtive beasts by computer},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {40},
  number = {6},
  pages = {20--23},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1145/255656.255675}
}
Kruger, J.M., Reilly, B.K. and Whyte, I.J. 2008 Application of distance sampling to estimate population densities of large herbivores in Kruger National Park Wildlife Research 35:371-376  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kruger2008,
  author = {Kruger, J. M. and Reilly, B. K. and Whyte, I. J.},
  title = {Application of distance sampling to estimate population densities of large herbivores in Kruger National Park},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {371--376},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR07084}
}
Krzysik, J.A., Woodman, A.P. and Hagan, M. 1995 A field evaluation of four methods for estimating desert tortoise densities Proceedings of the Desert Tortoise Council 1995:92   
BibTeX:
@article{Krzetal95,
  author = {Krzysik, J. A. and Woodman, A. P. and Hagan, M.},
  title = {A field evaluation of four methods for estimating desert tortoise densities},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Desert Tortoise Council},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {1995},
  pages = {92}
}
Kühl, H., Maisels, F., Ancrenaz, M. and Williamson, E.A. 2008 Best practice guidelines for surveys and monitoring of great ape populations School: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Kuehl2008,
  author = {Kühl, H. and Maisels, F. and Ancrenaz, M. and Williamson, E. A.},
  title = {Best practice guidelines for surveys and monitoring of great ape populations},
  school = {IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland},
  year = {2008}
}
Kuehl, H.S., Nzeingui, C., Yeno, S.L.D., Huijbregts, B., Boesch, C. and Walsh, P.D. 2009 Discriminating between village and commercial hunting of apes Biological Conservation 142(7):1500-1506  DOI  
Abstract: Hunting is the major driver of large mammal decline in Central African forests. In slowly reproducing species even low hunting pressure leaves spatial gradients with wildlife density increasing with distance from transport routes and human settlements. Park management can use this pattern formation to identify sources of threats, but also to discriminate between different threat scenarios, such as the impact of subsistence vs. commercial hunting. We conducted an ape survey in the mountainous Moukalaba Doudou National Park, Gabon, to evaluate whether potential population gradients would emanate from the three human population centers in the region or the villages surrounding the park. Using generalized linear modeling we found hill slope as a good predictor of ape nest occurrence probability and the distance to human population centers a better predictor of ape nest density and ape nest group size than distance to villages. In fact ape nest density was three times lower at the park borders close to the human population centers than in the park's interior. The results indicate that Moukalaba's ape population is more impacted by commercial than subsistence hunting and suggest that park management should focus conservation efforts on the human population centers. We conclude that in particular for slowly reproducing species geographic information on wildlife population gradients are of additional value for guiding protected area management. The hunting impact on those species might be easily underestimated, if derived only from market surveys or transport route controls, where they are only rarely found.
BibTeX:
@article{Kuehl2009,
  author = {Kuehl, Hjalmar S. and Nzeingui, Christian and Yeno, Stephane Le Duc and Huijbregts, Bas and Boesch, Christophe and Walsh, Peter D.},
  title = {Discriminating between village and commercial hunting of apes},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {142},
  number = {7},
  pages = {1500--1506},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.02.032}
}
Kuitunen, M., Rossi, E. and Stenroos, A. 1998 Do highways influence density of land birds? Environmental Management 22:297-302  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kuietal98,
  author = {Kuitunen, M. and Rossi, E. and Stenroos, A.},
  title = {Do highways influence density of land birds?},
  journal = {Environmental Management},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {297--302},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s002679900105}
}
Kulbicki, M., Cornuet, N., Vigliola, L., Wantiez, L., Moutham, G. and Chabanet, P. 2010 Counting coral reef fishes: interaction between fish life-history traits and transect design Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 387(1-2):15-23  DOI  
Abstract: Underwater visual censuses are the most commonly used methods to estimate the density of reef fish populations and assemblages. One basic assumption is that the observer will always detect fish in the same way from one sampling unit to the next, implying that, on average, the spatial distribution pattern of fish abundance or occurrence remains the same from one transect to the next (H0). The present work tested H0 using data from 730 transects covering two regions (New Caledonia and French Polynesia), 604 species and 504Â 000 fish. Within transect variations in reef fish abundance and occurrence were studied according to site factors (region, reef type), life-history traits (adult size, home range, schooling behaviour, color, pattern, swimming speed, level in the water column, inquisitiveness, crypticity), and observations characteristics (distance of observation, size of the observed fishes, number of fishes within an observation, observer identity). Two general trends were detected: 1 – at the start of transects, both fish occurrence and abundance were higher than the values expected under H0; 2 – a similar trend was also observed at the end of transects, but at a much lower magnitude. These effects were observed with varying degrees of magnitude for all regions, reef types and observers, varied significantly according to three life-history traits (size, home range, and behaviour), but were not influenced by species richness or abundance. These results indicate that datasets gathered from transects of various lengths cannot be pooled without correction. They also shed light on some of the known differences between transects and point counts.
BibTeX:
@article{Kulbicki2010,
  author = {Kulbicki, Michel and Cornuet, Nathaniel and Vigliola, Laurent and Wantiez, Laurent and Moutham, Gerard and Chabanet, Pascale},
  title = {Counting coral reef fishes: interaction between fish life-history traits and transect design},
  journal = {Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {387},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {15--23},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2010.03.003}
}
Kulbicki, M. and Sarramégna, S. 1999 Comparison of density estimates derived from strip transect and distance sampling for underwater visual censuses: a case study of Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthidae Aquatic Living Resources 12:315-325  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KulSar99,
  author = {Kulbicki, M. and Sarramégna, S.},
  title = {Comparison of density estimates derived from strip transect and distance sampling for underwater visual censuses: a case study of Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthidae},
  journal = {Aquatic Living Resources},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {315--325},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0990-7440(99)00116-3}
}
Kumar, N.S. 2000 Ungulate density and biomass in the tropical semi-arid forest of ranthambore, india School: Salim Ali School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Pondicherry University   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kumar2000,
  author = {Kumar, N. S.},
  title = {Ungulate density and biomass in the tropical semi-arid forest of ranthambore, india},
  school = {Salim Ali School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Pondicherry University},
  year = {2000}
}
Kun-Rodrigues, C., Salmona, J., Besolo, A., Rasolondraibe, E., Rabarivola, C., Marques, T.A. and Chikhi, L. 2014 New density estimates of a threatened sifaka species (Propithecus coquereli) in Ankarafantsika National Park American Journal of Primatology 76:515-528  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Kun-Rodrigues2013,
  author = {Kun-Rodrigues, Célia and Salmona, Jordi and Besolo, Aubin and Rasolondraibe, Emmanuel and Rabarivola, Clément and Marques, Tiago A. and Chikhi, Lounès},
  title = {New density estimates of a threatened sifaka species (Propithecus coquereli) in Ankarafantsika National Park},
  journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {76},
  pages = {515--528},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22243}
}
Kyhn, L. 2010 Passive acoustic monitoring of toothed whales, with implications for mitigation, management and biology School: Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kyhn2010,
  author = {Kyhn, Line},
  title = {Passive acoustic monitoring of toothed whales, with implications for mitigation, management and biology},
  school = {Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark},
  year = {2010}
}
Kyhn, L.A., Tougaard, J., Thomas, L., Duve, L.R., Steinback, J., Amundin, M., Desportes, G. and Teilmann, J. 2012 From echolocation clicks to animal density — acoustic sampling of harbour porpoises with static dataloggers The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131:550-560  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{L.A.2012,
  author = {Kyhn, L. A. and Tougaard, J. and Thomas, L. and Duve, L. R. and Steinback, J. and Amundin, M. and Desportes, G. and Teilmann, J.},
  title = {From echolocation clicks to animal density — acoustic sampling of harbour porpoises with static dataloggers},
  journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {131},
  pages = {550--560},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3662070}
}
Laake, J.L. 1978 Line transect sampling estimators robust to animal movement School: Utah State University   
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{LAA78,
  author = {Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Line transect sampling estimators robust to animal movement},
  school = {Utah State University},
  year = {1978}
}
Laake, J.L. 1981 Abundance estimation of dolphins in the eastern Pacific with line transect sampling — a comparison of the techniques and suggestions for future research Report of the Workshop on Tuna– Dolphin Interactions:56-95   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Laa81,
  author = {Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Abundance estimation of dolphins in the eastern Pacific with line transect sampling — a comparison of the techniques and suggestions for future research},
  booktitle = {Report of the Workshop on Tuna– Dolphin Interactions},
  publisher = {Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, Special Report Number 4},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {56--95}
}
Laake, J.L., Calambokidis, J.C., Osmek, S.D. and Rugh, D.J. 1997 Probability of detecting harbor porpoise from aerial surveys: estimating g(0) Journal of Wildlife Management 61:63-75  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Laa97,
  author = {Laake, J. L. and Calambokidis, J. C. and Osmek, S. D. and Rugh, D. J.},
  title = {Probability of detecting harbor porpoise from aerial surveys: estimating g(0)},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {61},
  pages = {63--75},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3802415}
}
Laake, J.L. 1999 Distance sampling with independent observers: reducing bias from heterogeneity by weakening the conditional independence assumption Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods:137-148   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Laa99,
  author = {Laake, J. L.},
  title = {Distance sampling with independent observers: reducing bias from heterogeneity by weakening the conditional independence assumption},
  booktitle = {Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods},
  publisher = {Balkema},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {137--148}
}
Laake, J.L. and Borchers, D.L. 2004 Methods for incomplete detection at distance zero Advanced Distance Sampling:108-189   
BibTeX:
@incollection{LAABOR04,
  author = {Laake, J. L. and Borchers, D. L.},
  title = {Methods for incomplete detection at distance zero},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {108--189}
}
Laake, J. 2006 A biologist's nightmare fairy tale of mark-recapture distance sampling    
BibTeX:
@unpublished{Laake2006,
  author = {Laake, Jeff},
  title = {A biologist's nightmare fairy tale of mark-recapture distance sampling},
  year = {2006}
}
Laake, J., Dawson, M.J. and Hone, J. 2008 Visibility bias in aerial survey: mark-recapture, line-transect or both? Wildlife Research 35:299-309  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Laake2008,
  author = {Laake, J. and Dawson, M. J. and Hone, J.},
  title = {Visibility bias in aerial survey: mark-recapture, line-transect or both?},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {299--309},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR07034}
}
Laake, J., Guenzel, R.J., Bengtson, J.L., Boveng, P., Cameron, M. and Hanson, M.B. 2008 Coping with variation in aerial survey protocol for line-transect sampling Wildlife Research 35:289-299  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Laake2008a,
  author = {Laake, J. and Guenzel, R. J. and Bengtson, J. L. and Boveng, P. and Cameron, M. and Hanson, M. B.},
  title = {Coping with variation in aerial survey protocol for line-transect sampling},
  journal = {Wildlife Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {289--299},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1071/WR07065}
}
Laake, J.L., Collier, B.A., Morrison, M.L. and Wilkins, R.N. 2011 Point-based mark-recapture distance sampling Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics 16:389-408  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Laake2011,
  author = {Laake, J. L. and Collier, B. A. and Morrison, M. L. and Wilkins, R. N.},
  title = {Point-based mark-recapture distance sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {389--408},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s13253-011-0059-5}
}
Labra-Hernández, M.Á.D. and Renton, K. 2017 Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica Avian Conservation and Ecology 12(1)  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Labra-Hernandez2017,
  author = {Miguel Ángel De Labra-Hernández and Katherine Renton},
  title = {Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica},
  journal = {Avian Conservation and Ecology},
  publisher = {Resilience Alliance, Inc.},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {12},
  number = {1},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.5751/ace-00957-120105}
}
Labrosse, P., Kulbicki, M. and Ferraris, J. 2001 Comptage visuel de poissons en plongée    
BibTeX:
@book{Labrosse2001,
  author = {Labrosse, P. and Kulbicki, M. and Ferraris, J.},
  title = {Comptage visuel de poissons en plongée},
  publisher = {Secrétariat Général de la Communauté du Pacifique},
  year = {2001}
}
Labrosse, P., Kulbicki, M. and Ferraris, J. 2002 Underwater visual fish census surveys: proper use and implementation School: Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Labrosse2002,
  author = {Labrosse, Pierre and Kulbicki, Michel and Ferraris, Jocelyne},
  title = {Underwater visual fish census surveys: proper use and implementation},
  school = {Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia},
  year = {2002}
}
Lacki, M.J., Hummer, J.W. and Fitzgerald, J.L. 1994 Application of line transects for estimating population density of the endangered copperbelly water snake in southern Indiana Journal of Herpetology 28:241-245  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lacetal94,
  author = {Lacki, M. J. and Hummer, J. W. and Fitzgerald, J. L.},
  title = {Application of line transects for estimating population density of the endangered copperbelly water snake in southern Indiana},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {241--245},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1564627}
}
Laidre, K.L. and Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. 2011 Life in the lead: extreme densities of narwhals Monodon monoceros in the offshore pack ice Marine Ecology Progress Series 423:269-278  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Laidre2011,
  author = {Laidre, Kristin L. and Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter},
  title = {Life in the lead: extreme densities of narwhals Monodon monoceros in the offshore pack ice},
  journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {423},
  pages = {269--278},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08941}
}
Laing, S.E., Buckland, S.T., Burn, R.W., Lambie, D. and Amphlett, A. 2003 Dung and nest surveys: estimating decay rate Journal of Applied Ecology 40:1102-1111  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Laietal03,
  author = {Laing, S. E. and Buckland, S. T. and Burn, R. W. and Lambie, D. and Amphlett, A.},
  title = {Dung and nest surveys: estimating decay rate},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {1102--1111},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2003.00861.x}
}
La Morgia, V., Calmanti, R., Calabrese, A. and Focardi, S. 2015 Cost-effective nocturnal distance sampling for landscape monitoring of ungulate populations European Journal of Wildlife Research 61(2):285-298  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{LaMorgia2015,
  author = {La Morgia, Valentina and Calmanti, Roberta and Calabrese, Alessandro and Focardi, Stefano},
  title = {Cost-effective nocturnal distance sampling for landscape monitoring of ungulate populations},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {61},
  number = {2},
  pages = {285--298},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-014-0898-9}
}
Langbein, J., Hutchings, M.R., Harris, S., Stoate, C., Tapper, S.C. and Wray, S. 1999 Techniques for assessing the abundance of brown hares Lepus europaeus Mammal Review 29:93-116  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{LAN99,
  author = {Langbein, J. and Hutchings, M. R. and Harris, S. and Stoate, C. and Tapper, S. C. and Wray, S.},
  title = {Techniques for assessing the abundance of brown hares Lepus europaeus},
  journal = {Mammal Review},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {93--116},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2907.1999.00040.x}
}
Langrock, R., Borchers, D.L. and Skaug, H.J. 2013 Markov-modulated nonhomogeneous Poisson processes for unbiased estimation of marine mammal abundance Journal of the American Statistical Association 108:840-851  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Langrocksubmitted,
  author = {Langrock, Roland and Borchers, David L. and Skaug, Hans J.},
  title = {Markov-modulated nonhomogeneous Poisson processes for unbiased estimation of marine mammal abundance},
  journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {108},
  pages = {840--851},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.2013.797356}
}
Laran, S., Authier, M., Van Canneyt, O., Dorémus, G., Watremez, P. and Ridoux, V. 2017 A comprehensive survey of pelagic megafauna: their distribution, densities, and taxonomic richness in the tropical southwest Indian Ocean Frontiers in Marine Science 4:139  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Laran2017,
  author = {Laran, Sophie and Authier, Matthieu and Van Canneyt, Olivier and Dorémus, Ghislain and Watremez, Pierre and Ridoux, Vincent},
  title = {A comprehensive survey of pelagic megafauna: their distribution, densities, and taxonomic richness in the tropical southwest Indian Ocean},
  journal = {Frontiers in Marine Science},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {139},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00139}
}
Lardner, B., Rodda, G.H., Adams, A.A.Y., Savidge, J.A. and Reed, R.N. 2015 Detection rates of geckos in visual surveys: turning confounding variables into useful knowledge Journal of Herpetology 49(4):522-532  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lardner2015,
  author = {Lardner, BjÃtextparagraphrn and Rodda, Gordon H. and Adams, Amy A. Yackel and Savidge, Julie A. and Reed, Robert N.},
  title = {Detection rates of geckos in visual surveys: turning confounding variables into useful knowledge},
  journal = {Journal of Herpetology},
  publisher = {The Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {49},
  number = {4},
  pages = {522--532},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1670/14-048}
}
Larsen, F., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P., Martin, A.R. and Born, E.W. 1994 Line-transect estimation of abundance of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in Scoresby Sund and adjacent waters Meddr Grø nland, Bioscience 39:87-91   
BibTeX:
@article{Larsen1994,
  author = {Larsen, F. and Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Martin, A. R. and Born, E. W.},
  title = {Line-transect estimation of abundance of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in Scoresby Sund and adjacent waters},
  journal = {Meddr Grø nland, Bioscience},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {87--91}
}
LaRue, M.A., Nielsen, C.K. and Grun, M.D. 2007 Using distance sampling to estimate densities of white-tailed deer in south-central Minnesota The Prairie Naturalist 39:39-52   
BibTeX:
@article{LaRue2007,
  author = {LaRue, M. A. and Nielsen, C. K. and Grun, M. D.},
  title = {Using distance sampling to estimate densities of white-tailed deer in south-central Minnesota},
  journal = {The Prairie Naturalist},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {39--52}
}
Lauerman, L.M.L., Kaufmann, R.S. and Smith, K.L. 1996 Distribution and abundance of epibenthic megafauna at a long time-series station in the abyssal northeast Pacific Deep Sea Research I 43:1075-1103  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lauetal,
  author = {Lauerman, L. M. L. and Kaufmann, R. S. and Smith, K. L.},
  title = {Distribution and abundance of epibenthic megafauna at a long time-series station in the abyssal northeast Pacific},
  journal = {Deep Sea Research I},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {1075--1103},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0967-0637(96)00045-3}
}
Lauriano, G., Pierantonio, N., Donovan, G. and Panigada, S. 2014 Abundance and distribution of Tursiops truncatus in the Western Mediterranean Sea: An assessment towards the Marine Strategy Framework Directive requirements Marine Environmental Research 100(0):86-93  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lauriano2014,
  author = {Lauriano, Giancarlo and Pierantonio, Nino and Donovan, Greg and Panigada, Simone},
  title = {Abundance and distribution of Tursiops truncatus in the Western Mediterranean Sea: An assessment towards the Marine Strategy Framework Directive requirements},
  journal = {Marine Environmental Research},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {100},
  number = {0},
  pages = {86--93},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2014.04.001}
}
Lauth, R.R., Ianelli, J. and Wakefield, W.W. 2004 Estimating the size selectivity and catching efficiency of a survey bottom trawl for thornyheads, Sebastolobus spp., using a towed video camera sled Fisheries Research 70:27-37   
BibTeX:
@article{Lauth2004,
  author = {Lauth, R. R. and Ianelli, J. and Wakefield, W. W.},
  title = {Estimating the size selectivity and catching efficiency of a survey bottom trawl for thornyheads, Sebastolobus spp., using a towed video camera sled},
  journal = {Fisheries Research},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {70},
  pages = {27--37}
}
Lauth, R.R., Wakefield, W.W. and Smith., K. 2004 Estimating the density of thornyheads, Sebastolobus spp., using a towed video camera sled Fisheries Research 70:39-48   
BibTeX:
@article{Lauth2004a,
  author = {Lauth, R. R. and Wakefield, W. W. and Smith., K.},
  title = {Estimating the density of thornyheads, Sebastolobus spp., using a towed video camera sled},
  journal = {Fisheries Research},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {70},
  pages = {39--48}
}
Lawton, K., Robertson, G., Kirkwood, R., Valencia, J., Schlatter, R. and Smith, D. 2005 An estimate of population sizes of burrowing seabirds at the Diego Ramirez archipelago, Chile, using distance sampling and burrow-scoping Polar Biology 29(3):229-238  DOI  
Abstract: The Diego Ramirez Islands lie 60 nautical miles southwest of Cape Horn and are the breeding site for three species of burrowing seabirds: blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea), common diving petrels (Pelecanoides urinatrix) and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus). Burrowing seabirds are highly vulnerable to predation by introduced vertebrate pests, and Diego Ramirez is an important breeding site because it is one of a few remaining subantarctic island groups with no introduced predators. Diego Ramirez is the only known breeding site for blue petrels in the southeast Pacific region, holding about 80% of the global population of that species, and with a population ten times larger than any other population in the world. We estimated the population size in 2002, using a novel application of the distance sampling technique to determine burrow density, and a burrow-scope with excavations to determine occupying species. We found that density was correlated with slope angle and soil wetness. Burrow densities in flatter terrain with drier soils were 2.03 burrows/m2 (95% confidence intervals: 1.82-2.27) and 1.11 burrows/m2 (0.84-1.48) in steeper terrain with wetter soils. The occupation rate of burrows were significantly different between habitat types (t = 2.74, d.f. 11, P ¡ 0.05); in flatter drier habitats the proportion of burrows that led to a nest was 0.85 (0.74-0.96), in steeper wetter habitats this decreased to 0.64 (0.50-0.78). We used a digital elevation model to calculate true area rather than planar area for the two habitat types on the main island of Bartolome, and charts to calculate planar area for the remainder of the archipelago. There were 1.35 (1.15-1.54) million pairs of blue petrels and 99,000 (65,000-134,000) pairs of common diving petrels on the archipelago. These are similar figures to those from the only previous estimate, made in 1980. We found breeding sooty shearwaters for the first time, and estimated a population of several thousand pairs. We emphasise the facility of distance sampling as an unbiased technique with practical advantages over commonly used area search methods for monitoring populations of burrowing seabirds. These advantages include increased survey efficiency allowing a larger sample size for a given effort and a correspondingly tighter estimation of density. textcopyright Springer-Verlag 2005.
BibTeX:
@article{Lawton2006,
  author = {Kieran Lawton and Graham Robertson and Roger Kirkwood and José Valencia and Roberto Schlatter and David Smith},
  title = {An estimate of population sizes of burrowing seabirds at the Diego Ramirez archipelago, Chile, using distance sampling and burrow-scoping},
  journal = {Polar Biology},
  publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {29},
  number = {3},
  pages = {229--238},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-005-0043-z}
}
Leatherwood, S., Gilbert, J.R. and Chapman, D.G. 1978 An evaluation of some techniques for aerial censuses of bottlenosed dolphins Journal of Wildife Management 42:239-250  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Leaetal78,
  author = {Leatherwood, S. and Gilbert, J. R. and Chapman, D. G.},
  title = {An evaluation of some techniques for aerial censuses of bottlenosed dolphins},
  journal = {Journal of Wildife Management},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {239--250},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800261}
}
Leatherwood, S., Show I. T., J., Reeves, R.R. and Wright, M.B. 1982 Proposed modification of transect models to estimate population size from aircraft with obstructed downward visibility Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:577-579   
BibTeX:
@article{Leaetal82,
  author = {Leatherwood, S. and Show, I. T., Jr and Reeves, R. R. and Wright, M. B.},
  title = {Proposed modification of transect models to estimate population size from aircraft with obstructed downward visibility},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {577--579}
}
Leaper, R., Gillespie, D. and Papastavrou, V. 2000 Results of passive acoustic surveys for Odontocetes in the Southern Ocean Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2:187-196   
BibTeX:
@article{Leaper2000,
  author = {Leaper, Russell and Gillespie, D. and Papastavrou, Vassili},
  title = {Results of passive acoustic surveys for Odontocetes in the Southern Ocean},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {187--196}
}
Leatherwood, S. and Show I. T., J. 1982 Effects of varying altitude on aerial surveys of bottlenose dolphins Report of the International Whaling Commission 32:569-575   
BibTeX:
@article{LeaSho82,
  author = {Leatherwood, S. and Show, I. T., Jr},
  title = {Effects of varying altitude on aerial surveys of bottlenose dolphins},
  journal = {Report of the International Whaling Commission},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {569--575}
}
Lee, D.C. and Marsden, S.J. 2008 Adjusting count period strategies to improve the accuracy of forest bird abundance estimates from point transect distance sampling surveys Ibis 150:315-325  DOI  
Abstract: Although point transect distance sampling methods have become widely used in surveys of forest birds, there has been no attempt to tailor field methods to maximize the accuracy of abundance estimates by minimizing the effects of violations of the method's critical assumptions, which are: (1) birds at distance 0 m are detected with certainty, (2) birds are detected at their initial location and (3) distances to objects are measured accurately. We investigate the effects on abundance estimates for Philippine forest birds of varying the count period from 2 to 10 min, and of including and excluding a pre-count settling down period. Encounter rates were highly sensitive to count period length but density estimates from 10-min count periods were, on average, only 13% higher than those from 2-min periods, and in several cases were actually lower than those from periods of 6-8 min. This was because birds tended to be recorded at greater distances from the recorder as the count period went on, thus â€texttildelow stretching out’ detection functions while having little effect on detection rates close to the recorder. For some bird groups, including canopy frugivores and upperstorey gleaning insectivores, density estimates were more than twice as high without than with a settling down period. We suggest that movement away from the recorder is more common than attraction to the recorder, and that unless pilot studies show otherwise, similar studies should not use a settling down period for surveying many species. Count periods that maximized probability of bird detection close to the central point while minimizing the unwanted effects of bird movement during the count period were: 4 min for omnivores, 6 min for nectarivores and upperstorey gleaning insectivores, 8 min for understorey insectivores and canopy frugivores, and a full 10 min for sallying insectivores, ground-dwellers, carnivores and coucals/koels. We use the results to suggest â€texttildelow group-specific’ count period regimes that could help maximize the accuracy of density estimates from similar studies of tropical forest birds.
BibTeX:
@article{LEE2008,
  author = {Lee, David C. and Marsden, Stuart J.},
  title = {Adjusting count period strategies to improve the accuracy of forest bird abundance estimates from point transect distance sampling surveys},
  journal = {Ibis},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {150},
  pages = {315--325},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.2007.00790.x}
}
Lee, D.E. and Bond, M.L. 2016 Precision, accuracy, and costs of survey methods for giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis Journal of Mammalogy 97:940-948  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lee2016,
  author = {Lee, Derek E. and Bond, Monica L.},
  title = {Precision, accuracy, and costs of survey methods for giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis},
  journal = {Journal of Mammalogy},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {97},
  pages = {940--948},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyw025}
}
Lee, A.T.K. and Barnard, P. 2017 How well do bird atlas reporting rates reflect bird densities? Correlates of detection from the Fynbos biome, South Africa, with applications for population estimation Ostrich 88(1):9-17  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lee2017,
  author = {Lee, Alan T. K. and Barnard, Phoebe},
  title = {How well do bird atlas reporting rates reflect bird densities? Correlates of detection from the Fynbos biome, South Africa, with applications for population estimation},
  journal = {Ostrich},
  publisher = {National Inquiry Services Center (NISC)},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {88},
  number = {1},
  pages = {9--17},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2989/00306525.2016.1219413}
}
Legault, A., Theuerkauf, J., Baby, E., Moutin, L., Rouys, S., Saoumoé, M., Verfaille, L., Barré, N., Chartendrault, V. and Gula, R. 2013 Standardising distance sampling surveys of parrots in New Caledonia Journal of Ornithology 154(1):19-33  DOI  
Abstract: Standardised surveys are essential for monitoring populations and identifying areas that are critical for conservation. With the aim of developing a standardised method of surveying parrots in the rainforests of New Caledonia, we used distance sampling to estimate densities of New Caledonian Parakeets (Cyanoramphus saisseti), Horned Parakeets (Eunymphicus cornutus), Ouvéa Parakeets (E. uvaeensis), and New Caledonian Rainbow Lorikeets (Trichoglossus haematodus deplanchii). We carried out surveys in the early morning and late afternoon, when parrots were easiest to detect. To minimise errors associated with estimating distances and flock sizes by ear, we conducted brief searches to locate parrots, then measured their distance from the transect line. We recorded birds in flight and consider these records to be important when estimating parakeet populations. In agreement with existing knowledge on distance sampling, we found line transects to be more efficient than point transects for estimating the density of parakeets. Our results indicate that parrots located beyond 50– 70 m from the transect line have little influence upon density estimates. In addition, surveys on roads are likely to underestimate densities if not corrected for road width. We generated relatively stable and precise density estimates (CV < 0.25) with approximately 40– 50 detections, yet additional effort may be warranted under different study conditions. Although we aimed to improve parrot surveys in New Caledonia, our suggestions may be useful to other researchers studying rainforest birds, and can be adapted to suit different species or environments.
BibTeX:
@article{legault_standardising_2013,
  author = {Legault, Andrew and Theuerkauf, Jörn and Baby, Emilie and Moutin, Laetitia and Rouys, Sophie and Saoumoé, Maurice and Verfaille, Ludovic and Barré, Nicolas and Chartendrault, Vivien and Gula, Roman},
  title = {Standardising distance sampling surveys of parrots in New Caledonia},
  journal = {Journal of Ornithology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {154},
  number = {1},
  pages = {19--33},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-012-0864-9}
}
Legault, A., Theuerkauf, J., Baby, E., Moutin, L., Rouys, S., Saoumoé, M., Verfaille, L., Barré, N., Chartendrault, V. and Gula, R. 2013 Standardising distance sampling surveys of parrots in New Caledonia Journal of Ornithology 154(1):19-33  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Legault2013,
  author = {Legault, Andrew and Theuerkauf, Jörn and Baby, Emilie and Moutin, Laetitia and Rouys, Sophie and Saoumoé, Maurice and Verfaille, Ludovic and Barré, Nicolas and Chartendrault, Vivien and Gula, Roman},
  title = {Standardising distance sampling surveys of parrots in New Caledonia},
  journal = {Journal of Ornithology},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {154},
  number = {1},
  pages = {19--33},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-012-0864-9}
}
Lehmkuhl, J.F., Burger, E.D., Drewc, E.K., Lindsey, J.P., Haggard, M. and Woodruff, K.Z. 2007 Breeding birds in riparian and upland dry forests of the cascade range Journal of Wildlife Management 71:2632-2643  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lehmkuhla2007,
  author = {Lehmkuhl, John F. and Burger, E. Dorsey and Drewc, Emily K. and Lindsey, John P. and Haggard, Maryellen and Woodruff, Kent Z.},
  title = {Breeding birds in riparian and upland dry forests of the cascade range},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {2632--2643},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/2007-004}
}
Lehouck, V., Spanhove, T., Vangestel, C., Cordeiro, N.J. and Lens, L. 2009 Does landscape structure affect resource tracking by avian frugivores in a fragmented Afrotropical forest? Ecography 32(5):789-799  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lehouck2009789,
  author = {Valérie Lehouck and Toon Spanhove and Carl Vangestel and Norbert J. Cordeiro and Luc Lens},
  title = {Does landscape structure affect resource tracking by avian frugivores in a fragmented Afrotropical forest?},
  journal = {Ecography},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {32},
  number = {5},
  pages = {789--799},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2009.05666.x}
}
Lennert-Cody, C.E., Buckland, S.T. and Marques, F.F.C. 2001 Trends in dolphin abundance estimated from fisheries data: a cautionary note Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3:305-319   
BibTeX:
@article{Lennert-Cody2001,
  author = {Lennert-Cody, C. E. and Buckland, S. T. and Marques, F. F. C.},
  title = {Trends in dolphin abundance estimated from fisheries data: a cautionary note},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {305--319}
}
Leopold, M.F., vanderWerf , B., Ries, E.H. and Reijnders, P.J.H. 1997 The importance of the North Sea for winter dispersal of harbour seals Phoca Vitulina from the Wadden Sea Biological Conservation 81:97-102  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Leo97,
  author = {Leopold, M. F. and vanderWerf, B. and Ries, E. H. and Reijnders, P. J. H.},
  title = {The importance of the North Sea for winter dispersal of harbour seals Phoca Vitulina from the Wadden Sea},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {81},
  pages = {97--102},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(96)00092-4}
}
Lerczak, J.A. and Hobbs, R.C. 1998 Calculating sighting distances from angle readings during ship-board, aerial and shore-based marine mammal surveys Marine Mammal Science 14:590-598  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{LerHob98,
  author = {Lerczak, J. A. and Hobbs, R. C.},
  title = {Calculating sighting distances from angle readings during ship-board, aerial and shore-based marine mammal surveys},
  journal = {Marine Mammal Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {590--598},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.1998.tb00745.x}
}
LeResche, R.E. and Rausch, R.A. 1974 Accuracy and precision of aerial moose censusing Journal of Wildlife Management 38:175-182  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{LerRau74,
  author = {LeResche, R. E. and Rausch, R. A.},
  title = {Accuracy and precision of aerial moose censusing},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {175--182},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3800722}
}
Lescrauwaet, A.-C., Gibbons, J., Guzman, L. and Schiavini, A. 2000 Abundance estimation of Commerson's dolphin in the eastern area of the Strait of Magallan-Chile Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 73(3):473-478  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lescrauwaet2000,
  author = {Lescrauwaet, Anne-Catherine and Gibbons, Jorge and Guzman, Leonardo and Schiavini, A.},
  title = {Abundance estimation of Commerson's dolphin in the eastern area of the Strait of Magallan-Chile},
  journal = {Revista Chilena de Historia Natural},
  publisher = {SciELO Agencia Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo (ANID)},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {73},
  number = {3},
  pages = {473--478},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.4067/s0716-078x2000000300010}
}
Lessard, V.C., Drummer, T.D. and Reed, D.D. 2002 Precision of density estimates from fixed-radius plots compared to n-tree distance sampling Forest Science 48(1):1-6   
Abstract: We computed and compared the statistical properties of the estimators for the number of trees/ha (density) for fixed-radius plot and n-tree distance sampling. In forests with random spatial patterns, n-tree distance sampling density estimators are at least as precise as those of plot sampling if the fixed-radius plot size is less than the ratio of (n - 2) and the expected density, where n is the number of trees included at an n-tree location. A similar result holds for the clustered forest, where the ratio is multiplied by a factor involving a constant of heterogeneity. If the expected number of trees per plot and the plot sizes are the same for both the random and clustered spatial patterns, the variance of the plot sampling density estimator for the clustered pattern will always be greater than for that of the random spatial pattern.
BibTeX:
@article{Lessard2002,
  author = {Lessard, V. C. and Drummer, T. D. and Reed, D. D.},
  title = {Precision of density estimates from fixed-radius plots compared to n-tree distance sampling},
  journal = {Forest Science},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {48},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--6}
}
Leuteritz, T.E.J., Lamb, T. and Limberaza, J.C. 2005 Distribution, status, and conservation of radiated tortoises (Geochelone radiata) in Madagascar Biological Conservation 124(4):451-461  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Leuteritz2005,
  author = {Leuteritz, T. E. J. and Lamb, T. and Limberaza, J. C.},
  title = {Distribution, status, and conservation of radiated tortoises (Geochelone radiata) in Madagascar},
  journal = {Biological Conservation},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {124},
  number = {4},
  pages = {451--461},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.02.003}
}
Lewis, T., Gillespie, D., Lacey, C., Matthews, J., Danbolt, M., Leaper, R., McLanaghan, R. and Moscrop, A. 2007 Sperm whale abundance estimates from acoustic surveys of the Ionian Sea and Straits of Sicily in 2003 Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87:353-357  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lewis,
  author = {Lewis, T. and Gillespie, D. and Lacey, C. and Matthews, J. and Danbolt, M. and Leaper, R. and McLanaghan, R. and Moscrop, A.},
  title = {Sperm whale abundance estimates from acoustic surveys of the Ionian Sea and Straits of Sicily in 2003},
  journal = {Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {87},
  pages = {353--357},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315407054896}
}
Link, W.A. and Barker, R.J. 1994 Density estimation using the trapping web design — a geometric analysis Biometrics 50:733-745  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{LinBar94,
  author = {Link, W. A. and Barker, R. J.},
  title = {Density estimation using the trapping web design — a geometric analysis},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {733--745},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2532787}
}
Linklater, W.L., Cameron, E.Z., Stafford, K.J. and Minot, E.O. 2001 Estimating kaimanawa feral horse population size and growth (185)School: Department of Conservation   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Linklater2001,
  author = {Linklater, W. L. and Cameron, E. Z. and Stafford, K. J. and Minot, E. O.},
  title = {Estimating kaimanawa feral horse population size and growth},
  school = {Department of Conservation},
  year = {2001},
  number = {185}
}
Link, W.A. and Sauer, J.R. 1997 Estimation of population trajectories from count data Biometrics 53:488-497  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{LinSau97,
  author = {Link, W. A. and Sauer, J. R.},
  title = {Estimation of population trajectories from count data},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {488--497},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/2533952}
}
Lipsey, M.K. and Hockey, P.A.R. 2010 Do ecological networks in South African commercial forests benefit grassland birds? A case study of a pine plantation in KwaZulu-Natal Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 137(1-2):133-142  DOI  
Abstract: Grasslands in South Africa have been extensively transformed and fragmented, but are poorly protected. Commercial afforestation poses a particular threat to grassland biodiversity because areas suitable for forestry coincide with those supporting the greatest richness of endemic and threatened biota. To comply with international forestry standards, commercial timber growers leave "ecological networks" of interconnected open corridors within plantations: however, the value of these networks for conservation is unclear. This study investigated how bird community composition, richness and density were influenced by habitat extent, connectivity and quality in a grassland ecological network in a forestry plantation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We surveyed birds and measured local vegetation characteristics throughout the network. There were at least five open habitat types within the network and bird communities responded clearly to differences between these habitats: all network communities showed a distinct shift away from those typical of control grasslands. There were three distinct groups of species in the network: (1) grassland specialists, (2) habitat generalists and (3) non-grassland species. Grassland specialists were restricted to areas that are burned regularly and to large, contiguous open areas or wide grassland corridors. We found no evidence for the importance of physical connectivity among open habitats for birds in the study area. Instead, it appears that the establishment of so-called ecological networks at this scale has created much unsuitable habitat for grassland specialist species. We suggest consolidation of open areas and a rotational, biennial burning regime as a more appropriate management strategy for commercial plantations in these Critically Endangered montane grasslands.
BibTeX:
@article{Lipsey2010,
  author = {Lipsey, Marisa K. and Hockey, Philip A. R.},
  title = {Do ecological networks in South African commercial forests benefit grassland birds? A case study of a pine plantation in KwaZulu-Natal},
  journal = {Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {137},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {133--142},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.01.013}
}
Liu, Z., Wang, X., Teng, L., Cui, D. and Li, X. 2008 Estimating seasonal density of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in the Helan Mountain region using distance sampling methods Ecological Research 23:393-400  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Liu2008,
  author = {Liu, Z. and Wang, X. and Teng, L. and Cui, D. and Li, X.},
  title = {Estimating seasonal density of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in the Helan Mountain region using distance sampling methods},
  journal = {Ecological Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {393--400},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-007-0394-8}
}
Lloyd, H. 2003 Population densities of some nocturnal raptor species (Strigidae) in southeastern Peru Journal of Field Ornithology 74(4):376-380  DOI  
Abstract: Line transects based on distance sampling methodology were used to census nocturnal raptor species in three different primary lowland forest habitats in the Tambopata region, southeastren Peru. Density estimates were calculated for five owl species in these forest habitats. In general, species were more abundant in primary old floodplain or primary middle/upper floodplain forests than in primary seasonally flooded swamp forest. Density estimates were also higher than those calculated from traditional spot-mapping methods in other lowland forest sites in southeastern Peru and French Guiana. There was no significant difference in the number of individual owls recorded during nights with different cloud cover or during different phases of the moon. Problems of distance estimation at night and unfamiliarity with a range of vocalizations, particularly with Strix owls, may be overcome by conducting a practice period before surveys are undertaken, with transect routes and distance markers adequately set out. Walking transect routes during daylight hours in a practice period also helps to overcome concerns of observer safety.
BibTeX:
@article{Lloyd2003,
  author = {Lloyd, H.},
  title = {Population densities of some nocturnal raptor species (Strigidae) in southeastern Peru},
  journal = {Journal of Field Ornithology},
  publisher = {Association of Field Ornithologists},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {74},
  number = {4},
  pages = {376--380},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1648/0273-8570-74.4.376}
}
Lloyd, H. 2004 Habitat and population estimates of some threatened lowland forest bird species in Tambopata, south-east Peru Bird Conservation International 14(4):261-277  DOI  
Abstract: Surveys of threatened lowland forest bird species and forest habitats were conducted during a 21-month census of lowland bird communities in Tambopata, Department of Madre de Dios, south-east Peru. A combination of distance sampling census methods and direct counts was used for the census in five sites located along the Rio Madre de Dios and Rio Tambopata. All five sites consisted of different forest types with significantly different habitat components. Three of these sites were classified as primary forest habitats whilst the remaining two were classified as disturbed forests. Population densities were calculated for eight of the threatened species recorded during the census. Density estimates of non-bamboo specialists were higher in primary forest habitats than in disturbed forest habitats. Density estimates of most bamboo specialists were higher in primary Old Floodplain forest with extensive bamboo understorey than in primary Middle/Upper Floodplain forest with smaller, patchy areas of bamboo understorey. Calculation of regional population estimates based on the amount of forest cover from satellite photographs shows that only two of the threatened bird species have substantial populations currently protected by the Parque Nacional Bahuaja-Sonene and Reservada Nacional de Tambopata. Selective logging operations that reduce overall tree biomass and remove a large proportion of palm tree species from primary forest habitats will have an adverse affect on local populations of four of the threatened bird species in the region. textcopyright BirdLife International 2004.
BibTeX:
@article{Lloyd2004,
  author = {Lloyd, H.},
  title = {Habitat and population estimates of some threatened lowland forest bird species in Tambopata, south-east Peru},
  journal = {Bird Conservation International},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {14},
  number = {4},
  pages = {261--277},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270904000334}
}
Lochmiller, R.L., Boggs, J.F., McMurry, S.T., Leslie, D.M. and Engle, D.M. 1991 Response of cottontail rabbit populations to herbicide and fire applications on Cross Timbers rangeland Journal of Range Management 44:150-155  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Locetal,
  author = {Lochmiller, R. L. and Boggs, J. F. and McMurry, S. T. and Leslie, D. M. and Engle, D. M.},
  title = {Response of cottontail rabbit populations to herbicide and fire applications on Cross Timbers rangeland},
  journal = {Journal of Range Management},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {150--155},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/4002314}
}
Low, M., Meyer, L. and Southwell, C. 2008 Experimental evaluation of a new ground-based survey method for estimating the density and abundance of nesting Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae Polar Biology 31:309-315  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Low2008,
  author = {Low, Matthew and Meyer, Lisa and Southwell, Colin},
  title = {Experimental evaluation of a new ground-based survey method for estimating the density and abundance of nesting Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae},
  journal = {Polar Biology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {309--315},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-007-0359-y}
}
Lowin, A.J. 2012 Line-transect distance sampling versus a new vocalisation method to estimate crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus) and sanford's brown lemur (Eulemur sanfordi) population densities Lemur News 16:60-64   
BibTeX:
@article{Lowin2012,
  author = {Lowin, Andrew J.},
  title = {Line-transect distance sampling versus a new vocalisation method to estimate crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus) and sanford's brown lemur (Eulemur sanfordi) population densities},
  journal = {Lemur News},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {60--64}
}
Lowry, L.F., Kingsley, M.C.S., Hauser, D.D.W., Clarke, J. and Suydam, R. 2012 Aerial survey estimates of abundance of the eastern Chukchi Sea stock of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in 2012 Arctic 70(3):273-286  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lowry_2017,
  author = {Lowry, Lloyd F. and Kingsley, Michael C. S. and Hauser, Donna D. W. and Clarke, Janet and Suydam, Robert},
  title = {Aerial survey estimates of abundance of the eastern Chukchi Sea stock of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in 2012},
  journal = {Arctic},
  publisher = {The Arctic Institute of North America},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {70},
  number = {3},
  pages = {273--286},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic4667}
}
Lueders, A.S., Kennedy, P.L. and Johnson, D.H. 2006 influences of management regimes on breeding bird densities and habitat in mixed-grass prairie: an example from North Dakota Journal of Wildlife Management 70(2):600-606  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lueders2006,
  author = {Lueders, A. S. and Kennedy, P. L. and Johnson, D. H.},
  title = {influences of management regimes on breeding bird densities and habitat in mixed-grass prairie: an example from North Dakota},
  journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {70},
  number = {2},
  pages = {600--606},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/0022-541X(2006)70%5B600:IOMROB%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Luiselli, L. 2006 Site occupancy and density of sympatric gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica) and nose-horned viper (Bitis nasicornis) Journal of Tropical Ecology 22(5):555-564  DOI  
Abstract: The presence and density of two sympatric, large-sized vipers (the Gaboon viper, Bitis gabonica and the nose-horned viper, Bitis nasicornis) were studied along several transects, during both dry and wet seasons, and at different times of day, in southern Nigeria (West Africa). Three habitat types were found along the various transects (mature rain forest (MF), secondary rain forest (SF), swamp forest (SW)). The detection probabilities for these vipers were modelled with a set of competing models, and the various models were ordered by Akaike Information Criterion procedures. Two classes of models were used: the single-season model, and the multi-species model. The best models (single-season model) suggested that: for the Gaboon viper, habitat types SF and SW were particularly important in detecting this species, especially during the rainy season at 08h00-16h00. For nose-horned vipers, the best models had SW and MF as site-covariates. Application of the multi-species model revealed that there were different detection functions if both species are present at a site, with a 'negative' interaction of occupancy between the species. Females and males were similarly detectable in a logistic regression model, but feeding status and pregnancy slightly increased detection probability in a logistic regression model. Viper density was modelled by a DISTANCE sampling procedure. The density of one species tended to be inversely correlated to the density of the other, suggesting that (1) the rain-forest environment does not support abundant populations of both vipers when sympatric, and (2) the two Bitis species subtly partition the habitat resources. Copyright textcopyright 2006 Cambridge University Press.
BibTeX:
@article{Luiselli2006,
  author = {Luiselli, L.},
  title = {Site occupancy and density of sympatric gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica) and nose-horned viper (Bitis nasicornis)},
  journal = {Journal of Tropical Ecology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {22},
  number = {5},
  pages = {555--564},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467406003397}
}
Lukacs, P.M. 2001 Estimating density of animal populations using trapping webs: evaluation of web design and data analysis School: Colorado State University   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Luk01,
  author = {Lukacs, P. M.},
  title = {Estimating density of animal populations using trapping webs: evaluation of web design and data analysis},
  school = {Colorado State University},
  year = {2001}
}
Lukacs, P.M. 2002 Websim: simulation software to assist in trapping web design Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:1259-1261  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Luk02,
  author = {Lukacs, P. M.},
  title = {Websim: simulation software to assist in trapping web design},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {1259--1261},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3784296}
}
Lukacs, P.M., Franklin, A.B. and Anderson, D.R. 2004 Passive approaches to detection in distance sampling Advanced Distance Sampling:260-280   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Lukacs2004,
  author = {Lukacs, P. M. and Franklin, A. B. and Anderson, D. R.},
  title = {Passive approaches to detection in distance sampling},
  booktitle = {Advanced Distance Sampling},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {260--280}
}
Lukacs, P.M., Kissling, M.L., Reid, M., Gende, S.M. and Lewis, S.B. 2010 Testing assumptions of distance sampling on a pelagic seabird The Condor 112:455-459  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Lukacs2010,
  author = {Lukacs, P. M. and Kissling, M. L. and Reid, M. and Gende, S. M. and Lewis, S. B.},
  title = {Testing assumptions of distance sampling on a pelagic seabird},
  journal = {The Condor},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {112},
  pages = {455--459},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1525/cond.2010.090204}
}
Lusk, M., Hess, S., Reynolds, M. and Johnston, S. 2000 Population status of the Tinian monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae) on Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Micronesica 32(2):181-190   
BibTeX:
@article{Lusk2000,
  author = {Lusk, M. and Hess, S. and Reynolds, M. and Johnston, S.},
  title = {Population status of the Tinian monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae) on Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands},
  journal = {Micronesica},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {32},
  number = {2},
  pages = {181--190}
}
Lynch, T.B. and Rusydi, R. 1999 Distance sampling for forest inventory in Indonesian teak plantations Forest Ecology and Management 113(2-3):215-221  DOI  
Abstract: Distance sampling techniques were compared to point (variable plot) sampling and fixed-radius circular plot sampling for inventory of teak (Tectona grandis) plantations in Indonesia. n-tree distance sampling selects the n trees closest to a sample point located in the field. The distance to the nth closest tree is used as a plot radius. Two n-tree estimators were compared. Prodan (1968) described a technique for n=6, which counts the nth tree as 1/2 for tree counts and tree volume (or other tree attributes). Another approach, here called 'the (n-1)/n adjusted estimator' uses the bias correction factor (n-1)/n. Eberhardt (1967) demonstrated that the (n-1)/n adjusted estimator is unbiased for Poisson (random) and negative binomial (clumped) spatial distributions. No proof of unbiasedness is known for either method in uniform distributions which would be characteristics of plantations. n-tree sampling was performed in Indonesian teak plantations for values of n ranging from 3 to 10 for both methods. At the same locations, point (variable plot) samples with metric basal area factors 1 m2 ha-1 tree-1 and 2 m2 ha-1 tree-1 and fixed-radius circular plots 0.1 ha in size were installed for comparison with the n-tree distance methods. The time required for each sampling method was recorded at each field location. For each method, an efficiency ratio was calculated as (C(k)/2 x Time(k))/(C(0.1 ha)/2 x Time(0.1 ha)) where C(k) is the coefficient of variation for method k, Time(k) is the average time required for method k, C(0.1 ha) is the coefficient of variation for 0.1 ha plots and Time(0.1 ha) is the average time required for 0.1 ha plots. The more efficient methods have smaller efficiency ratios. According to this criterion, 5-tree distance sampling using Prodan's estimator was most efficient of the techniques compared that did not show bias for these data. The (n-1)/n adjusted estimator showed bias for these trials in teak plantations. This was probably due to the uniform spatial distribution characteristics of plantations. Point sampling with BAF=1 m2 ha-1 tree-1 and BAF=2 m2 ha-1 tree-1 and 0.1 ha plot sampling were not as efficient as n-tree sampling methods for these trials.
BibTeX:
@article{Lynch1999,
  author = {Lynch, T. B. and Rusydi, R.},
  title = {Distance sampling for forest inventory in Indonesian teak plantations},
  journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {113},
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {215--221},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00427-7}
}
Scheidat, M., Gilles, A., Kock, K.H. and Siebert, U. 2008 Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena abundance in the southwestern Baltic Sea Endangered Species Research 5(2-3):215-223  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{M2008,
  author = {Scheidat, M. and Gilles, A. and Kock, K. H. and Siebert, U.},
  title = {Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena abundance in the southwestern Baltic Sea},
  journal = {Endangered Species Research},
  publisher = {Inter-Research Science Center},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {5},
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {215--223},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00161}
}
Ma, X. 2012 Distance sampling to estimate the abundance of birds with sector and radial radar detection methods Procedia Environmental Sciences 13(0):2284-2303  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Ma2012,
  author = {Ma, X.},
  title = {Distance sampling to estimate the abundance of birds with sector and radial radar detection methods},
  journal = {Procedia Environmental Sciences},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {13},
  number = {0},
  pages = {2284--2303},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2012.01.218}
}
Mack, Y. and Quang, P.X. 1998 Kernel methods in line and point transect sampling Biometrics 54:606-619  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{MAC&QUA98,
  author = {Mack, Y. and Quang, P. X.},
  title = {Kernel methods in line and point transect sampling},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {606--619},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/3109767}
}
Mack, Y.P. 1998 Testing for the shoulder condition in transect sampling Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods 27:423-432  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Mac98,
  author = {Mack, Y. P.},
  title = {Testing for the shoulder condition in transect sampling},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {423--432},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/03610929808832104}
}
Mackintosh, N.A. and Brown, S.G. 1956 Estimates of the southern population of the larger baleen whales The Norwegian Gazette 45:469   
BibTeX:
@article{MAcBro56,
  author = {Mackintosh, N. A. and Brown, S. G.},
  title = {Estimates of the southern population of the larger baleen whales},
  journal = {The Norwegian Gazette},
  year = {1956},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {469}
}
Mack, Y.P., Quang, P.X. and Zhang, S. 1999 Kernel estimation in transect sampling without the shoulder condition Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods 28:2277-2296  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Macetal99,
  author = {Mack, Y. P. and Quang, P. X. and Zhang, S.},
  title = {Kernel estimation in transect sampling without the shoulder condition},
  journal = {Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {2277--2296},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/03610929908832422}
}
MacLaren, A.R., Crump, P.S., Royle, J.A. and Forstner, M.R.J. 2018 Observer-free experimental evaluation of habitat and distance effects on the detection of anuran and bird vocalizations Ecology and Evolution 8(24):12991-13003  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{MacLaren2018,
  author = {MacLaren, Andrew R. and Crump, Paul S. and Royle, J. Andrew and Forstner, Michael R. J.},
  title = {Observer-free experimental evaluation of habitat and distance effects on the detection of anuran and bird vocalizations},
  journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {8},
  number = {24},
  pages = {12991--13003},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4752}
}
Macleod, K. 2004 Abundance of atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) during summer off northwest scotland Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6:33-40   
Abstract: A shipboard cetacean survey was conducted in July/August 1998 within an area to the west of Scotland, UK, commonly known as the Atlantic Frontier. The aim of the survey was to document the distribution and abundance of cetaceans to provide baseline population data for an area that is being increasingly explored and developed by oil companies. A double platform `independent observer' (IO) method was used to estimate the abundance of the Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) using standard line-transect and distance sampling methodology. Previously, uncorrected Atlantic white-sided dolphin abundance was estimated as 27,194 (CV = 0.29) from this survey. This paper presents abundance estimates corrected for g(0) ¡ 1 using a direct duplicate method. The value of g(0) was estimated to be 0.61 (CV = 0.09). The abundance in two strata was estimated as 21,371 (CV = 0.54) to the west of the Outer Hebrides and74,626 (CV = 0.72) in the Faroe Shetland Channel. The high CVs are the result of small sample sizes, particularly of the duplicate data set. However, the abundance estimates represent the first for this species to the northwest of Scotland and adds to existing baseline abundance estimates for small cetaceans in UK waters. The results could be useful for planning future surveys that aim to calculate more precise abundance estimates. These results, together with opportunistic sightings data collected during other surveys, suggest that the waters to the west of Scotland are an important habitat for the Atlantic white-sided dolphin. Presently, threats to this species in the area are relatively unknown but a baseline population estimate will be an integral part of any management regime should there become a need in future.
BibTeX:
@article{Macleod2004,
  author = {Macleod, K.},
  title = {Abundance of atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) during summer off northwest scotland},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {33--40}
}
Macleod, K., Simmonds, M.P. and Murray, E. 2006 Abundance of fin (Balaenoptera physalus) and sei whales (B. borealis) amid oil exploration and development off northwest Scotland Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 8:247-254   
BibTeX:
@article{Macleod2006,
  author = {Macleod, K. and Simmonds, M. P. and Murray, E.},
  title = {Abundance of fin (Balaenoptera physalus) and sei whales (B. borealis) amid oil exploration and development off northwest Scotland},
  journal = {Journal of Cetacean Research and Management},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {247--254}
}
MacLeod, C., Blackwell, G., Weller, F. and Moller, H. 2012 Designing a bird monitoring scheme for New Zealand's agricultural sectors New Zealand Journal of Ecology 36:312-323  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{MacLeod2012,
  author = {MacLeod, C. and Blackwell, G. and Weller, F. and Moller, H.},
  title = {Designing a bird monitoring scheme for New Zealand's agricultural sectors},
  journal = {New Zealand Journal of Ecology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {312--323},
  url = {https://newzealandecology.org/nzje/3045}
}
MacRae, P.S.D. and Jackson, D.A. 2006 Characterizing north temperate lake littoral fish assemblages: a comparison between distance sampling and minnow traps Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63(3):558-568  DOI  
Abstract: To determine which sampling method may be best employed to monitor changes in fish species composition in littoral areas of small north temperate lakes (50 ha), data were collected using distance sampling, based on the line transect method, and a traditional fish sampling method of baited minnow traps. These methods were independently biased in terms of their estimates of species presence and abundance. However, analyses of fish community structure indicated that minnow trap data alone provided a better measure of community structure than did distance sampling data alone. Distance sampling, although a powerful tool in estimating population density, is hindered by a multitude of environmental variables that do not preclude the use of minnow traps. Lakes with clear water containing few species with abundant individuals are best suited for distance sampling. Minnow traps proved to be a fast, efficacious sampling method capable of fairly accurately defining the littoral small-fish community structure in most lakes sampled. These traps are a reliable method for monitoring presence or absence and relative abundance of small-bodied fish species in north temperate lakes. However, the combination of minnow traps and some form of visual sampling will help to ensure that all species are detected in small north temperate lakes. textcopyright 2006 NRC.
BibTeX:
@article{MacRae2006,
  author = {MacRae, P. S. D. and Jackson, D. A.},
  title = {Characterizing north temperate lake littoral fish assemblages: a comparison between distance sampling and minnow traps},
  journal = {Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {63},
  number = {3},
  pages = {558--568},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1139/f05-240}
}
Madhusudan, M.D. and Karanth, K.U. 2000 Hunting for an answer: is local hunting compatible with large mammal conservation in India? Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests:339-354   
BibTeX:
@incollection{Madhusudan2000,
  author = {Madhusudan, M. D. and Karanth, K. U.},
  title = {Hunting for an answer: is local hunting compatible with large mammal conservation in India?},
  booktitle = {Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests},
  publisher = {Columbia University Press},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {339--354}
}
Magige, F.J., Holmern, T., Stokke, S., Mlingwa, C. and Røskaft, E. 2009 Does illegal hunting affect density and behaviour of African grassland birds? a case study on ostrich (Struthio camelus) Biodiversity and Conservation 18:1361-1373  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Magige2008,
  author = {Magige, Flora John and Holmern, Tomas and Stokke, Sigbjørn and Mlingwa, Charles and Røskaft, Eivin},
  title = {Does illegal hunting affect density and behaviour of African grassland birds? a case study on ostrich (Struthio camelus)},
  journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {1361--1373},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-008-9481-6}
}
Magoulick, D.D. 2004 Effects of predation risk on habitat selection by water column fish, benthic fish and crayfish in stream pools Hydrobiologia 527(1):209-221  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Magoulick2004,
  author = {Magoulick, D. D.},
  title = {Effects of predation risk on habitat selection by water column fish, benthic fish and crayfish in stream pools},
  journal = {Hydrobiologia},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {527},
  number = {1},
  pages = {209--221},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1023/B:HYDR.0000043302.32382.59}
}
Maheshwari, A. 2006 Food habits and prey abundance of leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) in gir national park and wildlife sanctuary School: Aligarh Muslim University   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Maheshwari2006,
  author = {Maheshwari, A.},
  title = {Food habits and prey abundance of leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) in gir national park and wildlife sanctuary},
  school = {Aligarh Muslim University},
  year = {2006}
}
Manly, B.F.J., McDonald, L.L. and Garner, G.W. 1996 Maximum likelihood estimation for the double-count method with independent observers Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 1:170-189  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Manetal96,
  author = {Manly, B. F. J. and McDonald, L. L. and Garner, G. W.},
  title = {Maximum likelihood estimation for the double-count method with independent observers},
  journal = {Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {170--189},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2307/1400364}
}
Mandujano, S. and Gallina, S. 1995 Comparison of deer censusing methods in tropical dry forest Wildlife Society Bulletin 23:180-186  URL 
BibTeX:
@article{ManGal95,
  author = {Mandujano, S. and Gallina, S.},
  title = {Comparison of deer censusing methods in tropical dry forest},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {180--186},
  url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/3782786}
}
Manly, B.F.J. 2001 Study design considerations for aerial surveys in the spring and fall to estimate the abundance of pacific walrus School: Western EcoSystems Technology Inc. report for US Fish and Wildlife Service   
BibTeX:
@techreport{Manly2001,
  author = {Manly, B. F. J.},
  title = {Study design considerations for aerial surveys in the spring and fall to estimate the abundance of pacific walrus},
  school = {Western EcoSystems Technology Inc. report for US Fish and Wildlife Service},
  year = {2001}
}
Manly, B.F.J. 2002 Estimating a resource selection function with line transect sampling Journal of Applied Mathematics and Decision Sciences 6:213-228  DOI  
Abstract: A resource selection probability function is a function that gives the probability that a resource unit (e.g., a plot of land) that is described by a set of habitat variables X1 to Xp will be used by an animal or group of animals in a certain period of time. The estimation of a resource selection function is usually based on the comparison of a sample of resource units used by an animal with a sample of the resource units that were available for use, with both samples being assumed to be e.ectively randomly selected from the relevant populations. In this paper the possibility of using a modi.ed sampling scheme is examined, with the used units obtained by line transect sampling. A logistic regression type of model is proposed, with estimation by conditional maximum likelihood. A simulation study indicates that the model in its full generality may be di.cult to estimate with reasonable sample sizes, but that a simpler version may be a practical alternative.
BibTeX:
@article{Manly2002,
  author = {Manly, B. F. J.},
  title = {Estimating a resource selection function with line transect sampling},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Mathematics and Decision Sciences},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {213--228},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1155/S1173912602000159}
}
Mannocci, L., Monestiez, P., Bolaños-Jiménez, J., Dorémus, G., Jeremie, S., Laran, S., Rinaldi, R., Canneyt, O.V. and Ridoux, V. 2013 Megavertebrate communities from two contrasting ecosystems in the western tropical Atlantic Journal of Marine Systems 111-112:208-222  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Mannocci2013,
  author = {Mannocci, Laura and Monestiez, Pascal and Bolaños-Jiménez, Jaime and Dorémus, Ghislain and Jeremie, Stéphane and Laran, Sophie and Rinaldi, Renato and Canneyt, Olivier Van and Ridoux, Vincent},
  title = {Megavertebrate communities from two contrasting ecosystems in the western tropical Atlantic},
  journal = {Journal of Marine Systems},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {111-112},
  pages = {208--222},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2012.11.002}
}
Mannocci, L., Roberts, J.J., Miller, D.L. and Halpin, P.N. 2017 Extrapolating cetacean densities to quantitatively assess human impacts on populations in the high seas Conservation Biology 31(3):601-614  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Mannocci2017,
  author = {Mannocci, L. and Roberts, J. J. and Miller, D. L. and Halpin, P. N.},
  title = {Extrapolating cetacean densities to quantitatively assess human impacts on populations in the high seas},
  journal = {Conservation Biology},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {31},
  number = {3},
  pages = {601--614},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12856}
}
Mannocci, L., Roberts, J.J., Halpin, P.N., Authier, M., Boisseau, O., Bradai, M.N., Cañadas, A., Chicote, C., David, L., Di-Méglio, N., Fortuna, C.M., Frantzis, A., Gazo, M., Genov, T., Hammond, P.S., Holcer, D., Kaschner, K., Kerem, D., Lauriano, G., Lewis, T., di Sciara, G.N., Panigada, S., Raga, J.A., Scheinin, A., Ridoux, V., Vella, A. and Vella, J. 2018 Assessing cetacean surveys throughout the Mediterranean Sea: a gap analysis in environmental space Scientific Reports 8(1)  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Mannocci2018,
  author = {Mannocci, Laura and Roberts, Jason J. and Halpin, Patrick N. and Authier, Matthieu and Boisseau, Oliver and Bradai, Mohamed Nejmeddine and Cañadas, Ana and Chicote, Carla and David, Léa and Di-Méglio, Nathalie and Fortuna, Caterina M. and Frantzis, Alexandros and Gazo, Manel and Genov, Tilen and Hammond, Philip S. and Holcer, Draško and Kaschner, Kristin and Kerem, Dani and Lauriano, Giancarlo and Lewis, Tim and di Sciara, Giuseppe Notarbartolo and Panigada, Simone and Raga, Juan Antonio and Scheinin, Aviad and Ridoux, Vincent and Vella, Adriana and Vella, Joseph},
  title = {Assessing cetacean surveys throughout the Mediterranean Sea: a gap analysis in environmental space},
  journal = {Scientific Reports},
  publisher = {Springer Nature},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {8},
  number = {1},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-19842-9}
}
Maphisa, D.H., Smit-Robinson, H., Underhill, L.G. and Altwegg, R. 2017 Management factors affecting densities of common grassland birds of high elevation grasslands of eastern South Africa: Ingula as a case study Avian Research 8(1):5  DOI  
Abstract: World-wide grassland birds are in decline due to habitat loss and degradation resulting from intensive agricultural practices. Understanding how key grassland habitat attributes determine grassland bird densities is required to make appropriate conservation decisions. We examine drivers of bird densities in a South African grassland area that has been managed for biodiversity conservation with reduced grazing pressure.
BibTeX:
@article{Maphisa2017,
  author = {Maphisa, David H. and Smit-Robinson, Hanneline and Underhill, Les G. and Altwegg, Res},
  title = {Management factors affecting densities of common grassland birds of high elevation grasslands of eastern South Africa: Ingula as a case study},
  journal = {Avian Research},
  publisher = {Springer Science and Business Media LLC},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {8},
  number = {1},
  pages = {5},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1186/s40657-017-0063-8}
}
Mar, K.L. and Mcarthur, C. 2005 Comparison of habitat selection by two sympatric macropods, Thylogale billardierii and Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus, in a patchy eucalypt-forestry environment Austral Ecology 30:674-683  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Mar2005,
  author = {Mar, Kirsten Le and Mcarthur, Clare},
  title = {Comparison of habitat selection by two sympatric macropods, Thylogale billardierii and Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus, in a patchy eucalypt-forestry environment},
  journal = {Austral Ecology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {674--683},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2005.01510.x}
}
Marsh, D.M. and Beckman, N.G. 2004 Effects of forest roads on the abundance and activity of terrestrial salamanders Ecological Applications 14:1882-1891  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{MarBec04,
  author = {Marsh, David M. and Beckman, Noelle G.},
  title = {Effects of forest roads on the abundance and activity of terrestrial salamanders},
  journal = {Ecological Applications},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {1882--1891},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1890/03-5179}
}
Marques, T.A. and Buckland, S.T. 2005 Transectos lineares em situações de não uniformidade das distâncias disponíveis para detecção Estatística Jubilar:445-454   
BibTeX:
@incollection{MarBuc05,
  author = {Marques, T. A. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Transectos lineares em situações de não uniformidade das distâncias disponíveis para detecção},
  booktitle = {Estatística Jubilar},
  publisher = {SPE},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {445--454}
}
Marques, F.F.C., Buckland, S.T., Goffin, D., Dixon, C.E., Borchers, D.L., Mayle, B.A. and Peace, A.J. 2001 Estimating deer abundance from line transect surveys of dung: sika deer in southern Scotland Journal of Applied Ecology 38:349-363  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Maretal01,
  author = {Marques, F. F. C. and Buckland, S. T. and Goffin, D. and Dixon, C. E. and Borchers, D. L. and Mayle, B. A. and Peace, A. J.},
  title = {Estimating deer abundance from line transect surveys of dung: sika deer in southern Scotland},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {349--363},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2001.00584.x}
}
Marques, T.A., Andersen, M., Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., Belikov, S., Boltunov, A., Wiig, Ø., Buckland, S.T. and Aars, J. 2006 The use of global positioning systems to record distances in a helicopter line-transect survey Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:759-763  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Maretal06,
  author = {Marques, Tiago A. and Andersen, Magnus and Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe and Belikov, Stanislav and Boltunov, Andrei and Wiig, Øystein and Buckland, Stephen T. and Aars, Jon},
  title = {The use of global positioning systems to record distances in a helicopter line-transect survey},
  journal = {Wildlife Society Bulletin},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {759--763},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.2193/0091-7648(2006)34%5B759:TUOGPS%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Marques, T.A., Thomas, L., Fancy, S.G. and Buckland, S.T. 2007 Improving estimates of bird density using multiple covariate distance sampling The Auk 124:1229-1243  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Maretal07,
  author = {Marques, T. A. and Thomas, L. and Fancy, S. G. and Buckland, S. T.},
  title = {Improving estimates of bird density using multiple covariate distance sampling},
  journal = {The Auk},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {124},
  pages = {1229--1243},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1642/0004-8038(2007)124%5B1229:IEOBDU%5D2.0.CO;2}
}
Marini, F., Franzetti, B., Calabrese, A., Cappellini, S. and Focardi, S. 2009 Response to human presence during nocturnal line transect surveys in fallow deer (Dama dama) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) European Journal of Wildlife Research 56:233-237  DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Marini2008,
  author = {Marini, Francesca and Franzetti, Barbara and Calabrese, Alessandro and Cappellini, Sara and Focardi, Stefano},
  title = {Response to human presence during nocturnal line transect surveys in fallow deer (Dama dama) and wild boar (Sus scrofa)},
  journal = {European Journal of Wildlife Research},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {233--237},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-008-0222-7}
}
Marques, T.A. 2002 Amostragem por distâncias em populações naturais School: Departamento de Estatística e Investigação Operacional, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa   
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Marques2002,
  author = {Marques, T. A.},
  title = {Amostragem por distâncias em populações naturais},
  school = {Departamento de Estatística e Investigação Operacional, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa},
  year = {2002}
}
Marques, T.A. 2004 Predicting and correcting bias caused by measurement error in line transect sampling using multiplicative error models Biometrics 60(3):757-763  DOI  
Abstract: Line transect sampling is one of the most widely used methods for animal abundance assessment. Standard estimation methods assume certain detection on the transect, no animal movement, and no measurement errors. Failure of the assumptions can cause substantial bias. In this work, the effect of error measurement on line transect estimators is investigated. Based on considerations of the process generating the errors, a multiplicative error model is presented and a simple way of correcting estimates based on knowledge of the error distribution is proposed. Using beta models for the error distribution, the effect of errors and of the proposed correction is assessed by simulation. Adequate confidence intervals for the corrected estimates are obtained using a bootstrap variance estimate for the correction and the delta method. As noted by Chen (1998, Biometrics 54, 899-908), even unbiased estimators of the distances might lead to biased density estimators, depending on the actual error distribution. In contrast with the findings of Chen, who used an additive model, unbiased estimation of distances, given a multiplicative model, lead to over-estimation of density. Some error distributions result in observed distance distributions that make efficient estimation impossible, by removing the shoulder present in the original detection function. This indicates the need to improve field methods to reduce measurement error. An application of the new methods to a real data set is presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Marques2004,
  author = {Marques, T. A.},
  title = {Predicting and correcting bias caused by measurement error in line transect sampling using multiplicative error models},
  journal = {Biometrics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {60},
  number = {3},
  pages = {757--763},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2004.00226.x}
}
Marques, T.A. 2007 Incorporating measurement error and density gradients in distance sampling surveys School: University of St Andrews   
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Marques2007,
  author = {Marques, T. A.},
  title = {Incorporating measurement error and density gradients in distance sampling surveys},
  school = {University of St Andrews},
  year = {2007}
}
Marques, T.A., Thomas, L., Ward, J., DiMarzio, N. and Tyack, P.L. 2009 Estimating cetacean population density using fixed passive acoustic sensors